Home Free is an American acappella group of five vocalists, Austin Brown, Rob Lundquist, Adam Rupp, Tim Foust, and Adam Chance. Starting as a show group, they toured around 200 shows a year across the United States.
The group competed in and won the fourth season of The Sing-Off on NBC in 2013. They sang an arrangement of Hunter Hayes’ “I Want Crazy,” as their final competitive song, earning the group $100,000 and a recording contract with Sony.
Home Free released their first album, Crazy Life, on February 18, 2014. It was released digitally on January 14, 2014.
The group Home Free was originally formed in 2000 by Chris Rupp in Mankato, Minnesota, when some of its members were still in their teens. The five founding members were brothers Chris and Adam Rupp, Matt Atwood, Darren Scruggs, and Dan Lemke; taking their name from a boat owned by Atwood’s grandfather who helped support the group financially in the early years. The group began as a hobby for the singers, but they gradually gained in experience and popularity. By 2007 they had enough of a following to pursue music full-time. During this period, the Rupp brothers and Atwood formed the core of the group, with Atwood singing lead tenor. Other members of the group came and went. Current member Rob Lundquist, another Minnesotan, joined in 2008.
For much of the group’s history they worked with many talented bass singers, but did not have a full-time committed bass voice. In 2007 Chris Foss (currently a member of Cantus) sang with them. Elliott Robinson was added as bass in September 2008, and was replaced in June 2009 by Troy Horne. Later that year, Horne left to rejoin The House Jacks. To replace Horne they turned to Tim Foust, who first sang with them as a guest on their 2010 tour. A Texas native, Foust was then pursuing a career as a singer/songwriter of country music and had recently released a solo album, but was not ready to sign on full-time. Matthew Tuey sang with the group in the interim of 2011, until Foust joined them full-time in January 2012.
The five members of Home Free, performing at the Decatur Celebration Party in August 2015. From top to bottom: Austin Brown, Rob Lundquist, Chris Rupp, Tim Foust, Adam Rupp.
In 2012, Matthew “Austin” Brown was working on a Royal Caribbean cruise ship as a featured singer in their production shows. When Home Free joined the cruise as a guest performing group, they met and became close. Brown, who was born in Tifton, Georgia, let Home Free know that he would be interested in joining the group if they ever had an opening. At the end of 2012 lead singer Matt Atwood, who had gotten married the previous year, and his wife were expecting their first child. Finding the group’s touring schedule incompatible with family life, and having an opportunity to take over his family’s real estate business in Mankato, Atwood made the decision to retire from the group. Home Free then invited Brown to join as lead tenor. He sang his first show with the group in October 2012, and became full-time in January 2013.
In 2015 they made a guest appearance on Kenny Rogers’ holiday album Once Again It’s Christmas on the track “Children Go Where I Send Thee”; a music video was released in November 2015.
On March 18, 2016 it was announced that after 16 years founder Chris Rupp would be leaving the group to pursue a solo career and would be replaced after May 8 by Adam Chance, formerly of Street Corner Symphony.
Chris has gone on to release his own solo album Shine and has also formed a new mixed group called 7th Ave that is non-acappella based.
Musical background and style
All five of Home Free’s singers have formal musical training. Lundquist and the Rupp brothers all have bachelor’s degrees in music. Adam Rupp’s primary instrument is trumpet, but he also plays drums, keyboard, and bass guitar. Since joining, Foust and Brown have also become very active in writing and arranging.
In terms of musical roles, Home Free is structured like a traditional barbershop quartet, with a lead tenor, two harmony voices, and a bass. The lead tenor, who fronts the group and sings most of the solos, is Austin Brown. Tenor harmony is sung by Rob Lundquist, baritone harmony is sung by Adam Chance, and Tim Foust sings bass. In addition to the four voices, percussion sounds are provided by beatboxer Adam Rupp. Although Brown is Home Free’s primary soloist, all of the other members occasionally sing solos as well.
Home Free’s styling as a country group is relatively recent. Before Foust joined the group, Home Free was an all-purpose a cappella group, singing in a wide variety of styles, of which country was only a minor one. With the additions of Foust and Brown, the group moved more in the direction of country and found that audiences responded well to it. Home Free had three times auditioned for The Sing-Off (without Foust and Brown) and not been accepted. When auditioning for the fourth season, they made a conscious decision to style themselves as a country group. In an interview Brown said this identity is what grabbed the attention of The Sing-Off’s casting director, who said, “You guys really fit something we don’t have.”
Video: Natjonal Geographic : Big Bigger Biggest
ARTICLE IN ENGLISH FIRST
ARTICLE IN FRENCH AFTER
The A-Team is an American action-adventure television series that ran from 1983 to 1987 about a fictitious former United States Army Special Forces unit whose members, after being court-martialed “for a crime they didn’t commit”, escaped from military prison and, while still on the run, worked as soldiers of fortune. A feature film based on the series was released by 20th Century Fox in June 2010.
The A-Team was created by writers and producers Stephen J. Cannell and Frank Lupo at the behest of Brandon Tartikoff, NBC’s Entertainment president. Cannell was fired from ABC in the early 1980s, after failing to produce a hit show for the network, and was hired by NBC;
His first project was The A-Team. Brandon Tartikoff pitched the series to Cannell as a combination of The Dirty Dozen, Mission Impossible, The Magnificent Seven, Mad Max and Hill Street Blues, with “Mr. T driving the car”.
The A-Team was not generally expected to become a hit, although Stephen J. Cannell has said that George Peppard suggested it would be a huge hit “before we ever turned on a camera”.
The show became very popular; the first regular episode, which aired after Super Bowl XVII on January 30, 1983, reached 26.4% of the television audience, placing fourth in the top 10 Nielsen-rated shows.
The A-Team was always portrayed as acting on the side of good and helping the oppressed. Cannell was known for having a particular skill at capitalizing on momentary cultural trends, such as the helicopters, machine guns, cartoonish violence, and joyful militarism of this series, which are now recognizable as trademarks of popular entertainment in the 1980s as seen in the TV shows Magnum, P.I. and Airwolf as well as the films Rambo: First Blood Part II and Top Gun.
The show remains prominent in popular culture for its cartoonish, over-the-top violence (in which people were seldom seriously hurt), formulaic episodes, its characters’ ability to form weaponry and vehicles out of old parts, and its distinctive theme tune.
The show boosted the career of Mr. T, who portrayed the character of B. A. Baracus, around whom the show was initially conceived. Some of the show’s catchphrases, such as “I love it when a plan comes together”, “Hannibal’s on the jazz”, and “I ain’t gettin’ on no plane!” have also made their way onto T-shirts and other merchandise.
The show’s name comes from the “A-Teams”, the nickname coined for U.S. Special Forces’ Operational Detachments Alpha (ODA) during the Vietnam War, although this connection was never referenced on-screen.
In a 2003 Yahoo! survey of 1,000 television viewers, The A-Team was voted the one “oldie” television show viewers would most like to see revived, beating out such popular television series from the 1980s as The Dukes of Hazzard and Knight Rider.
“In 1972, a crack commando unit was sent to prison by a military court for a crime they didn’t commit. These men promptly escaped from a maximum security stockade to the Los Angeles underground. Today, still wanted by the government, they survive as soldiers of fortune. If you have a problem, if no one else can help, and if you can find them, maybe you can hire… the A-Team.”
The A-Team is a naturally episodic show, with few overarching stories, except the characters’ continuing motivation to clear their names, with few references to events in past episodes and a recognizable and steady episode structure.
In describing the ratings drop that occurred during the show’s fourth season, reviewer Gold Burt points to this structure as being a leading cause for the decreased popularity “because the same basic plot had been used over and over again for the past four seasons with the same predictable outcome”.
Similarly, reporter Adrian Lee called the plots “stunningly simple” in a 2006 article for The Express (UK newspaper), citing such recurring elements “as BA’s fear of flying, and outlandish finales when the team fashioned weapons from household items”.
The show became emblematic of this kind of “fit-for-TV warfare” due to its depiction of high-octane combat scenes, with lethal weapons, wherein the participants (with the notable exception of General Fulbright) are never killed and rarely seriously injured (see also On-screen violence section).
As the television ratings of The A-Team fell dramatically during the fourth season, the format was changed for the show’s final season in 1986–87 in a bid to win back viewers.
After years on the run from the authorities, the A-Team is finally apprehended by the military. General Hunt Stockwell, a mysterious CIA operative played by Robert Vaughn, propositions them to work for him, whereupon he will arrange for their pardons upon successful completion of several suicide missions. In order to do so, the A-Team must first escape from their captivity.
With the help of a new character, Frankie “Dishpan Man” Santana, Stockwell fakes their deaths before a military firing squad. The new status of the A-Team, no longer working for themselves, remained for the duration of the fifth season while Eddie Velez and Robert Vaughn received star billing along with the principal cast.
The missions that the team had to perform in season five were somewhat reminiscent of Mission: Impossible, and based more around political espionage than beating local thugs, also usually taking place in foreign countries, including successfully overthrowing an island dictator, the rescue of a scientist from East Germany, and recovering top secret Star Wars defense information from Soviet hands.
These changes proved unsuccessful with viewers, however, and ratings continued to decline. Only 13 episodes aired in the fifth season. In what was supposed to be the final episode, “The Grey Team” (although “Without Reservations” was broadcast on NBC as the last first-run episode in March 1987), Hannibal, after being misled by Stockwell one time too many, tells him that the team will no longer work for him.
At the end, the team discusses what they were going to do if they get their pardon, and it is implied that they would continue doing what they were doing as the A-Team. The character of Howling Mad Murdock can be seen in the final scene wearing a T-shirt that says, “fini”.
During the Vietnam War, the A-Team were members of the 5th Special Forces Group (see Season 1, Episode 10, “West Coast Turnaround”).
In Season 2, Episode 4, “Bad Time on the Border”, Colonel John “Hannibal” Smith, portrayed by George Peppard, indicated that the A-Team were “ex–Green Berets”.
During the Vietnam War, the A-Team’s commanding officer, Colonel Morrison, gave them orders to rob the Bank of Hanoi to help bring the war to an end. They succeeded in their mission, but on their return to base four days after the end of the war, they discovered that Morrison had been killed by the Viet Cong, and that his headquarters had been burned to the ground.
This meant that the proof that the A-Team members were acting under orders had been destroyed. They were arrested, and imprisoned at Fort Bragg, from which they quickly escaped before standing trial.
The origin of the A-Team is directly linked to the Vietnam War, during which the team formed.
The show’s introduction in the first four seasons mentions this, accompanied by images of soldiers coming out of a helicopter in an area resembling a forest or jungle.
Besides this, The A-Team would occasionally feature an episode in which the team came across an old ally or enemy from those war days.
For example, the first season’s final episode “A Nice Place To Visit” revolved around the team traveling to a small town to honor a fallen comrade and end up avenging his death, and in season two’s “Recipe For Heavy Bread”, a chance encounter leads the team to meet both the POW cook who helped them during the war, and the American officer who sold his unit out.
An article in the New Statesman (UK) published shortly after the premiere of The A-Team in the United Kingdom, also pointed out The A-Team’s connection to the Vietnam War, characterizing it as the representation of the idealization of the Vietnam War, and an example of the war slowly becoming accepted and assimilated into American culture.
One of the team’s primary antagonists, Col. Roderick Decker (Lance LeGault), had his past linked back to the Vietnam War, in which he and Hannibal had come to fisticuffs in “the DOOM Club” (Da Nang Open Officers’ Mess).
At other times, members of the team would refer back to a certain tactic used during the War, which would be relevant to the team’s present predicament. Often, Hannibal would refer to such a tactic, after which the other members of the team would complain about its failure during the War. This was also used to refer to some of Face’s past accomplishments in scamming items for the team, such as in the first season episode “Holiday In The Hills”, in which Murdock fondly remembers Face being able to secure a ’53 Cadillac while in the Vietnam jungle.
The team’s ties to the Vietnam War were referenced again in the fourth season finale, “The Sound of Thunder”, in which the team is introduced to Tia (Tia Carrere), a war orphan and daughter of fourth season antagonist General Fulbright. Returning to Vietnam, Fulbright is shot in the back and gives his last words as he dies.
The 2006 documentary Bring Back The A-Team joked that the scene lasted seven and a half minutes, but his death actually took a little over a minute. His murderer, a Vietnamese colonel, is killed in retaliation. Tia then returns with the team to the United States (see also: casting).
This episode is notable for having one of the show’s few truly serious dramatic moments, with each team member privately reminiscing on their war experiences, intercut with news footage from the war with Barry McGuire’s Eve of Destruction playing in the background.
The show’s ties to the Vietnam War are fully dealt with in the opening arc of the fifth season, dubbed “The Revolution”/”The Court-Martial”, in which the team is finally court-martialed for the robbery of the bank of Hanoi.
The character of Roderick Decker makes a return on the witness stand, and various newly introduced characters from the A-Team’s past also make appearances. The team, after a string of setbacks, decides to plead guilty to the crime and they are sentenced to be executed. They escape this fate and come to work for a General Hunt Stockwell, leading into the remainder of the fifth season.
The A-Team revolves around the four members of a former commando outfit, now mercenaries.
Their leader is Lieutenant Colonel/Colonel John “Hannibal” Smith (George Peppard), whose plans tend to be unorthodox but effective.
Lieutenant Templeton Peck (Dirk Benedict; Tim Dunigan appeared as Templeton Peck in the pilot), usually called “Face” or “Faceman”, is a smooth-talking con man who serves as the team’s appropriator of vehicles and other useful items, as well as the team’s second-in-command.
The team’s pilot is Captain H.M. “Howling Mad” Murdock (Dwight Schultz), who has been declared insane and lives in a Veterans’ Administration mental institution for the show’s first four seasons.
Finally, there is the team’s strong man, mechanic and Sergeant First Class Bosco Albert “B.A.”, or “Bad Attitude”, Baracus (Mr. T).
It is unclear to which U.S. Army unit the four belonged. A patch on Hannibal’s uniform in the season 1 episode “A Nice Place To Visit” indicates they belonged to the 101st Airborne division in Vietnam, but the patch was replaced by the 1st Air Cavalry Division patch in the Season 5 episode “Trial by Fire”. In the Season 1 episode “West Coast Turnaround”, Hannibal stated they were with the 5th Special Forces Group.
Then, in Season 2 episode “Bad Time on the Border”, Hannibal refers to his friends as “ex-Green Berets”. Though the name they have adopted comes from the “A-Teams”, the nickname coined for Special Forces Operational Detachments Alpha, these detachments usually consisted of twelve members; whether the four were considered a “detachment” of their own or had once had eight compatriots who were killed in action was never revealed.
For its first season and the first half of the second season, the team was assisted by reporter Amy Amanda Allen (Melinda Culea).
In the second half of the second season, Allen was replaced by fellow reporter Tawnia Baker (Marla Heasley). The character of Tia (Tia Carrere), a Vietnam war orphan now living in the United States, was meant to join the Team in the fifth season, but she was replaced by Frankie Santana (Eddie Velez), who served as the team’s special effects expert. Velez was added to the opening credits of the fifth season after its second episode.
During their adventures, the A-Team was constantly met by opposition from the Military Police. In the show’s first season, the MPs were led by Colonel Francis Lynch (William Lucking), but he was replaced for the second, third, and earlier fourth season by Colonel Roderick Decker (Lance LeGault) and his aide Captain Crane (Carl Franklin).
Lynch returned for one episode in the show’s third season (“Showdown!”) but was not seen after. Decker was also briefly replaced by a Colonel Briggs (Charles Napier) in the third season for one episode (“Fire!”) when LeGault was unavailable, but returned shortly after. For the latter portion of the show’s fourth season, the team was hunted by General Harlan “Bull” Fulbright (Jack Ging), who would later hire the A-Team to find Tia in the season four finale, during which Fulbright was killed.
The fifth season introduced General Hunt Stockwell (Robert Vaughn) who, while serving as the team’s primary antagonist, was also the team’s boss and joined them on several missions. He was often assisted by Carla (Judith Ledford, sometimes credited as Judy Ledford).
John “Hannibal” Smith: Master of Disguise. His most used disguise (although not onscreen) is Mr. Lee, the dry cleaner. This is one of the final parts of the client screening process, as he tells the client where to go in order to make full contact with the A-Team. He dresses most often in a white safari jacket and black leather gloves. He also is constantly seen smoking a cigar. Hannibal carries either a Browning Hi-Power, Colt M1911A1 or a Smith & Wesson Model 39 as a sidearm, most often “Mexican Carried” although he uses a holster when on missions. His catchphrase is “I love it when a plan comes together”. Often said, usually by B.A., to be “on the jazz” when in the fury of completing a mission.
Templeton “Faceman” Peck: Master of the Persuasive Arts. The team’s scrounger, he can get virtually anything he sets his mind to, usually exploiting women with sympathy-appeal and flirtation. However, he is not without integrity, as stated by Murdock in the episode “Family Reunion”: “He would rip the shirt off his back for you, and then scam one for himself.” Faceman is also the A-Team’s accountant. He dresses suavely, often appearing in suits. Faceman carries a Colt Lawman Mk III revolver for protection, and drives a white Corvette with orange trim.
Bosco Albert “B.A.” (Bad Attitude) Baracus: The muscle for the A-Team, Able to perform amazing feats of strength. He is also the team’s mechanic. B.A. affects a dislike for Murdock, calling him a “crazy fool”, but his true feelings of friendship are revealed when he prevents Murdock from drowning in his desire to live like a fish. B.A. also has a deep fear of flying, and the others usually have to trick and/or knock him out in order to get him on a plane.
It is very rare that B.A is awake while flying, and even rarer for him actually to consent to it. However, he then goes into a catatonic state. B.A generally wears overalls and leopard or tiger print shirts in the early seasons, then later wears a green jumpsuit in the later seasons.
He is almost always seen with about 50 pounds of gold necklaces and rings on every finger, and also wears a weightlifting belt. Baracus’s hair is always styled in a mohawk-like cut. He drives a customized black GMC van, which is the team’s usual mode of transport.
H.M “Howling Mad” Murdock: The A-Team’s pilot, he can fly any kind of aircraft with extreme precision. However, due to a helicopter crash in Vietnam, Murdock apparently went insane. He lives in a Veterans’ Hospital in the mental wing. Whenever the rest of the team requires a pilot, they have to break him out of the hospital, generally using Faceman to do so. In Seasons 1-4, Murdock has a different pet, imaginary friend, or persona in each episode. Whenever one of his pets or imaginary friends is killed by an enemy, Murdock snaps and takes revenge (but never kills).
Many times, when B.A is mad at Murdock for being crazy, Hannibal will side with Murdock in a sympathetic way. Once he is discharged from the hospital in Season 5, Murdock has a different job each episode. Essentially, B.A. and Murdock get on each other’s nerves. Murdock usually wears a leather flight jacket, a baseball cap, and basketball sneakers.
Although the part of Face was written by Frank Lupo and Stephen J. Cannell with Dirk Benedict in mind, NBC insisted that the part should be played by another actor, instead.
Therefore, in the pilot, Face was portrayed by Tim Dunigan, who was later replaced by Dirk Benedict, with the comment that Dunigan was “too tall and too young”.
According to Dunigan: “I look even younger on camera than I am. So it was difficult to accept me as a veteran of the Vietnam War, which ended when I was a sophomore in high school.”
Carrere was intended to join the principal cast of the show in its fifth season after appearing in the season four finale, providing a tie to the team’s inception during the war. Unfortunately for this plan, Carrere was under contract to General Hospital, which prevented her from joining The A-Team. Her character was abruptly dropped as a result.
According to Mr. T’s account in Bring Back… The A-Team in 2006, the role of B. A. Baracus was written specifically for him. This is corroborated by Stephen J. Cannell’s own account of the initial concept proposed by Tartikoff.
James Coburn, who co-starred in The Magnificent Seven, was considered for the role of Hannibal in The A-Team, while George Peppard (Hannibal) was the original consideration for the role of Vin (played by Steve McQueen instead) in The Magnificent Seven.
Robert Vaughn, of course, actually appeared in the film.
According to Dirk Benedict, Robert Vaughn was actually added to the cast in season 5 because of his friendship with the notoriously difficult George Peppard. It was hoped that Vaughn would help ease worsening tensions between Peppard and Mr. T.
L’Agence tous risques (The A-Team) est une série télévisée américaine en 98 épisodes de 45 minutes, créée par Frank Lupo et Stephen J. Cannell, diffusée entre le 23 janvier 19831 et le 8 mars 1987 sur le réseau NBC.
En France, les saisons 1 à 4 ont été diffusées à partir du 1er juillet 1984 sur TF12. Diffusion de la saison 5 inédite du 5 février 19963 au 16 février 19964 sur TF1. Rediffusion intégrale du 6 juillet 20025 au 8 mai 20046 sur M6. Puis en 20037 sur 13e rue, de juin 2010 à août 2013 sur TMC ainsi qu’à partir du 16 décembre 2013 jusqu’en juillet 2014 sur HD1 et depuis le 19 février 2015 sur Paris Première.
Le 16 juin 2010, un film du même nom est commercialisé par 20th Century Fox8.
Pendant la guerre du Viêt Nam, le chef hiérarchique de l’Agence tous risque, le général Morrison, leur a donné l’ordre de voler la banque de Hanoï afin de précipiter la fin de la guerre. La mission est un succès, mais quatre jours après la fin de la guerre, ils retrouvent le général assassiné par les Viet Cong, le quartier général étant entièrement brûlé. Par conséquent, aucune preuve indiquant que l’Agence tous risques agissait sur ordre n’existe. Les membres passent alors devant une cour de justice militaire, celle-ci les condamnant à la prison. Incarcérés aux États-Unis, ils s’évadent rapidement et mènent désormais une vie de mercenaires au service « de la veuve et de l’orphelin », combattant les injustices locales.
George Peppard : colonel John « Hannibal » Smith
Dirk Benedict : lieutenant Peck « Futé » Templeton (VO : « Face ») (à partir de l’épisode 2)
Dwight Schultz : capitaine Henry « Looping » Murdock (VO : « Howling Mad »)
Mister T. : sergent Bosco Albert « Barracuda » Baracus (VO : « B. A. »
Melinda Culea : Amy Amanda « Triple A » Allen (saisons 1 et 2)
Robert Vaughn : général Hunt Stockwell (saison 5)
Eddie Velez : Frankie Santana (saison 5)
Tim Dunigan : lieutenant Templeton « Futé » Peck (VO : « Face ») (épisode pilote uniquement)
L’Agence tous risques a été créée par les producteurs américains Stephen J. Cannell et Frank Lupo à la demande du président du réseau NBC, Brandon Tartikoff.
Stephen J. Cannell a été renvoyé de chez ABC au début des années 1980, après avoir échoué dans sa tentative de produire une émission à succès pour la chaîne. Cannell est engagé à la NBC et son premier projet était de créer L’Agence tous risques.
Brandon Tartikoff considère l’émission comme un mélange de Les Douze Salopards, Mission Impossible, Les Sept Mercenaires, Mad Max et Capitaine Furillo, avec « Mr. T conduisant l’engin. »
L’Agence tous risques n’était, au départ, pas considérée comme une future série à succès, mais Stephen J. Cannell explique que George Peppard était persuadé qu’elle deviendrait un succès « avant même que l’on allume la caméra »13. L’émission se popularise ; le premier épisode, diffusée juste après le Super Bowl XVII le 30 janvier 1983, atteint 26,4 % de l’audience sur la chaîne, le classant ainsi quatrième sur l’Échelle de Nielsen.
Le titre original de la série vient des « Special Forces » (SF, « forces spéciales »), que les américains surnomment A-Teams et populairement connues sous le surnom des « bérets verts » (green berets), qui sont une des forces spéciales de l’US Army.
Spécialisées dans la guerre non conventionnelle, les actions commandos et la formation de troupes alliées, elles ont, depuis leur création au début des années 1950, été engagées dans la plupart des conflits impliquant les États-Unis.
La série s’inscrit dans un contexte particulier aux États-Unis, qui voit apparaître divers avatars de vétérans de la guerre du Viêt Nam, comme le détective privé Thomas Magnum ou le sergent T.J. Hooker.
Rapatriés après la fin officielle de la guerre, en 1975, de très nombreux vétérans américains ont éprouvé de grandes difficultés à se réintégrer dans une société qui ne les reconnaissait plus.
D’une part, les traumatismes physiques et psychologiques des soldats les rendaient extrêmement fragiles, d’autre part, à la frustration patriotique de la population s’est ajouté le rejet de soldats dont l’opinion publique découvrit brusquement les techniques de combat.
En effet, si l’Amérique moyenne soutenait la guerre au début des années 1960, dans un contexte de guerre froide, il en allait tout autrement quinze ans plus tard.
Les milliers de morts et de blessés dans le camp américain ne trouvaient plus aucun sens dans l’opinion publique, tandis que de nombreux journalistes révélaient la nature des combats, opposant des soldats lourdement armés à des combattants mêlés à la population.
Des photos d’enfants brûlés au napalm ont tôt fait de retourner le peuple américain contre une guerre jugée mal préparée, idéologiquement discutée et grande consommatrice d’hommes et d’argent public.
Dans ce contexte d’après-guerre, la société américaine rejette les vétérans du Viêt Nam, une attitude illustrée notamment par la chanson Born in the USA de Bruce Springsteen, le film Rambo ou plus tard le film Né un 4 juillet avec Tom Cruise.
L’Agence tous risques en est une autre illustration, puisque des soldats ayant agi sur ordre de la hiérarchie se retrouvent face à la justice de leur pays, pour un délit qu’ils n’ont commis que dans le cadre de leur fonction.
Évadés, ils seront pourchassés pour ce délit, ne parvenant pas à faire reconnaître par le département de la Défense le contexte dans lequel les faits reprochés ont été commis.
Par ailleurs, d’un point de vue plus strictement formel, la série marque une évolution (ou du moins y participe) dans la structure des personnages. Autrefois seul, tel un Colombo ou une Arabesque, le héros se multiplie, ici par quatre, offrant plus de possibilités d’identification au spectateur.
Chaque personnage est nettement marqué dans ses singularités, l’ensemble formant une équipe hétérogène mais néanmoins soudée, où tous les grands types de caractères se reconnaîtront.
Cette formule d’écriture des séries coexistera néanmoins avec d’autres personnages isolés, tels Magnum ou MacGyver, mais elle continuera de se développer pour atteindre un casting étendu dans des séries comparable à Jump Street, Beverly Hills ou Urgences. Dans ces derniers exemples, il est possible de voir apparaître une nébuleuse de personnages, chacun développant une histoire parallèle ou imbriquée avec celle des autres protagonistes.
De multiples spectateurs peuvent désormais s’identifier à un personnage en particulier, peu importe leur race, sexe, religion ou orientation sexuelle dans certains cas.
Enfin, pour les séries plus récentes, une telle évolution correspond peut-être aussi aux plans de carrière des acteurs, qui profitent des séries pour développer une carrière au cinéma (tels Johnny Depp) ou pas (Jason Priestley).
Dans une telle perspective, les producteurs de la série ne peuvent se permettre d’interrompre une saison à cause du départ du rôle-titre. La multiplication des héros offre une solution à ce problème, puisqu’une série peut se passer d’un personnage dont l’histoire dira qu’il est parti à l’étranger, décédé ou quoi que ce soit qui explique son absence au générique.
Saisons une à quatre
Les épisodes sont en général construits sur des schémas très semblables. Le début de l’épisode correspond à la prise de contact entre un client qui est terrorisé par une association de malfaiteurs ou un potentat local.
La manière classique de cette rencontre est que le client entre en contact alors qu’Hannibal Smith est déguisé, afin de vérifier que le client n’est pas en réalité à la solde des militaires.
Dans d’autres cas, l’Agence est en train de rouler et tombe sur quelqu’un qui a besoin d’aide. La plupart du temps, les honoraires pour l’intervention de l’Agence ne sont soit pas demandés, soit pas perçus ou sont récupérés d’une autre manière (en prélevant sur l’argent des malfaiteurs par exemple).
Généralement, Looping n’est pas présent dans l’équipe car il est interné dans un hôpital psychiatrique, et l’Agence utilise en général Futé pour aller le récupérer grâce à divers stratagèmes.
Ou alors il s’évade de lui-même pour aller rejoindre l’Agence. Dans beaucoup d’épisodes, il aime avoir un objet ou un animal qui ne le quitte pas jusqu’à la fin, tel qu’un cafard, un homard, une chaussette, avec lequel il agace généralement Barracuda avec ses facéties.
Ensuite, l’Agence qui doit se rendre sur le lieu des crimes et délits des malfaiteurs emprunte parfois l’avion, ce que Barracuda déteste particulièrement auquel cas ils doivent l’endormir.
Une fois sur les lieux, il y a souvent une annonce d’Hannibal aux malfaiteurs indiquant qu’ils doivent désormais compter avec eux. Cela produit en général une bagarre sans armes que l’Agence gagne facilement, tout en laissant curieusement leurs ennemis s’échapper.
Peut-être dans l’espoir que ces derniers, impressionnés par les membres de l’Agence, abandonnent leurs entreprises malhonnêtes et s’en aillent.
Les antagonistes reviennent et au lieu de tuer les membres de l’Agence, les laissent (souvent, sans même les ligoter et/ou les bâillonner) dans une grange, un garage ou un entrepôt, voire une mine.
Privés de leurs armes, ils ont néanmoins à leur disposition du matériel tel que de l’acétylène, de la poudre, des tôles et des tubes d’acier permettant à Barracuda de bricoler des armes ou de refaire fonctionner un engin (voiture, tracteur…) ce qui leur permet de s’échapper, et d’arriver à arrêter les malfaiteurs.
Dans d’autres cas, Looping arrive à prendre le contrôle d’un hélicoptère, souvent sous le nez de son propriétaire, ce qui permet de constituer un appui aérien non négligeable.
L’arrestation finale des méchants se fait parfois par un combat à mains nues, qui oppose toujours les méchants à l’agence en respectant la hiérarchie (Hannibal contre le chef de l’équipe, Barracuda contre le noir ou le plus costaud des méchants), ou alors au terme d’une des innombrables poursuites homériques de la série, qui permettent à chaque fois d’admirer les talents de pilote de Barracuda au volant de sa camionnette ou d’un bolide étrange bricolé par l’agence.
Ils doivent souvent partir rapidement après l’arrestation des méchants pour échapper aux colonels Lynch ou Decker. Dans tous les cas, il n’y a en général, même avec l’utilisation d’armes de guerres mortelles, pas de personnes qui soient tuées, voire sérieusement blessées.
La plupart du temps, les ennemis sont sonnés, ou très légèrement blessés (une douleur à un membre ou à la tête). Il n’y a eu, en tout et pour tout, que deux morts dans toute la série. Cette série est devenue pour cette raison un genre à part entière dans la télévision, puisque c’est la première série violente à avoir été diffusée aux heures de grande écoute aux États-Unis justement en raison de l’absence, ou presque, de morts.
À ce titre, la série apparaît quelquefois peu crédible, notamment dans l’épisode Tirez sur le Cheik, où l’hélicoptère des méchants s’écrase contre une falaise et que leurs occupants en ressortent indemnes.
L’avant-dernière saison perdant en popularité[réf. nécessaire], le format de la série a été changé pour la dernière saison (1986-1987).
Après avoir échappé pendant des années aux militaires, l’Agence tous risques est finalement arrêtée. Ils ont le choix entre retourner en prison, être exécutés ou être affectés à une agence gouvernementale dirigée par le général Hunt Stockwell qui réalise des missions secrètes. Ils choisissent de travailler avec Stockwell.
Arrêt de la série
Selon le producteur Stephen J. Cannell, la série s’est arrêtée au bout de cinq ans parce qu’elle devenait de plus en plus chère à produire. Qui plus est, les acteurs George Peppard, Dirk Benedict et Mr. T étaient de plus en plus démotivés (ce dernier avait d’ailleurs sa propre série, de 1988 à 1990).
L’Agence tous risques bénéficie de génériques différents à chaque saison, avec une accroche commune : « Il y a dix ans (en 1972), une unité de commando d’élite stationnée au Viêt Nam fut envoyée en prison par un tribunal militaire, pour un crime qu’ils n’avaient pas commis.
Ces hommes s’évadèrent rapidement de leur prison militaire de haute sécurité, se réfugiant dans les bas-fonds de Los Angeles. Aujourd’hui, encore recherchés par le gouvernement, ils fuient encore et toujours devant leurs poursuivants et survivent comme des mercenaires.
Si vous avez un problème, si vous êtes seul, si personne ne peut vous aider, si vous êtes acculé, si la justice ne peut plus rien pour vous, il vous reste un recours, un seul : l’Agence tous risques. »
Plus tard, au cours de la saison 2, l’accroche fut modifiée : « accusés d’un vol qu’ils n’ont pas commis, n’ayant aucun moyen d’en faire la preuve, ils fuient sans cesse devant leurs poursuivants. Pour subsister, ils emploient leurs compétences. Si la loi ne peut plus rien pour vous, il vous reste un recours, un seul : l’Agence tous risques. »
Mamma Mia! (promoted as Mamma Mia! The Movie) is a 2008 British-American-Swedish musical romantic comedy film adapted from the 1999 West End/2001 Broadway musical of the same name, based on the songs of successful popgroup ABBA, with additional music composed by ABBA member Benny Andersson.
The film was directed by Phyllida Lloyd and distributed by Universal Pictures in partnership with Tom Hanks and Rita Wilson’s Playtone and Littlestar and the title originates from ABBA’s 1975 chart-topper “Mamma Mia”.
Meryl Streep heads the cast, playing the role of single mother Donna Sheridan. Pierce Brosnan (Sam Carmichael), Colin Firth (Harry Bright), and Stellan Skarsgård (Bill Anderson) play the three possible fathers to Donna’s daughter, Sophie (Amanda Seyfried).
Mamma Mia! received mixed reviews from critics and earned $609.8 million on a $52 million budget.
On a Greek island called Kalokairi, bride-to-be Sophie Sheridan posts three wedding invitations (“I Have a Dream”) to different men.
Sophie’s bridesmaids, Ali and Lisa, arrive. Sophie reveals that she found her mother’s diary and has three possible fathers: Irish-American architect Sam Carmichael, Swedish adventurer and writer Bill Anderson, and British banker Harry Bright.
As Sophie wants her father to give her away at the altar, she invited them without telling her mother, believing that after she spends time with them she will know who her father is (“Honey, Honey”).
Villa owner Donna Sheridan, Sophie’s mom, is ecstatic to reunite with her former Dynamos bandmates, wisecracking author Rosie Mulligan and wealthy multiple divorcée Tanya Chesham-Leigh, and reveals her bafflement at her daughter’s desire to get married.
Donna shows off the villa to Rosie and Tanya (“Money, Money, Money”). The three men arrive;
Sophie smuggles them to their room and explains that she sent the invitations. She begs them to hide so Donna will have a surprise at the wedding: seeing the old friends of whom she “so often” favourably speaks. They overhear Donna working (humming “Fernando”) and swear not to reveal her secret.
Donna spies them and is dumbfounded to find herself facing former lovers (“Mamma Mia”), and is adamant that they leave.
She confides in Tanya and Rosie (“Chiquitita”) that she is uncertain which of the men is Sophie’s father. Tanya and Rosie rally her spirits by getting Donna to dance with the female staff and islanders (“Dancing Queen”).
Sophie finds the men aboard Bill’s yacht, and they sail around Kalokairi (“Our Last Summer”) and tell stories of Donna as a carefree girl. Sophie plans to tell her fiancé Sky about her ploy, but loses her nerve.
Sky and Sophie sing to each other (“Lay All Your Love on Me”), but Sky is snatched for his bachelor party.
At Sophie’s bachelorette party, Donna, Tanya and Rosie perform as Donna and The Dynamos (“Super Trouper”). The festivities are interrupted by the arrival of Sam, Bill and Harry. Sophie decides to talk with each of her prospective dads alone.
While her girlfriends dance with the men (“Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)”), Sophie learns from Bill that Donna received the money to invest in her villa from his great aunt Sofia.
Sophie guesses she must be Sofia’s namesake and Bill is her father. She asks him to give her away and keep their secret from Donna until the wedding.
Sophie’s happiness is short-lived as Sam and Harry each tell her they must be her dad and will give her away (“Voulez-Vous”). Sophie cannot tell them the truth and, overwhelmed by the consequences of her actions, faints.
In the morning, Rosie and Tanya assure Donna they will take care of the men.
Bill and Harry are about to confide in each other, but are interrupted by Rosie. Donna confronts Sophie, believing Sophie wants the wedding stopped. Sophie says that all she wants is to avoid her mother’s mistakes.
Donna is accosted by Sam, concerned about Sophie getting married so young. Donna confronts him and they realize they still have feelings for each other (“SOS”). Tanya and young Pepper continue their flirtations from the previous night (“Does Your Mother Know”). Sophie confesses to Sky and asks for his help.
He reacts angrily to Sophie’s deception and she turns to her mother for support. As Donna helps her daughter dress for the wedding, their rift is healed and Donna reminisces about Sophie’s childhood and how quickly she has grown (“Slipping Through My Fingers”). Donna admits that her own mother disowned her when she learned that she was pregnant. Sophie asks Donna to give her away.
As the bridal party walks to the chapel, Sam intercepts Donna. She reveals the pain she felt over losing him (“The Winner Takes It All”).
Sophie and Donna walk down the aisle as the band plays “Knowing Me, Knowing You”. Donna tells Sophie that her father could be any of the three men.
Sam reveals that while he left to get married, he did not go through with it, and returned to find Donna with another man.
Harry confesses that Donna was the first and last woman he loved and he has begun a relationship with a waiter from the taverna.
The men agree that they would be happy to be one-third of a father for Sophie. She tells Sky they should postpone their wedding and travel the world as they have wanted. Sam proposes to Donna (“I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do”).
She accepts and they are married. At the reception, Sam sings to Donna (“When All Is Said and Done”), which prompts Rosie to make a play for Bill (“Take a Chance on Me”). All the couples present proclaim their love (“Mamma Mia” reprise).
Sophie and Sky sail away (“I Have a Dream” reprise).
During the principal credits, Donna, Tanya and Rosie reprise “Dancing Queen”, followed by “Waterloo” with the rest of the cast. Amanda Seyfried sings “Thank You for the Music” over the end credits, followed by an instrumental of “Does Your Mother Know”.
Meryl Streep as Donna Sheridan, Sophie’s mother, owner of the hotel Villa Donna, wife and one true love of Sam at the end.
Amanda Seyfried as Sophie Sheridan, Donna’s daughter, Sky’s fiancée.
Pierce Brosnan as Sam Carmichael, Sophie’s possible father and an Irish-American architect, husband and one true love of Donna.
Colin Firth as Harry Bright, Sophie’s possible father and a British banker; based on “Our Last Summer”, which he sings at one point.
Stellan Skarsgård as Bill Anderson, Sophie’s possible father, a Swedish sailor and travel writer.
Dominic Cooper as Sky, Sophie’s fiancé, designing a website for the hotel.
Julie Walters as Rosie Mulligan, one of Donna’s former bandmates in Donna and the Dynamos; an unmarried fun-loving author.
Christine Baranski as Tanya Chesham-Leigh, Donna’s other former bandmate; a rich three-time divorcee.
Philip Michael as Pepper, Sky’s best man who likes Tanya. He is also a bartender.
Juan Pablo Di Pace as Petros.
Ashley Lilley as Ali, close friend of Sophie and her bridesmaid.
Rachel McDowall as Lisa, close friend of Sophie and her bridesmaid.
Enzo Squillino as Gregoris, one of Donna Sheridan’s employees.
Niall Buggy as Father Alex, priest who nearly married Sophie and Sky, but ends up marrying Sam and Donna.
Cameo appearances and Uncredited Roles
Benny Andersson ( FROM ABBA ) as “Dancing Queen” piano player
Björn Ulvaeus ( FROM ABBA ) as Greek god
Rita Wilson as Greek goddess
Angie Dickinson (born September 30, 1931) is an American actress. She began her career on television, appearing in many anthology series during 1950s, before landing her breakthrough role in the 1959 western film Rio Bravo, for which she received Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year.
Dickinson has appeared in more than 50 films, including Ocean’s 11 (1960), The Sins of Rachel Cade (1961), Jessica (1962), Captain Newman, M.D. (1963), The Killers (1964), The Art of Love (1965), The Chase (1966) and the neo-noir classic Point Blank (1967). From 1974 to 1978, Dickinson starred as Sergeant Leann “Pepper” Anderson in the NBC crime series Police Woman, for which she received Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama and three Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series nominations.
During her later career, Dickinson starred in a number of television movies and miniseries, also playing supporting roles in films such as Sabrina (1995), Pay It Forward (2000) and Big Bad Love (2001). As lead actress, she starred in the 1980 erotic crime thriller Dressed to Kill, for which she received a Saturn Award for Best Actress.
Dickinson, the second of four daughters, was born Angeline Brown (called “Angie” by family and friends) in Kulm, North Dakota, the daughter of Fredericka (née Hehr) and Leo Henry Brown.
Her family is of German descent and she was raised Roman Catholic.
Her father was a small-town newspaper publisher and editor, working on the Kulm Messenger and the Edgeley Mail.
In 1942, her family moved to Burbank, California, where she attended Bellarmine-Jefferson High School, graduating in 1947 at 15 years of age. The previous year, she had won the Sixth Annual Bill of Rights essay contest.
She studied at Glendale Community College and in 1954 graduated from Immaculate Heart College with a degree in business. Taking a cue from her publisher father, she had intended to be a writer. While a student from 1950–52, she worked as a secretary at Lockheed Air Terminal in Burbank (now Bob Hope Airport) and in a parts factory. She became Angie Dickinson in 1952, when she married football player Gene Dickinson.
Dickinson entered a beauty pageant in 1953 and placed second. The exposure brought her to the attention of a television industry producer, who asked her to consider a career in acting. She studied the craft and a few years later was approached by NBC to guest-star on a number of variety shows, including The Colgate Comedy Hour. She soon met Frank Sinatra, who became a lifelong friend. She later was cast as Sinatra’s wife in the film Ocean’s 11.
On New Year’s Eve 1954, Dickinson made her television acting debut in an episode of Death Valley Days. This led to other roles in such productions as Matinee Theatre (eight episodes), Buffalo Bill Jr., City Detective, It’s a Great Life (two episodes), Gray Ghost, General Electric Theater, Broken Arrow, The People’s Choice (twice), Meet McGraw (twice), Northwest Passage, Gunsmoke, The Virginian, Tombstone Territory, Cheyenne, and The Restless Gun.
In 1956, Dickinson was cast as Ann Drew, who slips a gun to her jailed husband, Harry (John Craven), a former associate of the Jesse James gang, in the ABC/Desilu western series, The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, starring Hugh O’Brian. In the story line, Harry vowed never to go to prison and was shot to death while escaping.
In 1957, she was cast as Amy Bender in Richard Boone’s series “Have Gun-Will Travel” in the episode “A Matter of Ethics.” She played the sister of a man who was killed and who wanted the murderer lynched.
In 1958, she was cast as Laura Meadows in the episode “The Deserters” of an ABC/Warner Brothers western series, Colt .45, with Wayde Preston.
That year she also played the role of defendant Mrs. Fargo in the Perry Mason episode “The Case of the One-Eyed Witness.”
Dickinson went on to create memorable characters in Mike Hammer, Wagon Train, and Men into Space. In 1965, she had a recurring role as Carol Tredman on NBC’s Dr. Kildare. She had a memorable turn as the duplicitous murder conspirator in a 1964 episode of The Fugitive series with David Janssen and fellow guest star Robert Duvall. She was at her evil best as an unfaithful wife and bank robber in the 1958 “Wild Blue Yonder” episode of Rod Cameron’s syndicated television series State Trooper.
She starred in two Alfred Hitchcock Hour episodes, “Captive Audience” with James Mason on Oct. 18, 1962, and “Thanatos Palace Hotel” on Feb. 1, 1965.
Dickinson’s motion picture career began with a small, uncredited role in Lucky Me (1954) starring Doris Day, followed by The Return of Jack Slade (1955), Man with the Gun (1955), and Hidden Guns (1956). She had her first starring role in Gun the Man Down (1956) with James Arness, followed by the Sam Fuller cult film China Gate (1957), which depicted an early view of the Vietnam War.
Rejecting the Marilyn Monroe/Jayne Mansfield style of platinum blonde sex-symbolism because she felt it would narrow her acting options, Dickinson initially allowed studios to lighten her naturally brunette hair to only honey-blonde.
She appeared early in her career mainly in B-movies or westerns, including Shoot-Out at Medicine Bend (1957), in which she co-starred with James Garner. In the 1958 crime drama Cry Terror!, Dickinson had a supporting role opposite James Mason and Rod Steiger as a femme fatale.
In 1959, Dickinson’s big-screen breakthrough role came in Howard Hawks’ Rio Bravo, in which she played a flirtatious gambler called “Feathers” who becomes attracted to the town sheriff played by Dickinson’s childhood idol John Wayne. The film co-starred Dean Martin, Ricky Nelson, and Walter Brennan. When Hawks sold his personal contract with her to a major studio without her knowledge, she was unhappy. Dickinson nonetheless became one of the more prominent leading ladies of the next decade, beginning with The Bramble Bush with Richard Burton. She also took a supporting role in Ocean’s 11 with friends Sinatra and Martin, released in 1960.
These were followed by a political potboiler, A Fever in the Blood (1961); a Belgian Congo-based melodrama, The Sins of Rachel Cade (1961), in which she played a missionary nurse tempted by lust; a scheming woman in Rome Adventure (1962), filmed in Italy, and the title role in Jean Negulesco’s Jessica (1962) with Maurice Chevalier, in which she played a young midwife resented by the married women of the town, set in Sicily.
Angie would also share the screen with friend Gregory Peck as a military nurse in the dark comedy Captain Newman, M.D. (1963).
For The Killers (1964), originally intended to be the very first made-for-television movie but released to theatres due to its violent content, Dickinson played a femme fatale opposite future U.S. President Ronald Reagan in his last movie role.
Directed by Don Siegel, it was a remake of the 1946 version based on a story by Ernest Hemingway and the only film Reagan made in which he was cast as a villain. He viciously slaps Dickinson in one of the film’s scenes.
Dickinson co-starred in the comedy The Art of Love (1965), playing the love interest of both James Garner and Dick Van Dyke. She joined a star-studded Arthur Penn/Sam Spiegel production, The Chase (1966), along with Marlon Brando, Jane Fonda, Robert Redford, and Robert Duvall. That same year she was featured in Cast a Giant Shadow, a war story with Kirk Douglas.
Dickinson’s best movie of this era was arguably John Boorman’s cult classic Point Blank (1967), a lurid crime drama with Lee Marvin as a criminal betrayed by his wife and best friend and out for revenge. The film epitomized the stark urban mood of the period, and its reputation has grown through the years.
Westerns would continue to be a part of her work in the late ’60s, when she starred in The Last Challenge opposite Glenn Ford, in Young Billy Young with Robert Mitchum, and in Sam Whiskey, where she gave rising star Burt Reynolds his first on-screen kiss.
In 1971, she played a lascivious substitute high school teacher in the dark comedy Pretty Maids All in a Row for director Roger Vadim and writer-producer Gene Roddenberry, in which her character seduces a sexually inexperienced student, portrayed by John David Carson, against the backdrop of a series of murders of female students at the same high school; it was a box-office failure. In 1972’s The Outside Man, a French movie shot in L.A., with Jean-Louis Trintignant, directed by Jacques Deray, she plays the wife of a mobster. In 1973, she co-starred with Roy Thinnes in the supernatural thriller The Norliss Tapes, a TV movie produced and directed by Dan Curtis.
One of Dickinson’s best known and most sexually provocative movie roles followed, that of the tawdry widow Wilma McClatchie from the Great Depression romp Big Bad Mama (1974) with William Shatner and Tom Skerritt. Although well into her forties at the time, she appeared nude in several scenes, which created interest in the movie and a new generation of male fans for Dickinson.
A 1966 Esquire magazine cover gained Dickinson additional fame and notoriety, her having posed in nothing but a sweater and a pair of panty hose. The photo became so iconic that, while celebrating the magazine’s 70th anniversary in 2003, the Dickinson pose was recreated for the cover by Britney Spears.
Dickinson as Pepper Anderson, 1975 in Police Woman
Dickinson returned to the small screen in March 1974 for an episode of the critically acclaimed hit anthology series Police Story. That one guest appearance proved to be so popular that NBC offered Dickinson her own television show, which became a ground-breaking weekly series called Police Woman; it was the first successful dramatic TV series to feature a woman in the title role. At first, Dickinson was reluctant, but when producers told her she could become a household name, she accepted the role. They were right.
In the series, she played Sgt. Leann “Pepper” Anderson, an officer of the Los Angeles Police Department’s Criminal Conspiracy Unit who often works undercover.
The show became a hit, reaching number one in many countries in which it aired during its first year. It ran for four seasons and Dickinson would win a Golden Globe award, and receive Emmy nominations for three consecutive years.
Co-starring on the show was Earl Holliman as Sergeant Bill Crowley, Anderson’s commanding officer, along with Charles Dierkop as investigator Pete Royster and Ed Bernard as investigator Joe Styles.
The series ran from 1974 to 1978. The same year the show ended, Dickinson reprised her Pepper Anderson character on the television special Ringo, co-starring with Ringo Starr and John Ritter. She also parodied the part in the 1975 and 1979 Bob Hope Christmas specials for NBC. She would do the same years later on the 1987 Christmas episode of NBC’s Saturday Night Live.
Police Woman caused a surge of applications for employment from women to police departments around the United States; journalists who have in recent years examined the inspiration for long-term female law enforcement officials to adopt this vocation as their own have been surprised by how often Dickinson’s Police Woman has been referenced.
Dickinson and Police Woman proved that a female lead could carry an hour-long television series, paving the way for several female-starring, hour-long TV series during the 1970s and 1980s, such as Charlie’s Angels, Wonder Woman, The Bionic Woman and Cagney and Lacey. In 1987, the Los Angeles Police Department awarded Dickinson an honorary doctorate, which led her to quip, “Now you can call me Doctor Pepper.”
On occasion during the 1970s, Dickinson took part in the popular Dean Martin Celebrity Roast on television, and herself was the guest of honor on August 2, 1977, roasted by a dais of celebrities that included James Stewart, Orson Welles and her Police Woman series co-star Earl Holliman.
Having done a television series plus the mini-series Pearl (1978) about the Pearl Harbor bombing of 1941, Dickinson’s career in feature films appeared to be in decline. But she returned to the big screen in Brian De Palma’s erotic thriller Dressed to Kill (1980), for which she gained considerable notice, particularly for a long, silent scene in a museum before the character meets her fate. The role of Kate Miller, a sexually frustrated New York housewife, earned her a 1981 Saturn Award for Best Actress. “The performers are excellent,” wrote Vincent Canby in his July 25, 1980 New York Times review, “especially Miss Dickinson.”
She took a less substantial role in 1981’s Death Hunt, reuniting her with Lee Marvin, and also appeared in Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen. Earlier that year, she had been the first choice to play the character Krystle Carrington on the television series Dynasty but, deciding she wanted to spend more time with her daughter, she turned it down; the role instead went to Linda Evans. In the mid-1980s Dickinson declined the role of Sable Colby on the Dynasty spin-off, The Colbys.
After nixing her own Johnny Carson-produced prospective sitcom, The Angie Dickinson Show, in 1980 after only two episodes had been shot because she did not feel she was funny enough, the private-eye series Cassie & Co. became her unsuccessful attempt at a television comeback. She then starred in several TV movies, such as One Shoe Makes It Murder (1982), Jealousy (1984), A Touch of Scandal (1984), and Stillwatch (1987). She had a pivotal role in the highly rated mini-series Hollywood Wives (1985), based on a novel by Jackie Collins.
In 1982, and again in 1986, Dickinson appeared in two of Perry Como’s Christmas specials for the ABC television network, in both of which she did something she was not known to have done before: singing. The specials in which she appeared, and in which she sang songs, were Perry Como’s Christmas In Paris, produced on location in Paris, France, which was transmitted on Saturday, December 18, 1982, and The Perry Como Christmas Special, produced on location in San Antonio, Texas, and transmitted on Saturday, December 6, 1986. As of early January of 2013, these two specials were not known to be available on home video. Dickinson later denied having sung on camera since then in an interview with Larry King conducted at the approximate time of her appearance in Duets.
In motion pictures, Dickinson reprised her role as Wilma McClatchie for Big Bad Mama II (1987) and completed the television movie Kojak: Fatal Flaw, in which she was reunited with Telly Savalas. She co-starred with Willie Nelson and numerous buddies in the 1988 television western Once Upon a Texas Train.
She was presented one of the Golden Boot Awards in 1989 for her contributions to western cinema.
1990s and 2000s
In the 1993 ABC miniseries Wild Palms, produced by Oliver Stone, she was the sadistic, militant sister of Senator Tony Kruetzer, played by Robert Loggia. That same year, she starred as a ruthless Montana spa owner in Gus Van Sant’s Even Cowgirls Get the Blues with Uma Thurman.
In 1995, Sydney Pollack cast her as the prospective mother-in-law of Greg Kinnear in the romantic comedy Sabrina starring Harrison Ford, a remake of the Billy Wilder classic. She played Burt Reynolds’ wife in the thriller The Maddening and the mother of Rick Aiello and Robert Cicchini in the National Lampoon comedy The Don’s Analyst. In 1997, she seduced old flame Artie (Rip Torn) in an episode of HBO’s The Larry Sanders Show called “Artie and Angie and Hank and Hercules.”
Dickinson acted out the alcoholic, homeless mother of Helen Hunt’s character in Pay It Forward (2000); the grandmother of Gwyneth Paltrow’s character in the drama Duets (2000), and the mother of Arliss Howard’s character in Big Bad Love (2001), co-starring Debra Winger.
Having appeared in the original Ocean’s 11 (1960) with good friends Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin, four decades later she made a brief cameo in the 2001 remake with George Clooney and Brad Pitt.
An avid poker player, during the summer of 2004 she participated in the second season of Bravo’s Celebrity Poker Showdown. After announcing her name, host Dave Foley said, “Sometimes, when we say ‘celebrity,’ we actually mean it.”
Dickinson is a recipient of the state of North Dakota’s Rough Rider Award.
In 1999, Playboy ranked Dickinson No. 42 on their list of the “100 Sexiest Stars of the Century.” In 2002, TV Guide ranked her No. 3 on a list of the “50 Sexiest Television Stars of All Time,” behind Diana Rigg and George Clooney (who tied for No. 1).
In 2009, Dickinson starred in a Hallmark Channel film, Mending Fences. It is her last screen role to date.
With husband-composer Burt Bacharach and new child, 1966
She was married to Gene Dickinson, a former football player, from 1952 to 1960. Close friends with John Kenneth Galbraith and Catherine Galbraith, her extensive visits to them and touring when John was American Ambassador to India is amply recounted in Galbraith memoirs including Ambassador’s Journal and A Life in Our Times. Dickinson kept her married name after her first divorce.
She married Burt Bacharach in 1965. They remained a married couple for 15 years, though late in their marriage, they had a period of separation where each dated other people.
Their daughter, Lea Nikki, known as Nikki, arrived a year after they were married. Born three months prematurely, Nikki suffered from chronic health problems, including visual impairment; she was later diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Burt composed the music of the song Nikki for their fragile young daughter, and Angie rejected many roles to focus on caring for their daughter. Nikki’s parents eventually placed her at the Wilson Center, a psychiatric residential treatment facility for adolescents in Faribault, Minnesota, where she remained for nine years. Later, Nikki studied geology at California Lutheran University, but her poor eyesight prevented her from pursuing a career in that field. On January 4, 2007, Nikki killed herself by suffocation in her apartment in the Ventura County suburb of Thousand Oaks. She was 40.
In a joint statement, Dickinson and Bacharach said, “She quietly and peacefully committed suicide to escape the ravages to her brain brought on by Asperger’s… She loved kitties, earthquakes, glacial calving, meteor showers, science, blue skies and sunsets, and Tahiti. She was one of the most beautiful creatures created on this earth, and she is now in the white light, at peace.”
In a 2006 interview with NPR, Dickinson stated that she was a Democrat. She supported John F. Kennedy’s presidential campaign in 1960.
|1954||Lucky Me||Party Guest||Uncredited|
|1955||Tennessee’s Partner||Abby Dean|
|1955||The Return of Jack Slade||Polly Logan|
|1955||Man with the Gun||Kitty||Uncredited|
|1956||Down Liberty Road||Mary||Short film|
|1956||Hidden Guns||Becky Carter|
|1956||Tension at Table Rock||Cathy|
|1956||Gun the Man Down||Janice|
|1956||The Black Whip||Sally Morrow|
|1957||Shoot-Out at Medicine Bend||Priscilla King|
|1957||China Gate||Lucky Legs|
|1957||Run of the Arrow||Yellow Moccasin||Voice|
|1958||I Married a Woman||Screen Wife|
|1958||Cry Terror!||Eileen Kelly|
|1960||I’ll Give My Life||Alice Greenway Bradford|
|1960||The Bramble Bush||Fran|
|1960||Ocean’s Eleven||Beatrice Ocean|
|1961||A Fever in the Blood||Cathy Simon|
|1961||The Sins of Rachel Cade||Rachel Cade|
|1962||Jessica||Jessica Brown Visconti|
|1962||Rome Adventure||Lyda Kent|
|1963||Captain Newman, M.D.||Lt. Francie Corum|
|1964||The Killers||Sheila Farr|
|1965||The Art of Love||Laurie Gibson|
|1966||The Chase||Ruby Calder|
|1966||Cast a Giant Shadow||Emma Marcus|
|1966||The Poppy Is Also a Flower||Linda Benson|
|1967||The Last Challenge||Lisa Denton|
|1969||Sam Whiskey||Laura Breckenridge|
|1969||Some Kind of a Nut||Rachel Amidon|
|1969||Young Billy Young||Lily Beloit|
|1971||Pretty Maids All in a Row||Miss Betty Smith|
|1971||The Resurrection of Zachary Wheeler||Dr. Layle Johnson|
|1972||The Outside Man||Jackie Kovacs|
|1974||Big Bad Mama||Wilma McClatchie|
|1979||L’homme en colère||Karen|
|1980||Klondike Fever||Belinda McNair|
|1980||Dressed to Kill||Kate Miller|
|1981||Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen||Dragon Queen|
|1981||Death Hunt||Vanessa McBride|
|1987||Big Bad Mama II||Wilma McClatchie|
|1993||Even Cowgirls Get the Blues||Miss Adrian|
|1996||The Maddening||Georgina Scudder|
|1996||The Sun, the Moon and the Stars||Abbie McGee|
|2000||The Last Producer||Poker Player||Cameo|
|2001||Pay It Forward||Grace|
|2001||Big Bad Love||Mrs. Barlow|
|2001||Ocean’s Eleven||Boxing Spectator||Cameo|
|2004||Elvis Has Left the Building||Bobette|
|1954||I Led 3 Lives||Comrade Margaret||Episode: “Asylum”|
|1954||The Mickey Rooney Show||Receptionist||Episode: “The Executive”|
|1954||Death Valley Days||Salina Harris||3 episodes|
|1955||City Detective||Cigarette Girl||Episode: “The Perfect Disguise”|
|1955||Buffalo Bill, Jr.||Anna Louise Beaumont||Episode: “The Death of Johnny Ringo”|
|1955||Matinee Theatre||7 episodes|
|1955||It’s a Great Life||Myra||Episode: “The Raffle Ticket”|
|1956||General Electric Theater||Shaw||Episode: “Try to Remember”|
|1956||It’s a Great Life||Rita Moore||Episode: “The Voice”|
|1956||The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp||Ann Drew||Episode: “One of Jesse’s Gang”|
|1956||Chevron Hall of Stars||Bertha||Episode: “Mr. Thompson”|
|1956||Four Star Playhouse||Episode: “The Rites of Spring”|
|1956||The Millionaire||Jane Carr / Janice Corwin||Episode: “Millionaire Jane Carr”|
|1956||Schlitz Playhouse of Stars||Ann||Episode: “Always the Best Man”|
|1956||Broken Arrow||Terry Weaver||Episode: “The Conspirators”|
|1957||The Gray Ghost||Edie Page||Episode: “Point of Honor”|
|1957||Gunsmoke||Rose Daggit||Episode: “War Party”|
|1957||Alcoa Theatre||Mrs. Garron||Episode: “Circumstantial”|
|1957||Have Gun – Will Travel||Amy Bender||Episode: “A Matter of Ethics”|
|1956-1957||The Lineup||Doris Collins||3 episodes|
|1957||M Squad||Hazel McLean||Episode: “Diamond Hard”|
|1957||Meet McGraw||Mary Gaan||Episode: “Tycoon”|
|1957||Meet McGraw||Lisa Parish||Episode: “McGraw in Reno”|
|1958||The Restless Gun||Evelyn Niemack||Episode: “Imposter for a Day”|
|1958||Perry Mason||Marian Gallagher||Episode: “The Case of the One-Eyed Witness”|
|1958||The Bob Cummings Show||Milly||Episode: “Bob and Automation”|
|1958||Tombstone Territory||Dolores||Episode: “Geronimo”|
|1958||State Trooper||Betty Locke||Episode: “Wild Green Yonder”|
|1958||Colt .45||Laura Meadows||Episode: “The Deserters”|
|1958||Studio 57||Episode: “Gambler’s Luck”|
|1958||The People’s Choice||Geraldine Gibson Hexley||Episodes: “Rollo Makes Good” and “Rollo’s Wedding”|
|1958||Mike Hammer||Lucille Hart||Episode: “Letter Edged in Blackmail”|
|1958||Mike Hammer||Rita Patten||Episode: “Look at the Old Man Go”|
|1958||Target||Betty Nelson||Episode: “Unreasonable Doubt”|
|1958||Northwest Passage||Rose Carver||Episode: “The Bound Women”|
|1958||Man with a Camera||Norma Delgado||Episode: “Closeup on Violence”|
|1959||Wagon Train||Clara Duncan||Episode: “The Clara Duncan Story”|
|1959||Men Into Space||Mary McCauley||Episode: “Moon Probe”|
|1960||Lock Up||Betty Nelson||Episode: “Sentenced to Die”|
|1962||Checkmate||Karen Vale||Episode: “Remembrance of Crimes Past”|
|1962||The Alfred Hitchcock Hour||Janet West||Episode: “Captive Audience”|
|1962||The Dick Powell Show||Judy Maxwell||Episode: “No Strings Attached”|
|1964||The Fisher Family||Helen||Episode: “Bright Shadows”|
|1965||The Fugitive||Norma Sessions||Episode: “Brass Ring”|
|1965||The Man Who Bought Paradise||Ruth Paris||Pilot|
|1965||The Alfred Hitchcock Hour||Ariane Shaw||Episode: “Thanatos Palace Hotel”|
|1965||Dr. Kildare||Carol Tredman||3 episodes|
|1966||The Virginian||Annie Carlson||Episode: “Ride to Delphi”|
|1966||Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre||Christina||Episode: “And Baby Makes Five”|
|1968||A Case of Libel||Anita Corcoran||Television film|
|1970||The Love War||Sandy||Television film|
|1971||Thief||Jean Melville||Television film|
|1971||The Man and the City||Charlene||Episode: “Running Scared”|
|1971||See the Man Run||Joanne Taylor||Television film|
|1972||Ghost Story||Carol Finney||Episode: “Creatures of the Canyon”|
|1973||The Norliss Tapes||Ellen Sterns Cort||Television film|
|1973||Hec Ramsey||Sarah Detweiler||Episode: “The Detroit Connection”|
|1974||Pray for the Wildcats||Nancy McIlvain||Television film|
|1974||Police Story||Lisa||Episode: “The Gamble”|
|1977||A Sensitive, Passionate Man||Marjorie ‘Margie’ Delaney||Television film|
|1974-1978||Police Woman||Sgt. Suzanne ‘Pepper’ Anderson||Series regular, 91 episodes|
|1978||Ringo||Sgt. Suzanne ‘Pepper’ Anderson||Television film|
|1978||Overboard||Lindy Garrison||Television film|
|1979||The Suicide’s Wife||Diana Harrington||Television film|
|1981||Dial M for Murder||Margot Wendice||Television film|
|1982||Cassie & Co.||Cassie Holland||Series regular, 13 episodes|
|1982||One Shoe Makes It Murder||Fay Reid||Television film|
|1984||Jealousy||Georgia / Laura / Ginny||Television film|
|1984||A Touch of Scandal||Katherine Gilvey||Television film|
|1984||Hollywood Wives||Sadie LaSalle||Miniseries|
|1987||Stillwatch||Abigail Winslow||Television film|
|1987||Police Story: The Freeway Killings||Officer Anne Cavanaugh||Television film|
|1988||Once Upon a Texas Train||Maggie Hayes||Television film|
|1989||Fire and Rain||Beth Mancini||Television film|
|1989||Prime Target||Sgt. Kelly Mulcahaney||Television film|
|1991||Empty Nest||Jackie Sheridan||Episode: “Almost Like Being in Love”|
|1991||Kojak: Fatal Flaw||Carolyn Payton||Television film|
|1992||Treacherous Crossing||Beverly Thomas||Television film|
|1993||Wild Palms||Josie Ito||Miniseries|
|1993||Daddy Dearest||Mrs. Winters||Episode: “Mother Love”|
|1996||Remembrance||Margaret Fullerton||Television film|
|1997||Deep Family Secrets||Rénee Chadway||Television film|
|1997||The Don’s Analyst||Victoria Leoni||Television film|
|1997||Diagnosis Murder||Capt. Cynthia Pike||Episode: “Murder Blues”|
|1997||Ellen||Betsy||Episode: “G.I. Ellen”|
|1997||George & Leo||Sheila Smith||Episode: “The Witness”|
|1999||Sealed with a Kiss||Lucille Ethridge||Television film|
|2004||Judging Amy||Evelyn Worth||Episode: “Catching It Early”|
|2009||Mending Fences||Ruth Hanson||Television film|
You can read also : Vous pouvez lire aussi : JOHN WAYNE
Simon & Garfunkel was an American folk rock duo consisting of singer-songwriter Paul Simon and singer Art Garfunkel. They were one of the most popular recording artists of the 1960s and became counterculture icons of the decade’s social revolution, alongside artists such as the Beatles, the Beach Boys, and Bob Dylan.
English article / En Français plus bas svp / French below
Their biggest hits—including “The Sound of Silence” (1964/1965), “Mrs. Robinson” (1968), “Bridge over Troubled Water” (1969), and “The Boxer” (1969)—reached number one on singles charts worldwide.
Their often rocky relationship led to artistic disagreements, which resulted in their breakup in 1970.
Their final studio record, Bridge over Troubled Water, was their most successful, becoming one of the world’s best-selling albums. Since their split in 1970 they have reunited several times, most famously in 1981 for the “The Concert in Central Park”, which attracted more than 500,000 people, the seventh-largest concert attendance in history.
The duo met as children in Queens, New York in 1953, where they learned to harmonize together and began writing original material. By 1957, under the name Tom & Jerry, the teenagers had their first minor success with “Hey Schoolgirl”, a song imitating their idols the Everly Brothers.
Afterwards, the duo went their separate ways, with Simon making unsuccessful solo records. In 1963, aware of a growing public interest in folk music, they regrouped and were signed to Columbia Records as Simon & Garfunkel. Their début, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., sold poorly, and they once again disbanded;
Simon returned to a solo career, this time in England. A remix of their song “The Sound of Silence” was played widely on U.S. AM radio in 1965, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100. Simon & Garfunkel reunited, releasing their second studio album Sounds of Silence and touring colleges nationwide.
On their third release, Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966), the duo assumed more creative control. Their music was featured in the 1967 film The Graduate, giving them further exposure. Bookends (1968), their next album, topped the Billboard 200 chart and included the #1 single “Mrs. Robinson” from the film.
After their 1970 breakup following the release of Bridge over Troubled Water, they both continued recording, Simon releasing a number of highly acclaimed albums, including 1986’s Graceland.
Garfunkel also briefly pursued an acting career, with leading roles in two Mike Nichols films, Catch-22 and Carnal Knowledge, and in Nicolas Roeg’s 1980 Bad Timing.
Simon & Garfunkel were described by critic Richie Unterberger as “the most successful folk-rock duo of the 1960s” and one of the most popular artists from the decade in general. They won 10 Grammy Awards and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990.
Their Bridge over Troubled Water album was nominated at the 1977 Brit Awards for Best International Album and is ranked at #51 on Rolling Stone’s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.
Early years (1953–1956)
Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel grew up in the 1940s and 1950s in the predominantly Jewish neighborhood of Forest Hills in Queens, New York, just three blocks away from one another, and attended the same schools, Public School 164 in Flushing, Parsons Junior High School, and Forest Hills High School.
Individually, when still young, they developed a fascination with music; both listened to the radio and were taken with rock and roll as it emerged, particularly the Everly Brothers.
When Simon first noticed Garfunkel, he was singing in a fourth grade talent show, and Simon thought that was a good way to attract girls;
he hoped for a friendship which eventually started in 1953 when they were in the sixth grade and appeared on stage together in a school play adaptation of Alice in Wonderland. That first stage appearance was followed by the duo forming a street-corner doo-wop group, the Peptones, with three other friends, and learning to harmonize together. They began performing for the first time as a duo at school dances.
They moved to Forest Hills High School in 1955, where, in 1956, they wrote their first song, “The Girl for Me”; Simon’s father sending a handwritten copy to the Library of Congress to register a copyright.
While trying to remember the lyrics to the Everly’s song “Hey Doll Baby“, they created their own song, “Hey Schoolgirl”, which they recorded themselves for $25 at Sanders Recording Studio in Manhattan.
While recording they were overheard by a promoter, Sid Prosen, who – after speaking to their parents – signed them to his independent label Big Records.
From Tom & Jerry to Simon & Garfunkel (1957–1964)
While still aged 15, Simon & Garfunkel now had a recording contract with Sid Prosen’s independent label Big Records.
Using the name Tom & Jerry; Garfunkel naming himself Tom Graph, a reference to his interest in mathematics;
Simon naming himself Jerry Landis, after the surname of Sue Landis, a girl he had dated, the single “Hey Schoolgirl” was released, with the B-side “Dancin’ Wild”, in 1957.
Prosen, using the payola system, bribed Alan Freed $200 to get the single played on his radio show, where it became a nightly staple.
“Hey Schoolgirl” attracted regular rotation on nationwide AM pop stations, leading it to sell over 100,000 copies and to land on Billboard’s charts at number 49.
Prosen promoted the group heavily, getting them a spot on Dick Clark’s American Bandstand (headlining alongside Jerry Lee Lewis).
The duo shared approximately $4,000 from the song – earning two percent each from royalties, the rest staying with Prosen.
They released three more singles on Big Records: “Our Song”, “That’s My Story”, and “Don’t Say Goodbye”, none of them successful.
After graduating from Forest Hills High School in 1959, they were still exploring the possibilities of a music career, though continued their education as a back up; Simon studying English at Queens College, City University of New York, Garfunkel studying first architecture, then switching to art history at Columbia College, Columbia University.
While still with Big Records as a duo, Simon released a solo single, “True or False”, under the name “True Taylor”.
This recording upset Garfunkel, who regarded it as a betrayal; the emotional tension from that incident occasionally surfacing throughout their relationship.
Their last recording with Big Records was a cover of a Jan and Dean single, “Baby Talk”, but the company became bankrupt soon after release; the track was reissued on Bell Records, but failed to sell, so Tom & Jerry was dissolved.
Both, however, continued recording, albeit as solo artists: Garfunkel composing and recording “Private World” for Octavia Records, and – under the name Artie Garr – “Beat Love” for Warwick; Simon recorded with The Mystics, and Tico & The Triumphs, and wrote and recorded under the names Jerry Landis and Paul Kane.
Simon also wrote and performed demos for other artists, working for a while with Carole King and Gerry Goffin.
After graduating in 1963, Simon joined Garfunkel, who was still at Columbia, to perform together again as a duo, this time with a shared interest in folk music.
Simon enrolled part-time in Brooklyn Law School,By late 1963, billing themselves as “Kane & Garr”, they performed at Gerde’s Folk City, a Greenwich club that hosted Monday night open mic performances.
The duo performed three new songs — “Sparrow”, “He Was My Brother”, and “The Sound of Silence” — and got the attention of Columbia producer Tom Wilson, who worked with Bob Dylan.
As a “star producer” for the label, he wanted to record “He Was My Brother” with a new British act named the Pilgrims.
Simon convinced Wilson to let him and his partner have a studio audition, and they performed “The Sound of Silence”. House engineer Roy Halee recorded the audition, and at Wilson’s urging, Columbia signed the duo.
Their debut studio album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., was recorded over three daytime sessions in March 1964 and released in October. The album contains four original Simon compositions, with the remainder consisting of three traditional folk songs and five folk-influenced singer-songwriter numbers.
Simon was adamant that they would no longer use stage names, and they adopted the name Simon & Garfunkel.
Columbia set up a promotional showcase at Folk City on March 31, 1964, the duo’s first public concert as Simon & Garfunkel. The showcase, as well as other scheduled performances, did not go well.
Simon in England (1964–1965)
Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. sold only 3,000 copies upon its October release, and its poor sales led Simon to move to England where he had previously visited and played some gigs.
He toured the small folk clubs, appearing on the same bill and befriending British folk artists such as Bert Jansch, Martin Carthy, Al Stewart, and Sandy Denny.
He met Kathy Chitty, who became the object of his affection and is the Kathy in “Kathy’s Song” and “America”.
A small music publishing company, Lorna Music, licensed “Carlos Dominguez”, a single Simon had cut two years prior as “Paul Kane”, for a cover by Val Doonican that sold very well.
Simon visited Lorna to thank them, and the meeting resulted in a publishing and recording contract. He signed to the Oriole label and released “He Was My Brother” as a single.
Simon invited Garfunkel to stay for the summer of 1964.
Near the end of the season, Garfunkel returned to Columbia for class, and Simon surprised his friends by saying that he would be returning to the States as well.
He would resume his studies at Brooklyn Law School for one semester, partially at his parents’ insistence. He returned to England in January 1965, now certain that music was his calling.
In the meantime, his landlord, Judith Piepe, had compiled a tape from his work at Lorna and sent it to the BBC in hopes they would play it.
The demos aired on the Five to Ten morning show, and were instantly successful. Oriole had folded into CBS by that point, and hoped to record a new Paul Simon album.
The Paul Simon Songbook was recorded in June 1965 and featured multiple future Simon & Garfunkel staples, among them “I Am a Rock” and “April Come She Will”. CBS flew Wilson over to produce the record, and he stayed at Simon’s flat.
The album saw release in August, and although sales were poor, Simon felt content with his future in England.
Meanwhile, in the United States, a late-night disc jockey at WBZ-FM in Boston played “The Sound of Silence”, where it found a college demographic.
It was picked up the next day along the East Coast of the United States, down to Cocoa Beach, Florida. Wilson, inspired by the folk rock sound of the Byrds’ cover of “Turn! Turn! Turn!” and Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone”, created a rock remix of the song with the same musicians who overdubbed the Dylan song. The remix of “The Sound of Silence” was issued in September 1965, where it reached the Billboard Hot 100.
Wilson had not informed the duo of his intention to remix the track; as such, Simon was “horrified” when he first heard it.
Garfunkel graduated in 1965, returning to Columbia University to do a master’s degree in mathematics.
Mainstream breakthrough and success (1965–66)
By January 1966, “The Sound of Silence” topped the Hot 100, selling over one million copies.
Simon reunited with Garfunkel that winter in New York, leaving Chitty and his friends in England behind. CBS demanded a new album from the duo, to be called Sounds of Silence to ride the wave of the hit.
Recorded in three weeks, and mainly consisting of re-recorded songs from The Paul Simon Songbook, plus four new tracks, Sounds of Silence was rush-released onto the market in mid-January 1966, peaking at number 21 Billboard Top LPs chart.
A week later, “Homeward Bound” was released as a single, entering the USA top ten, followed by “I Am a Rock” peaking at number three.
The duo supported the recordings with a nationwide tour of America, while CBS continued their promotion by re-releasing Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., which promptly charted at number 30.
Despite the commercial and popular success, the duo received critical derision, as many considered them a manufactured imitation of folk.
As they considered their previous effort a “rush job” to capitalize on their sudden success, the duo spent more time crafting the follow-up. It was the first time Simon insisted on total control in aspects of recording.
Work began in 1966 and took nine months. Garfunkel considered the recording of “Scarborough Fair” the moment they stepped into the role as producer, because they were constantly beside engineer Roy Halee mixing the track.
Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme was issued in October 1966, following the release of several singles and receiving sold-out college campus shows.
The duo resumed their trek on the college circuit eleven days following the release, crafting an image that was described as “alienated”, “weird”, and “poetic”.
Manager Mort Lewis also was responsible for this public perception, as he withheld them from television appearances (unless they were allowed to play an uninterrupted set or choose the setlist).
Simon, then 26 , felt he had finally “made it” into an upper echelon of rock and roll, while most importantly retaining artistic integrity (“making him spiritually closer to Bob Dylan than to, say, Bobby Darin”, wrote biographer Marc Eliot).
The duo chose William Morris as their booking agency after a recommendation from Wally Amos, a mutual friend through their producer, Tom Wilson.
During the sessions for Parsley, the duo cut “A Hazy Shade of Winter”; it was released as a single, peaking at number 13 on the national charts.
Similarly, they recorded “At the Zoo” for single release in early 1967 (it charted lower, at number 16).
Simon began work for their next album around this time, noting to a writer at High Fidelity that “I’m not interested in singles anymore”.
He had hit a dry spell in his writing, which led to no Simon & Garfunkel album on the horizon for 1967.
Artists at the time were expected to release two, perhaps three albums each year and the lack of productivity from the duo worried executives at Columbia Records.
Amid concerns for Simon’s idleness, Columbia Records chairman Clive Davis arranged for up-and-coming record producer John Simon to kick-start the recording.
Simon was distrustful of “suits” at the label; on one occasion, he and Garfunkel brought a tape recorder into a meeting with Davis, who was giving a “fatherly talk” on speeding up production, in order to laugh at it later.
The rare television appearances at this time saw the duo performing on such diverse network broadcasts as the Ed Sullivan, Mike Douglas and Andy Williams shows in 1966 and twice on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour in 1967.
Meanwhile, director Mike Nichols, then filming The Graduate, had become fascinated with the duo’s past two efforts, listening to them nonstop before and after filming.
After two weeks of this obsession, he met with Clive Davis to ask for permission to license Simon & Garfunkel music for his film. Davis viewed it as a perfect fit and envisioned a best-selling soundtrack album.
Simon was not as immediately receptive, viewing movies akin to “selling out”, creating a damper on his artistic integrity. However, after meeting Nichols and becoming impressed by his wit and the script, he agreed to write at least one or two new songs for the film.
Leonard Hirshan, a powerful agent at William Morris, negotiated a deal that paid Simon $25,000 to submit three songs to Nichols and producer Lawrence Turman.
Several weeks later, Simon re-emerged with two new tracks, “Punky’s Dilemma” and “Overs”, neither of which Nichols was particularly taken with. The duo offered another new song, which later became “Mrs. Robinson”, that was not as developed. Nichols loved it.
Studio time and low profile (1967–68)
The duo’s fourth studio album, Bookends, was recorded in fits and starts over various periods from late 1966 to early 1968. The duo were signed under an older contract that specified the label pay for sessions, and Simon & Garfunkel took advantage of this indulgence, hiring viola and brass players, as well as percussionists. The record’s brevity reflects its concise and perfectionist production. The team spent over 50 studio hours recording “Punky’s Dilemma”, for example, and re-recorded vocal parts, sometimes note by note, until they were satisfied.
While Garfunkel’s songs and voice took a lead role on some songs, the harmonies the band were known for gradually disappeared. For Simon, Bookends represented the end of the duo and became an early indicator of his intentions to go solo.
Although the album had been planned long in advance, work did not begin in earnest until the late months of 1967.
Prior to release, the band helped put together and performed at the Monterey Pop Festival, which signaled the beginning of the Summer of Love on the West Coast.
“Fakin’ It” was issued as a single that summer and found only modest success on AM radio; the duo were much more focused on the rising FM format, which played album cuts and treated their music with respect.
In January 1968, the duo appeared on a Kraft Music Hall special, Three for Tonight, performing ten songs largely culled from their third album.
Bookends was released by Columbia Records in April 1968. In a historical context, this was just 24 hours before the assassination of civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr., which spurred nationwide outrage and riots.
The album debuted on the Billboard Top LPs in the issue dated April 27, 1968, climbing to number one and staying at that position for seven non-consecutive weeks; it remained on the chart as a whole for 66 weeks.
Bookends received such heavy orders weeks in advance of its release that Columbia was able to apply for award certification before copies left the warehouse, a fact it touted in magazine ads.The record became the duo’s best-selling album to date: it fed off the buzz created by the release of The Graduate soundtrack album ten weeks earlier, creating an initial combined sales figure of over five million units.
Davis had predicted this fact, and suggested raising the list price of Bookends by one dollar to $5.79, above the then standard retail price, to compensate for including a large poster included in vinyl copies.
Simon instead scoffed and viewed it as charging a premium on “what was sure to be that year’s best-selling Columbia album”. According to biographer Marc Eliot, Davis was “offended by what he perceived as their lack of gratitude for what he believed was his role in turning them into superstars”.
Rather than implement Davis’ price increase plan, Simon & Garfunkel signed a contract extension with Columbia that guaranteed them a higher royalty rate.
Lead single “Mrs. Robinson” became, at the 1969 Grammy Awards the first rock and roll song to receive Record of the Year; it was also awarded Best Contemporary Pop Performance by a Duo or Group.
Growing apart and final years (1969–70)
Bookends, alongside The Graduate soundtrack, propelled Simon & Garfunkel to become the biggest rock duo in the world.
Simon was approached by producers to write music for films or license songs; he turned down Franco Zeffirelli, who was preparing to film Brother Sun, Sister Moon, and John Schlesinger, who likewise was readying to shoot Midnight Cowboy.
In addition to Hollywood proposals, producers from the Broadway show Jimmy Shine (starring Simon’s friend Dustin Hoffman, also the lead in Midnight Cowboy) asked for two original songs and Simon declined.
He collaborated briefly with Leonard Bernstein on a sacred mass before withdrawing from the project due to “finding it perhaps too far afield from his comfort zone”.
Garfunkel took the role of Captain Nately in the Nichols film, Catch-22, based on the Catch-22 novel. Initially Simon was to play the character of Dunbar, but screenwriter Buck Henry felt the film was already crowded with characters and subsequently wrote Simon’s part out.
The filming of Catch-22 began in January 1969 and lasted about eight months.
The unexpectedly long film production endangered the relationship between the duo;
Simon had not completed any new songs at this point, and the duo planned to collaborate when the filming would be finished.
Following the end of filming of Catch-22 in October, the first performance of what was, for a time, their last tour, took place in Ames, Iowa.
The US leg of the tour ended in the sold-out Carnegie Hall on November 27.
After breaking for Christmas, the duo continued working on the album in early 1970 and finished it in late January.
Meanwhile, the duo, working with director Charles Grodin, produced an hourlong CBS special, Songs of America, which is a mixture of scenes featuring notable political events and leaders concerning the USA, such as the Vietnam War, Martin Luther King, John F. Kennedy’s funeral procession, Cesar Chavez and the Poor People’s March. It was broadcast only once, due to internal tension at the network regarding its content.
Bridge over Troubled Water, their final studio album, was released in January 1970 and charted in over 11 countries, topping the charts in 10, including the Billboard Top LP’s chart in the US and the UK Albums Chart.
It was the best-selling album in 1970, 1971 and 1972 and was at that time the best-selling album of all time.
It was also CBS Records’ best-selling album before the release of Michael Jackson’s Thriller in 1982.
The album topped the Billboard charts for 10 weeks and stayed in the charts for 85 weeks.
In the United Kingdom, the album topped the charts for 35 weeks, and spent 285 weeks in the top 100, from 1970 to 1975. It has since sold over 25 million copies worldwide.
“Bridge over Troubled Water”, the album’s lead single, hit number one in five countries and became their biggest seller.
The song has been covered by over 50 artists since then, including Elvis Presley and Johnny Cash. “Cecilia”, the follow-up, hit number four in the US, and “El Condor Pasa” hit number 18
The recording process was tough for both musicians, and their breakup was almost certain considering the deterioration of their relationship. “At that point, I just wanted out,” Simon later said.
Their breakup was not intended to be semi-permanent: Garfunkel hoped for a two-year break from Simon & Garfunkel and did not intend to pursue a film-career. Likewise, Simon did not intend to begin a solo career.
A brief British tour followed the album release, and the duo’s last concert as Simon & Garfunkel occurred at Forest Hills Stadium.
In 1971, the album took home six awards at the 13th Annual Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year. Simon’s wife, Peggy Harper, pushed for him to make the split official, and he placed a call to Davis to confirm the duo’s breakup: “I want you to know I’ve decided to split with Artie. I don’t think we’ll be recording together again.”
For the next several years, the duo would only speak “two or three” times a year.
Breakup, rifts, and reunions (1971–2003)
In the 1970s, the duo reunited several times. Their first reunion was a benefit concert for presidential candidate George McGovern at New York’s Madison Square Garden in June 1972.
In 1975, they reconciled once more when they visited a recording session with John Lennon and Harry Nilsson.
For the rest of the year, they attempted to make the reunion work, but their collaboration only yielded one song, “My Little Town,” that was featured on Simon’s Still Crazy After All These Years and Garfunkel’s Breakaway.
It peaked at number nine on the Hot 100. In 1975, Garfunkel joined Simon for a medley of three songs on the television series Saturday Night Live which Simon was guest hosting.
In 1977, Garfunkel joined Simon for a brief performance of their old songs on Simon’s television special The Paul Simon Special, and later that year they recorded a cover of Sam Cooke’s “(What a) Wonderful World” along with James Taylor.
Old tensions finally appeared to dissipate upon Garfunkel’s return to New York in 1978, when the duo began interacting more often.
On May 1, 1978, Simon joined Garfunkel for a concert held at Carnegie Hall to benefit the hearing disabled.
By 1980, the duo’s respective solo efforts were not doing well. To help alleviate New York’s economic decline, concert promoter Ron Delsener came up with the idea to throw a free concert in Central Park.
Delsener contacted Simon with the idea of a Simon & Garfunkel reunion, and once Garfunkel agreed, plans were made.
The Concert in Central Park, performed September 19, 1981, attracted more than 500,000 people, at that time the largest-ever concert attendance.
Warner Bros. Records released a live album of the show that went double platinum in the US.
A 90-minute recording of the concert was sold to Home Box Office (HBO) for over $1 million.
The concert created a renewed interest in the duo’s work.
They had several “heart-to-heart talks,” attempting to put past issues behind them.
The duo planned a world tour, kicking off in May 1982, but their relationship grew contentious: for the majority of the tour, they did not speak to one another.
Warner Bros. pushed for them to extend the tour and release an all-new Simon & Garfunkel studio album.
After recording several vocal tracks for a possible new Simon & Garfunkel album, Simon decided to adopt it as his own solo album. Garfunkel had refused to learn the songs in the studio, and would not give up cannabis and cigarettes, despite Simon’s requests.
An official spokesperson remarked, “Paul simply felt the material he wrote is so close to his own life that it had to be his own record. Art was hoping to be on the album, but I’m sure there will be other projects that they will work on together. They are still friends.”
The material was later released on Simon’s 1983 effort Hearts and Bones.
Another rift opened between the duo when the lengthy recording of Simon’s 1986 album Graceland prevented Garfunkel from working with Roy Halee on a Christmas album.
In 1990, the duo were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Garfunkel thanked his partner, calling him “the person who most enriched my life by putting those songs through me,” to which Simon responded, “Arthur and I agree about almost nothing. But it’s true, I have enriched his life quite a bit.” After three songs, the duo left without speaking.
We are indescribable. You’ll never capture it. It’s an ingrown, deep friendship. Yes, there is deep love in there. But there’s also shit. => Garfunkel describing his six-decade-long friendship with Simon
By 1993, their relationship had thawed again, and Simon invited Garfunkel on an international tour with him.
Following a 21-date, sold-out run at the Paramount Theater in New York and an appearance at that year’s Bridge School Benefit in California, the duo toured the Far East.
The duo had a falling out over the course of the rest of the decade, the details of which have never been disclosed.
Simon thanked Garfunkel at his 2001 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a solo artist: “I regret the ending of our friendship. I hope that some day before we die we will make peace with each other,” resuming after a pause, “No rush.”
They were awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 45th Annual Grammy Awards in 2003, for which the promoters convinced them to reconcile and open the show with a performance of “The Sound of Silence.”
The performance was satisfying for both musicians, and they planned out a full-scale reunion tour over the summer.
The Old Friends tour began in October 2003 and played to sold-out audiences across the United States for 30 dates until mid-December.
The tour earned an estimated $123 million.
Following a twelve-city run in Europe in 2004, they ended their nine-month tour with a free concert at the Colosseum in Rome. It attracted 600,000 fans, more than their The Concert in Central Park.
Recent years (2009–present)
In 2009, the duo reunited again for three songs during Simon’s two-night arrangement at New York’s Beacon Theatre. This led to a reunion tour of Asia and Australia in June 2009.
Their headlining set at the 2010 New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival was very difficult for Garfunkel, who was experiencing serious vocal problems. “I was terrible, and crazy nervous. I leaned on Paul Simon and the affection of the crowd,” he told Rolling Stone several years later.
Garfunkel was diagnosed with vocal cord paresis, and the remaining tour dates were postponed indefinitely. His manager, John Scher, informed Simon’s camp that Garfunkel would be ready within a year, which did not happen, leading to poor relations between the two. He regained his vocal strength over the course of the next four years, performing shows in a Harlem theater and to underground audiences.
Despite this, the duo have not staged a full-scale tour or performed shows since 2010. Garfunkel confirmed to Rolling Stone in 2014 that he believes they will tour in the future, although Simon had been too “busy” in recent years. “I know that audiences all over the world like Simon and Garfunkel. I’m with them. But I don’t think Paul Simon’s with them,” he remarked.
Musical style and legacy
Over the course of their career, Simon & Garfunkel’s music gradually moved from a very basic, folk rock sound to incorporate more experimental elements for the time, including Latin and gospel music. Many adolescents of the 1960s found their music relevant, while adults regarded them as intelligent.
Their music, according to Rolling Stone, struck a chord among lonely, alienated young adults near the end of the decade.
Despite its popularity, the group was also criticized sharply, especially in its heyday. Rolling Stone critic Arthur Schmidt, for example, described the duo’s music as “questionable…it exudes a sense of process, and it is slick, and nothing too much happens.”
New York Times critic Robert Shelton said that the group had “a kind of Mickey Mouse, timid, contrived” approach to music.
Their clean sound and muted lyricism “cost them some hipness points during the psychedelic era” according to Richie Unterberger of AllMusic, who also notes that the duo “inhabited the more polished end of the folk-rock spectrum and was sometimes criticized for a certain collegiate sterility.”
Unterberger further observes that some critics would later regard Simon’s lyricism in his work with Simon & Garfunkel to pale in comparison to his later solo material.
But Unterberger himself believed that “the best of S&G’s work could stand among Simon’s best material, and the duo did progress musically over the course of their five albums, moving from basic folk-rock productions into Latin rhythms and gospel-influenced arrangements that foreshadowed Simon’s eclecticism on his solo albums.”
Their rocky personal relationship led to their “breaking up and making up about every dozen years.”
Simon and Garfunkel est un duo américain de folk rock, constitué du guitariste et auteur-compositeur-interprète Paul Simon et du chanteur Arthur Garfunkel. Tous deux se rencontrent pour la première fois dans le Queens en 1953.
Ils apprennent à s’accorder l’un avec l’autre et commencent à écrire leurs propres compositions. Ils connaissent leur premier succès en 1957, sous le nom de Tom & Jerry, avec la chanson Hey Schoolgirl, qui imite le style de leurs idoles The Everly Brothers.
Mais ce succès n’est pas confirmé et ils poursuivent ensuite leurs études universitaires chacun de leur côté. Ils se retrouvent en 1963, avec un intérêt accru pour la musique folk, et signent un contrat avec Columbia Records. Leur premier album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. (1964), est un échec commercial à sa sortie et le duo se sépare, Simon décidant de poursuivre sa carrière en solo en Angleterre.
Cependant, une nouvelle version de leur chanson The Sound of Silence connaît le succès sur les ondes américaines en 1965 et atteint la première place du Billboard Hot 100.
Le duo se reforme alors et enregistre un deuxième album, Sounds of Silence (1966), qui est rapidement suivi par Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966), album sur lequel le duo prend un plus grand contrôle créatif. La popularité du duo s’accroît avec la bande originale du film Le Lauréat (1967), composée en majeure partie par leurs chansons.
Leur album suivant, Bookends (1968), les propulse au rang de stars internationales majeures. Néanmoins, les relations entre les deux hommes se dégradent et le duo se sépare peu après la sortie de leur album suivant, Bridge over Troubled Water (1970), qui est leur plus grand succès commercial.
Simon and Garfunkel comptent parmi les artistes les plus populaires des années 1960 et sont considérés comme des icônes de la contre-culture de cette décennie, au même titre que les Beatles et Bob Dylan.
Leurs chansons les plus célèbres, The Sound of Silence, I Am a Rock, Homeward Bound, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, A Hazy Shade of Winter, Mrs. Robinson, Bridge over Troubled Water, The Boxer, Cecilia et El Cóndor Pasa (If I Could), ont connu un très grand succès international.
Depuis leur séparation, Simon et Garfunkel ont reformé plusieurs fois le duo, notamment à l’occasion d’un concert à Central Park en 1981 qui réunit plus de 500 000 spectateurs, ce qui constitue à l’époque la plus grande affluence de tous les temps pour un concert.
Rencontre et débuts musicaux (1953-1962)
Paul Frederic Simon et Arthur Ira Garfunkel, nés tous deux en 1941, grandissent à New York dans le quartier du Queens de Kew Gardens Hills à seulement trois pâtés de maisons l’un de l’autre1. Ils se passionnent pour la musique dès leur plus jeune âge, notamment avec l’avènement du rock ‘n’ roll2. Garfunkel commence à chanter dans des radio-crochets dès le CM1 et rencontre Simon deux ans plus tard, en 1953.
Leur amitié s’épanouit quand tous deux sont choisis pour jouer dans une adaptation théâtrale d’Alice au pays des merveilles, Simon dans le rôle du Lapin blanc et Garfunkel dans celui du Chat du Cheshire. Ils commencent à chanter ensemble dans des groupes de doo-wop et apprennent ainsi à s’accorder l’un avec l’autre.
Simon et Garfunkel entrent à la Forest Hills High School en septembre 1955 et entreprennent d’enregistrer leurs arrangements sur des bandes magnétiques. Ils écrivent leur première chanson, The Girl for Me, en 1956 et commencent à se produire en tant que duo dans des écoles de musique. Très influencés par Elvis Presley et The Everly Brothers, ils décident de présenter une maquette d’une de leurs compositions, Hey Schoolgirl, à des éditeurs musicaux de Manhattan.
Ils enregistrent la chanson, avec Dancin’ Wild en face B, au Sanders Recording Studio, un minuscule studio d’enregistrement de Manhattan.
Ils rencontrent ensuite Sid Prosen, qui dirige le label indépendant Big Records, et celui-ci leur fait signer un contrat en proclamant qu’ils sont les nouveaux Everly Brothers. Le duo adopte le nom de Tom and Jerry, d’après le cartoon du même nom.
Garfunkel prend le pseudonyme de Tom Graph, en référence à ses aptitudes en mathématiques et à sa manie de consigner les classements de singles sous forme de graphiques sur du papier millimétré
Simon prend celui de Jerry Landis, d’après le nom de famille d’une fille qu’il a fréquenté.
Sid Prosen verse un pot-de-vin à Alan Freed afin que ce dernier diffuse Hey Schoolgirl dans son émission de radio, et la chanson devient rapidement l’un des morceaux les plus populaires de l’émission.
Hey Schoolgirl est alors diffusée régulièrement sur les ondes à l’échelle nationale.
Le single se vend à plus de 100 000 copies en 1957 et se hisse à la 49e place du Billboard Hot 100. Prosen assure efficacement la promotion du duo, en les faisant notamment passer dans l’émission télévisée American Bandstand aux côtés de Jerry Lee Lewis.
Le producteur s’adjuge toutefois la part du lion dans les royalties dégagées par le duo, prélevant 96% de celles-ci
. Garfunkel, qui n’apprécie pas le milieu de l’industrie musicale, informe Simon qu’il souhaite se consacrer à ses études.
Simon décide alors de continuer sa carrière en solo sous le pseudonyme de True Taylor. À sa sortie du lycée, Simon poursuit des études d’anglais au Queens College alors que Garfunkel étudie les mathématiques à l’université Columbia.
Les ventes des disques de Simon ne décollant pas, celui-ci propose à Garfunkel de reprendre leur collaboration et son ami accepte.
Cependant, les nouveaux singles sortis par le duo sont des échecs commerciaux, ce qui provoque la fin de leur collaboration avec Sid Prosen.
Simon reprend sa carrière en solo, ce qui entame son amitié avec Garfunkel, qui voit cela comme une trahison.
Cette tension jamais résolue entre les deux hommes influera sur leurs relations durant tout leur parcours commun. Simon achève son premier cycle universitaire et s’inscrit à temps partiel à la Brooklyn Law School.
Un nouveau départ (1963-1964)
Le premier concert de Simon and Garfunkel sous ce nom est à l’origine d’une longue brouille entre Paul Simon et Bob Dylan, ici en 1963.
Simon et Garfunkel s’intéressent chacun de leur côté au mouvement émergeant de la contre-culture et de la musique folk.
Simon devient un habitué de Greenwich Village alors que Garfunkel retourne à l’université Columbia afin de conserver son statut d’étudiant et d’éviter d’être incorporé alors que l’engagement américain au Viêt Nam se précise.
Tous deux se retrouvent pour discuter des nouvelles compositions de Simon et les interpréter au siège de la fraternité étudiante Alpha Epsilon Pi.
Fin 1963, ils se produisent sous le nom de Kane & Garr à la Gerde’s Folk City, une salle de concerts de West Village.
Ils y interprètent trois nouvelles chansons, Sparrow, He Was My Brother et The Sound of Silence, et captent l’attention du producteur Tom Wilson, qui a déjà travaillé avec Bob Dylan.
Wilson souhaite faire enregistrer He Was My Brother à un groupe britannique mais Simon le persuade de les laisser faire une audition. Leur interprétation de The Sound of Silence lors de celle-ci convainc Wilson, qui presse Columbia Records de leur faire signer un contrat.
Le premier album du duo, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., est enregistré sur trois sessions en mars 1964 et sort le 19 octobre.
L’album contient cinq compositions originales de Simon, les sept autres étant des reprises de chansons folk dont The Times They Are a-Changin’ de Bob Dylan.
Simon insiste auprès de Garfunkel pour qu’ils utilisent désormais leurs véritables noms.
Columbia met en place un concert promotionnel à Folk City le 31 mars 1964, qui est le premier concert où le duo se produit sous le nom de Simon and Garfunkel.
Dylan est présent à ce concert et une altercation l’oppose à Simon, ce qui sera à l’origine d’une longue rancune entre les deux hommes. L’origine de cette tension reste peu claire, certains biographes affirmant que Dylan aurait délibérément parlé très fort tout au long du concert alors que d’autres soutiennent qu’il aurait totalement dédaigné celui-ci.
Le concert, tout comme d’autres organisés plus tard, n’est pas un succès.
Simon, anticipant l’échec de l’album, part pour l’Angleterre et rencontre Kathy Chitty dans un club de folk où il se produit.
Ils tombent amoureux et Kathy lui inspirera plusieurs chansons, notamment Kathy’s Song, America et Homeward Bound.
Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. ne se vend qu’à 3 000 exemplaires en quelques semaines et cet échec pousse Simon à rester en Angleterre tandis que Garfunkel reprend ses études d’architecture.
Le son du succès (1965-1966)
Les démos que Simon enregistre en Angleterre sont diffusées sur les ondes par la BBC et connaissent le succès.
En juin 1965, Columbia fait alors enregistrer à Simon un album solo, The Paul Simon Songbook, qui sort en Angleterre deux mois plus tard et contient plusieurs chansons qui seront reprises plus tard par le duo.
Les ventes de l’album sont médiocres mais Simon demeure confiant sur son avenir en Angleterre. Pendant ce temps, de l’autre côté de l’Atlantique, un disc-jockey de Boston commence à diffuser The Sound of Silence et la chanson devient populaire dans le milieu étudiant de la côte Est des États-Unis.
Tom Wilson l’apprend et décide de faire réenregistrer la chanson dans une version électrique sans en informer le duo.
Le single sort en septembre et entre dans le Billboard Hot 100. Garfunkel informe Simon, toujours en Europe, de ce qui est en train de se passer. Simon est horrifié lorsqu’il entend la version électrique pour la première fois mais les deux hommes apprécient le succès du single28,29.
Simon revient à New York vers la fin de l’année 1965 afin de reformer son duo avec Garfunkel.
Columbia leur fait enregistrer en décembre un nouvel album et l’intitule « Sounds of Silence » afin de profiter du succès du single.
Ce dernier s’empare de la première place du Billboard Hot 100 en janvier 1966 et dépasse désormais le million d’exemplaires vendus.
En plus d’une réédition de The Sound of Silence, l’album comprend cinq chansons de l’album solo de Simon, dont I Am a Rock, et seulement deux titres sont de nouvelles compositions originales.
L’album sort de façon précipitée le 17 janvier 1966 et est suivi quelques jours plus tard par le single Homeward Bound, qui ne figure pas sur l’album et qui intègre le top 10 des classements musicaux dans plusieurs pays.
Au mois de mars, c’est ensuite I Am a Rock qui sort en single et qui se classe 3e du Billboard Hot 100. Mais en dépit du succès commercial remporté par l’album, 21e au Billboard 200, et les singles, le duo est tourné en dérision par de nombreux critiques musicaux qui estiment qu’il ne produit qu’une imitation manufacturée de la folk.
Alors que le duo part en tournée à travers les États-Unis, Columbia réédite Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. et l’album accède à la 30e place du Billboard 2003.
Simon and Garfunkel en 1966.
Conscients que Sounds of Silence est un travail réalisé dans la précipitation afin de capitaliser sur leur succès soudain, Simon et Garfunkel décident de peaufiner leur prochain album.
Simon insiste d’ailleurs pour avoir le contrôle total pendant la production de celui-ci. Garfunkel considère l’enregistrement de leur version de la chanson traditionnelle « Scarborough Fair » comme le moment où ils sont devenus les véritables producteurs de leurs albums.
Le duo travaille plusieurs mois sur l’album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme et celui-ci sort le 10 octobre. Comprenant notamment Homeward Bound, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin’ Groovy), The Dangling Conversation et For Emily, Whenever I May Find Her, il se caractérise par de vifs contrastes entre les chansons et obtient l’approbation de la critique, qui reconnaît son intégrité artistique, Simon se révélant comme « l’un des auteurs-compositeurs les plus doués de l’époque ».
L’album se hisse par ailleurs à la 4e place du Billboard 200.
Le duo entame dans la foulée une mini-tournée sur les campus universitaires où tous les concerts se jouent à guichets fermés. Mort Lewis, leur agent artistique, entretient l’image décalée et poétique du duo en refusant qu’ils fassent des apparitions à la télévision à moins que des conditions draconiennes ne soient acceptées par l’émission.
A Hazy Shade of Winter, qui n’a pas été retenu par le duo pour figurer sur Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, sort en single deux semaines après la sortie de l’album et se classe 13e du Billboard Hot 100.
Popularité et récompenses : les lauréats (1967-1968)
Simon et Garfunkel enregistrent en janvier 1967 le single At the Zoo et ce dernier est publié le mois suivant, atteignant la 16e place du Billboard Hot 100.
Simon commence alors à travailler sur le prochain album du duo, affirmant qu’il n’est plus intéressé par les singles.
Il est cependant affecté par un blocage de l’écrivain qui a pour conséquence que ce nouvel album ne voit pas le jour en 1967.
À cette époque, il est courant que les artistes sortent deux voire trois albums par an et ce manque de productivité inquiète les dirigeants de Columbia. Clive Davis, le président de Columbia, tente d’accélérer la production de l’album en convoquant Simon et Garfunkel à plusieurs reprises pour leur adresser des discours paternalistes mais les deux amis, déjà méfiants envers l’industrie musicale, tournent cela en dérision en enregistrant un sermon de Davis pour en rire par la suite.
Le 16 juin 1967, Simon and Garfunkel se produisent sur la scène du festival international de musique pop de Monterey qui marque le coup d’envoi du Summer of Love. Fakin’ It sort en single quelques semaines plus tard mais ne remporte qu’un succès modéré.
Pendant ce temps, le réalisateur Mike Nichols tourne Le Lauréat et se prend de passion pour la musique du duo, écoutant leurs chansons en boucle. Deux semaines plus tard, il rencontre Clive Davis pour lui demander l’autorisation d’utiliser certains morceaux du duo pour la musique du film. Davis est enthousiaste, flairant une parfaite occasion de placer une musique de film en tête des ventes de disques.
Simon est beaucoup plus réticent, craignant de compromettre son intégrité artistique. Il change d’avis après avoir rencontré Nichols, qui l’impressionne par son intelligence et la qualité de son scénario, et accepte d’écrire de nouvelles chansons pour le film.
L’agent du duo négocie un contrat qui offre à Simon 25 000 $ pour la composition de trois chansons. Simon propose d’abord à Nichols Punky’s Dilemma et Overs mais aucune des deux ne satisfait le réalisateur. Simon revient alors avec une première version de Mrs. Robinson, qui ne porte pas encore ce titre, qui enthousiasme Nichols.
L’album « The Graduate », composé essentiellement de chansons du duo dont Mrs. Robinson, sort le 21 janvier 1968 et s’empare de la première place du Billboard 200 en avril.
Entretemps, l’enregistrement de Bookends, le quatrième album du duo, est enfin terminé après avoir été échelonné sur plusieurs sessions depuis un an et demi, mais plus particulièrement depuis octobre 1967.
La production de l’album est marquée par son perfectionnisme, l’enregistrement de Punky’s Dilemma étant par exemple étalé sur une cinquantaine d’heures. Mrs. Robinson est réécrite et réenregistrée en février 1968, lors des dernières sessions et constitue l’une des chansons-phares de l’album aux côtés d’autres titres célèbres tels que America, A Hazy Shade of Winter et At the Zoo. Bookends, considéré comme l’album « le plus intellectuel » du duo, est composé sur sa première face d’un cycle de chansons plutôt sombres, évoquant une méditation sur le passage du temps, qui sont suivies dans sa deuxième partie par des titres plus légers et au son plus rock. Il marque par ailleurs le déclin des harmonies du duo, qui disparaissent graduellement au profit d’un chant individuel.
Bookends sort le 3 avril 1968 et est suivi deux jours plus tard par la sortie en single de Mrs. Robinson dans un contexte très particulier puisque Martin Luther King est assassiné le 4 avril, ce qui provoque une grande émotion et une série d’émeutes à travers les États-Unis.
Bookends prend au mois de mai la première place du Billboard 200, occupée jusqu’alors par The Graduate, tandis que Mrs. Robinson s’installe au sommet du Billboard Hot 100 au mois de juin. Bookends devient à cette date le plus grand succès commercial du duo, ayant profité du phénomène de bouche-à-oreille engendré par la sortie de The Graduate, et les ventes combinées des deux albums dépassent les 5 millions de copies. Lors des Grammy Awards qui se tiennent en mars 1969 et célèbrent les accomplissements des artistes pour l’année 1968, Mrs. Robinson remporte le prix de l’enregistrement de l’année, The Graduate celui de la meilleure musique de film et Simon and Garfunkel celui de la meilleure prestation pop d’un duo ou groupe avec chant.
BRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATER : dernier album et séparation (1969-1970)
Bookends et The Graduate propulsent Simon and Garfunkel au rang de stars internationales majeures, les deux hommes devenant le duo musical le plus célèbre du monde. Malgré un désaccord avec Clive Davis, qui désirait augmenter d’un dollar le prix de vente de Bookends ce que le duo a refusé et que Davis perçoit comme un manque de gratitude58, Simon et Garfunkel prolongent leur contrat avec Columbia et négocient au passage une augmentation de leur pourcentage de royalties.
Simon est approché par plusieurs producteurs de cinéma qui souhaitent qu’il écrive des musiques de films et refuse notamment une offre pour Macadam Cowboy (1969).
Il décline également une offre d’écriture pour un spectacle de Broadway et collabore brièvement avec Leonard Bernstein sur une messe avant de se retirer du projet. De son côté, Garfunkel est engagé par Mike Nichols pour interpréter l’un des rôles principaux du film de guerre satirique Catch22 , dans lequel Simon devait aussi jouer avant que son rôle ne soit supprimé.
Le tournage de Catch 22 commence en janvier 1969 et dure huit mois car il est entravé par de nombreux problèmes.
Dans l’intervalle, le single The Boxer est publié en avril et se classe dans le top 10 de plusieurs pays. Cette absence prolongée de Garfunkel affecte les relations entre les deux hommes car Simon, qui prépare pendant ce temps le prochain album du duo, se sent abandonné.
Dès le retour de Garfunkel, le duo se met au travail avec ardeur et décline l’invitation qui leur est faite de participer au festival de Woodstock.
En octobre et novembre 1969, Simon and Garfunkel font une mini-tournée aux États-Unis qui se termine par un concert à guichets fermés à Carnegie Hall.
Le duo produit par ailleurs un documentaire musical, Songs of America, qui est diffusé sur CBS le 30 novembre et qui mêle des extraits de leurs chansons à des images d’événements importants des années 1960.
Ce documentaire n’est diffusé qu’une fois en raison des tensions, en rapport avec son contenu politiquement chargé, qu’il provoque sur la chaîne.
L’album « Bridge ove r Troubled » Water sort le 26 janvier 1970, tout comme le single du même nom. Dans cet album, le duo abandonne en partie le son folk rock qui a fait sa gloire pour explorer d’autres sonorités, comme le gospel, la musique sud-américaine, le latin jazz, le rockabilly ou encore le reggae, un mélange d’influences qui contribue à sa « richesse musicale ». L’album contient onze titres dont Bridge over Troubled Water, Cecilia, El Cóndor Pasa (If I Could), The Boxer et The Only Living Boy in New York. L’inclusion d’un douzième titre est longuement discuté sans que les deux hommes n’arrivent à se mettre d’accord sur son choix.
L’album arrive au sommet des classements musicaux dans dix pays dont les États-Unis, le Royaume-Uni et la France. C’est l’album le plus vendu des années 1970, 1971 et 1972 ; il devient à cette époque l’album le plus vendu de tous les temps.
Le single homonyme s’empare lui aussi de la première place des classements musicaux dans plusieurs pays, alors que les autres singles tirés de l’album, Cecilia en avril et El Cóndor Pasa (If I Could) en août, se vendent aussi très bien4.
Malgré cet énorme succès, le processus d’enregistrement s’est révélé très éprouvant pour les deux hommes et les tensions accumulées entre eux rendent leur séparation prochaine presque certaine avant même la sortie de l’album.
Cette séparation n’est cependant pas prévue au départ pour être permanente, Garfunkel souhaitant seulement faire une pause de deux ans et Simon ne prévoyant pas de reprendre sa carrière en solo.
En avril et mai, le duo se produit pour quelques dates en Europe, dont un passage à l’Olympia le 1er mai, avant de jouer son dernier concert le 18 juillet 1970 au Forest Hills Stadium.
Lors de la cérémonie des Grammy Awards 1971, l’album et la chanson Bridge over Troubled Water remportent six récompenses, dont celles de l’album de l’année et de la chanson de l’année. Quelque temps plus tard, Peggy Harper, l’épouse de Simon depuis 1969, pousse celui-ci à rendre la séparation du duo officielle.
Simon appelle alors Clive Davis pour lui annoncer qu’il ne pense pas reprendre sa collaboration avec Garfunkel. Durant les quelques années qui suivent, les deux hommes ne se parlent que deux ou trois fois par an.
Le duo se reforme pour la première fois au Madison Square Garden en juin 1972 à l’occasion d’un concert de soutien pour George McGovern en vue de l’élection présidentielle américaine.
En 1975, les deux hommes se réconcilient, dans une atmosphère embarrassée, à l’occasion d’un passage à une session d’enregistrement avec John Lennon et Harry Nilsson.
Ils tentent de produire de nouvelles chansons ensemble mais n’en concrétisent qu’une seule, My Little Town, qui paraît à la fois sur l’album de Paul Simon Still Crazy After All These Years, et sur celui de Art Garfunkel, Breakaway.
En 1977, Garfunkel vient se joindre à Simon pour une brève représentation lors d’une émission télévisée consacrée à ce dernier. L’année suivante, ils enregistrent en compagnie de James Taylor une reprise de Wonderful World.
Les deux hommes passent plus de temps ensemble lorsque Garfunkel revient s’installer à New York en 1978.
En 1981, alors que les carrières respectives des deux hommes battent de l’aile, ils sont contactés par le producteur de spectacles Ron Delsener qui leur propose de se produire pour un concert gratuit à Central Park.
Le concert se déroule le 19 septembre 1981 et attire plus de 500 000 personnes, ce qui constitue pour l’époque la plus grande affluence de tous les temps pour un concert. Un enregistrement du concert est réalisé et donne lieu au premier album live du duo, The Concert in Central Park, qui sort le 16 février 1982 et connaît un grand succès commercial international.
L’événement renouvelle également l’intérêt du public pour le duo, et les deux hommes ont plusieurs conversations à cœur ouvert afin d’essayer de mettre leurs problèmes derrière eux80. En mai et juin 1982, Simon and Garfunkel font une tournée au Japon et en Europe mais leurs vieilles querelles refont surface85. Néanmoins, Warner Bros. insiste pour qu’ils repartent en tournée, ce qu’ils font en février 1983 en Australie et en Nouvelle-Zélande, puis en juillet et août 1983 en Amérique du Nord, et pour qu’ils préparent un nouvel album en commun.
Malgré plusieurs sessions d’enregistrement, leurs différends se révèlent être trop nombreux et Simon enregistre à la place un nouvel album solo, Hearts and Bones, la raison officielle étant qu’il trouve les textes qu’il a écrits trop personnels pour être interprétés par quelqu’un d’autre.
En 1990, le duo est intronisé au Rock and Roll Hall of Fame et les deux hommes interprètent trois chansons ensemble à cette occasion, sans toutefois s’attarder.
Trois ans plus tard, leurs relations s’étant améliorées, ils se réunissent à nouveau en octobre 1993 pour une série de 21 concerts joués à guichets fermés au Paramount Theatre de New York, qui sont suivis par quelques dates en Asie. Cependant, une nouvelle brouille les tient éloignés pour le reste de la décennie4.
En 2003, ils sont récompensés aux Grammy Awards pour l’ensemble de leur carrière et les organisateurs les persuadent de se réconcilier pour cette occasion. Les deux hommes interprètent ensemble The Sound of Silence en ouverture de la cérémonie et jugent cette expérience satisfaisante. Ils mettent alors en place une nouvelle tournée, nommée Old Friends Tour, pendant laquelle ils sillonnent les États-Unis d’octobre à décembre en jouant 40 concerts.
Ils repartent en tournée, pour 20 dates aux États-Unis et 12 en Europe, en juin et juillet 200488. Cette tournée se termine par un concert gratuit au Colisée de Rome qui réunit environ 600 000 personnes89. Un double CD-DVD intitulé Old Friends: Live on Stage immortalise cette tournée.
Simon and Garfunkel en concert au New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival en 2010.
En 2009, le duo se réunit une nouvelle fois pour interpréter trois chansons au Beacon Theatre de New York. Une tournée en Océanie et au Japon est organisée dans la foulée en juin et juillet90. Cette tournée se passe très bien et de nouveaux concerts en Amérique du Nord sont planifiés pour l’été 2010. Cependant, alors qu’ils se produisent le 24 avril 2010 sur la scène du New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Garfunkel est atteint de sérieux problèmes vocaux. Une paralysie des cordes vocales lui est diagnostiquée et la tournée doit être annulée. Garfunkel ne récupère totalement sa voix qu’après un combat de quatre ans et espère une nouvelle réunion du duo dans le futur91.
Simon and Garfunkel sont considérés comme le duo le plus célèbre de l’histoire de la musique populaire. Leurs chansons ont laissé une impression forte et durable sur la génération du baby boom et ils comptent, aux côtés des Beatles et Bob Dylan, parmi les artistes les plus représentatifs du mouvement culturel des années 1960.
En 2004, le magazine Rolling Stone les classe à la 40e place de sa liste des 100 plus grands artistes musicaux de tous les temps, considérant que « l’énorme impact » qu’ils ont laissé sur la décennie est dû principalement à l’alliage entre les talents d’auteur-compositeur de Paul Simon, créateur d’hymnes dans une palette musicale très vaste, et la voix unique d’Art Garfunkel.
Dans le Dictionnaire du Rock, ils sont décrits comme ayant apporté au folk militant un « mélange inégalé de raffinement vocal et de tendresse mélancolique ».
Pour Gilles Verlant et Thomas Caussé, dans la Discothèque parfaite de l’odyssée du rock, « la seconde moitié des sixties est marquée de leur empreinte » grâce à leurs « mélodies fines, légères et reconnaissables entre mille » alors que « le mariage de leurs voix, absolument unique, est au cœur de leur magie, tout comme les textes résolument poétiques et modernes, remplis d’images singulières ».
ART GARFUNKEL : SOLO ALBUM : BRIGHT EYES
Lana Parrilla (born July 15, 1977) is an American actress.
Parrilla is best known for her roles on television and radio.
IN ENGLISH (EN FRANCAIS PLUS BAS / IN FRENCH BELOW )
She was a regular cast member in the fifth season of the ABC sitcom Spin City from 2000 to 2001.
She ( later )guest-starred in Boomtown (2002-2003), Windfall (2006), Swingtown (2008) and as Doctor Eva Zambrano in the short-lived medical drama Miami Medical (2010). She also played the role of Sarah Gavin on the season four of Fox series 24 in 2005. In 2011, Parrilla began starring as The Evil Queen/Regina Mills in the ABC fantasy drama series, Once Upon a Time.
Parrilla was born in Brooklyn. Her father, Sam Parrilla (1943–94), was a Puerto Rican-born baseball player who played professionally for 11 seasons (1963–73), including one season with the Major League Philadelphia Phillies in 1970 as an outfielder.
Her mother is an American painter of Sicilian descent who works in banking. Parrilla has one older sister, Deena, and a nephew named Sammy.
She is also the niece of character actress Candice Azzara. Parrilla’s parents legally divorced when she was four years old. She spent her first ten years living with her mother, and then lived with her father. During the time she lived with her father, he was too protective to allow her to attend a performing arts school, which delayed her acting career.
Parrilla lived with her father until his murder in 1994, when she was 16 and he was 50. Her father was shot once in the chest by a 15-year-old female assailant at point blank range and later died from the wound.
After the death of her father, Parrilla moved in with her mother in Burbank, California. Parrilla visited Granada in 2007 to learn Spanish. After high school she moved to Los Angeles and attended Beverly Hills Playhouse to study acting. She also studied voice for ten years. Parrilla then began to be cast in small parts and later on, larger ones.
In her early career, Parrilla appeared in several movies, including Very Mean Men (2000), Spiders (2000), Replicant (2001) and Frozen Stars (2003). She made her television debut in 1999, on the UON sitcom Grown Ups.
In 2000, she joined the cast of the ABC comedy series Spin City, playing Angie Ordonez for one season. She left the show in 2001.
After that she joined Donnie Wahlberg and Neal McDonough in the 2002 critically acclaimed but short-lived crime drama Boomtown, for which she received the Imagen Award for Best Supporting Actress, for her portrayal of Teresa, a paramedic. Initially a success, Boomtown began to struggle, and Parrilla’s character became a police academy rookie, to tie her more closely to the rest of the show. “Boomtown” was cancelled just two episodes into its second season.
Parrilla guest-starred in a number of television dramas, including JAG, Six Feet Under, Covert Affairs, Medium, The Defenders and Chase. She had a recurring role in 2004 as Officer Janet Grafton in NYPD Blue.
In 2005, Parrilla took a recurring guest role on the fourth season of the Fox series 24 as Sarah Gavin, a Counter Terrorist Unit agent. After just six episodes, Lana was made a regular cast member; but in the thirteenth episode, her character was written out after she tried to thwart another character’s promotion from temporary to permanent CTU head Michelle Dessler (Reiko Aylesworth).
In 2006, Parrilla starred in the NBC summer series Windfall alongside Luke Perry, fellow former 24 cast member Sarah Wynter, and Parilla’s former Boomtown castmate Jason Gedrick. In 2007, she guest starred as Greta during the third season of ABC’s Lost in the episodes “Greatest Hits” and “Through the Looking Glass” In 2008, she had a leading role on the Lifetime movie The Double Life of Eleanor Kendall, in which she played Nellie, a divorcee whose identity has been stolen.
Also in 2008, she starred in the CBS summer series Swingtown as Trina Decker, a woman who is part of a Swinging couple. In 2010, Parrilla had a female lead role in the Jerry Bruckheimer-produced Miami Medical on CBS, which had a short run towards the end of the 2009–10 television season before it was canceled in July 2010.
Windfall, Swingtown and Miami Medical were all canceled after 13 episodes.
In February 2011, she was cast as Mayor Regina Mills/The Evil Queen, the main antagonist in the ABC adventure fantasy drama pilot, Once Upon a Time created by Edward Kitsis and Adam Horowitz.
The series debuted in October 2011.
The pilot episode was watched by 12.93 million viewers and achieved an adult 18–49 rating/share of 4.0/10 during the first season, receiving generally favorable reviews from critics.
Parrilla’s performance also received positive reviews from critics. In 2012 and 2013, she was regarded as a promising contender for an Emmy Award in the Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series category, though she did not receive a nomination.
She won the TV Guide Award for Favorite Villain and the ALMA Award for Outstanding Actress in a Drama Series in 2012.
Parrilla also received a nomination for Best Supporting Actress on Television from the 38th Saturn Awards.
Parrilla became engaged to boyfriend Fred Di Blasio on April 28, 2013, while in Israel.
The two were married June 5, 2014, shortly before Parrilla began filming the fourth season of Once Upon a Time.”
Parrilla confirmed the news on her Twitter account on August 1. Parrilla is the stepmother to Di Blasio’s three sons: Jack, age 18, Patrick, age 15, and Matthew, age 13.
Lana Maria Parrilla, née le 15 juillet 1977 à Brooklyn dans l’État de New York, est une actrice américaine.
Lana Parrilla est née d’une mère italienne artiste-peintre et d’un père porto-ricain, Sam Parrilla. Ce dernier fut un joueur professionnel de baseball américain évoluant dans l’équipe des Phillies de Philadelphie dans les années 1970. Il est assassiné en 1994 à la suite d’une altercation qui a mal tourné. Elle a une sœur aînée prénommée Deena et est la nièce de l’actrice Candice Azzara, qui l’a inspirée dans sa carrière d’actrice.
Après le lycée, Lana Parrilla a déménagé à Los Angeles pour commencer sa carrière où elle a étudié à la Beverly Hills Playhouse.
Elle réside à Vancouver avec son mari Alfredo “Fred” DiBlasio. Elle n’a pas d’enfant mais vit avec les trois adolescents de son compagnon ainsi que leurs animaux de compagnie. Elle s’est fiancée en Israël le 29 avril 2013 et s’est mariée le 5 juillet 2014.
Elle développe très jeune un goût pour la comédie, inspirée par sa tante, l’actrice américaine Candice Azzara. Elle suit des cours à Los Angeles avant de débuter dans une série en 1999, Grown Ups durant deux épisodes. Elle enchaîne les séries avec le rôle régulier d’Angie Ordonez dans Spin City en 2000, puis Boomtown en 2002.
Elle joue dans des séries d’action et policier avec JAG en 2000, New York Police Blues en 2004 ainsi que dans une saison de 24 heures chrono dans le rôle de Sarah Gavin.
En 2008, elle incarne Trina Decker dans la série Swingtown. Elle incarne une voisine d’un couple qui va découvrir, grâce à elle, la libération sexuelle.
En 2011, dans la nouvelle série télévisée fantastique américaine Once Upon a Time, elle joue l’un des rôles principaux féminins en incarnant le Maire de Storybrooke, Regina Mills, ainsi que le personnage de la Méchante Reine, belle-mère de Blanche-Neige.
Lana Parrilla a été attaquée à dix ans par un chien, ce qui lui a laissé une cicatrice visible sur le côté droit de sa lèvre supérieure
Elle est également une chanteuse à certaines occasions, prêtant sa voix en fond sonore pour un tube de musique composé par deux des trois fils de son compagnon. Ces derniers forment un groupe de musique appelé 45 Spacer et Lana a contribué à leur tube appelé Naughty Boys, en 2012 ainsi qu’à You and Me en 2013.
Elle a obtenu le rôle régulier d’Angie Ordonez dans la série Spin City en 2000 après avoir dû passer six auditions au total.
Lana Parrilla connaissait toute l’histoire de la Reine Regina dès le pilote de la saison 1 de Once Upon a Time. Les scénaristes Edward Kitsis et Adam Horowitz lui ont révélé le passé du personnage avec Blanche-Neige afin qu’elle incarne au mieux son rôle.
Lana et l’acteur Jorge Garcia se connaissent depuis près de vingt ans. En effet, ils ont débuté ensemble leurs cours de théâtre à Los Angeles et sont devenus très amis. Ils se sont retrouvés lors du tournage de la saison 3 de Lost, en 2006, où Garcia incarnait un survivant alors qu’ils étaient logés dans la même hutte. Ils se sont ensuite retrouvés ensemble dans la saison 2 de Once Upon a Time.
Jack DiBlasio, le fils aîné de son compagnon, a fait une apparition dans le dernier épisode de la saison 2 de Once Upon a Time, dans le rôle d’un des Enfants Perdus du Pays Imaginaire.
Elle a une petite plume tatouée au poignet droit, symbole d’espoir.
2000 : Spiders de Gary Jones : Marci
2000 : Very Mean Men de Tony Vitale : Teresa
2001 : Replicant de Ringo Lam : Marci
2003 : Frozen Stars de David-Matthew Barnes : Lisa Vasquez
2003 : One Last Ride de Tony Vitale : Antoinette
1999 : Grown Ups de Brian K. Roberts & Richard Correll (Série TV) : Une serveuse
2000 – 2001 : Spin City de Ted Wass (Série TV) : Angie Ordonez
2001 : Semper fi de Michael W. Watkins (Téléfilm)
2002 – 2003 : Boomtown de Frederick King Keller, Jon Avnet (Série TV) : Teresa Ortiz
2002 : The Shield de Scott Brazil (Série TV) : Sedona Tellez
2002 : JAG de Terrence O’Hara (Série TV) : Lt. Stephanie Donato
2004 : Six Feet Under (Six Feet Under) de Peter Webber et Miguel Arteta (Série TV) : Maile
2004 : New York Police Blues (NYPD Blue) de Robert J. Doherty, Mark Tinker & Dennis Dugan (Série TV) : Officier Janet Grafton
2005 : 24 heures chrono de Ken Girotti, Jon Cassar (Série TV) : Sarah Gavin
2006 : Windfall : Des dollars tombés du ciel d’Ellen S. Pressman, Matt Shakman (Série TV) : Nina Schaefer
2007 : Lost : Les Disparus de Stephen Williams & Jack Bender (Série TV) : Greta
2008 : Swingtown d’Alex Zakrzewski, Alan Poul (Série TV) : Trina Decker
2008 : Mon identité volée (The Double Life of Eleanor Kendall) de Richard Roy (Téléfilm) : Nellie
2010 : Médium (série télévisée) (Série TV) : Lydia
2010 : Miami Medical (Série TV) : Dr Eva Zambrano
2010 : Chase (Série TV) : Isabella
2011 : Covert Affairs (Série TV) : Julia Suarez
2011 – en cours : Once Upon a Time (Série TV) : La Méchante Reine / Regina Mills
ALSO ON OUR WEBSITE ABOUT ONCE UPON A TIME /
SUR NOTRE SITE AUSSI https://radiosatellite.co/2016/01/28/once-upon-a-time/
Sur RS2, “Spécial Laurie Leblanc” : Nous diffuserons toute cette semaine, les tubes de Laurie Leblanc et des extraits de son nouvel album.
Certains titres du nouvel album seront diffusés dès la parution de cet article, sur RS2 , en attendant, sur notre site: Voici des titres connus, des hits du continent Nord Américain des albums de l’artiste LAURIE LEBLANC ( Musique acadienne ) ( Tout connaitre sur les acadiens )
Faisons un petit tour du côté de Moscou. Un voyage en vidéo HD pour le plaisir audio visuel. Moscou grande capitale, capitale des grands hommes et des grands combats qui ont marqué l’histoire du monde. Поездка в Москву
Sourced through Scoop.it from: webradiosblog.wordpress.com
Westinghouse…Old Spice…Ford…Coca Cola…Old commercials froml the 50s and 60s
Publicités anciennes des années 50 et 60
Merle Ronald Haggard (born April 6, 1937) is an American country and Western songwriter, singer, guitarist, fiddler, and instrumentalist.
Along with Buck Owens, Haggard and his band The Strangers helped create the Bakersfield sound, which is characterized by the unique twang of Fender Telecaster and the unique mix with the traditional country steel guitar sound, new vocal harmony styles in which the words are minimal, and a rough edge not heard on the more polished Nashville sound recordings of the same era.
By the 1970s, Haggard was aligned with the growing outlaw country movement, and has continued to release successful albums through the 1990s and into the 2000s. In 1994, he was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame. In 1997, he was inducted into the Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame.
Haggard’s parents, Flossie Mae Harp and James Francis Haggard, moved to California from their home in Checotah, Oklahoma, during the Great Depression, after their barn burned in 1934.
They settled with their children, Lowell and Lillian, in an apartment in Bakersfield, while James Francis Haggard started working for the Santa Fe Railroad. A woman who owned a boxcar, which was placed in Oildale, a nearby town north of Bakersfield, asked Haggard’s father about the possibility of converting it into a house. He remodeled the boxcar, and soon after moved in, also purchasing the lot, where Merle Ronald Haggard was born on April 6, 1937.
The property was eventually expanded by building a bathroom, a second bedroom, a kitchen and a breakfast nook in the adjacent lot.
His father died of a brain hemorrhage in 1945, an event that deeply affected Haggard during his childhood, and the rest of his life.
To support the family, his mother worked as a bookkeeper. His brother, Lowell, gave Haggard his used guitar as a gift when he was 12 years old. Haggard learned to play alone, with the records he had at home, influenced by Bob Wills, Lefty Frizzell and Hank Williams.
As his mother was absent due to work, Haggard became progressively rebellious. His mother sent him for a weekend to a juvenile detention center to change his attitude, which worsened.
Haggard committed a number of minor offences, such as thefts and writing bad checks. He was sent to a juvenile detention center for shoplifting in 1950.
When he was 14, Haggard ran away to Texas with his friend Bob Teague. He rode freight trains and hitchhiked throughout the state. When he returned the same year, he and his friend were arrested for robbery. Haggard and Teague were released when the real robbers were found. Haggard was later sent to the juvenile detention center, from which he and his friend escaped again to Modesto, California.
He worked a series of laborer jobs, including driving a potato truck, being a short order cook, a hay pitcher, and an oil well shooter. His debut performance was with Teague in a Modesto bar named “Fun Center,” being paid US$5, with free beer.
He returned to Bakersfield in 1951, and was again arrested for truancy and petty larceny and sent to a juvenile detention center. After another escape, he was sent to the Preston School of Industry, a high-security installation. He was released 15 months later, but was sent back after beating a local boy during a burglary attempt.
After his release, Haggard and Teague saw Lefty Frizzell in concert. After hearing Haggard sing along to his songs backstage, Frizzell refused to sing unless Haggard would be allowed to sing first.
He sang songs that were well received by the audience. Due to the positive reception, Haggard decided to pursue a career in music. While working as a farmhand or in oil fields, he played in nightclubs. He eventually landed a spot on the local television show Chuck Wagon, in 1956.
Married and plagued by financial issues, he was arrested in 1957 shortly after he tried to rob a Bakersfield roadhouse. He was sent to Bakersfield Jail, and was later transferred after an escape attempt to San Quentin Prison, on February 21, 1958. While in prison, Haggard discovered that his wife was expecting a child from another man, which pressed him psychologically.
He was fired from a series of prison jobs, and planned to escape along with another inmate nicknamed “Rabbit”. Haggard was convinced not to escape by fellow inmates.
Haggard started to run a gambling and brewing racket with his cellmate. After he was caught drunk, he was sent for a week to solitary confinement where he encountered Caryl Chessman, an author and death row inmate.
Meanwhile, “Rabbit” had successfully escaped, only to shoot a police officer and return to San Quentin for execution. Chessman’s predicament, along with the execution of “Rabbit,” inspired Haggard to turn his life around. Haggard soon earned a high school equivalency diploma and kept a steady job in the prison’s textile plant, while also playing for the prison’s country music band, attributing a 1958 performance by Johnny Cash at the prison as his main inspiration to join it.
Upon his release in 1960, Haggard said it took about four months to get used to being out of the penitentiary and that, at times, he actually wanted to go back in. He said it was the loneliest he had ever felt.
According to Rolling Stone, “In 1972, then–California governor Ronald Reagan expunged Haggard’s criminal record, granting him a full pardon.”
Upon his release, Haggard started digging ditches and wiring houses for his brother. Soon he was performing again, and later began recording with Tally Records.
The Bakersfield Sound was developing in the area as a reaction against the over-produced honky tonk of the Nashville Sound. Haggard’s first song was “Skid Row”.
In 1962, Haggard wound up performing at a Wynn Stewart show in Las Vegas and heard Wynn’s “Sing a Sad Song”. He asked for permission to record it, and the resulting single was a national hit in 1964.
The following year he had his first national top ten record with “(My Friends Are Gonna Be) Strangers”, written by Liz Anderson (mother of country singer Lynn Anderson) and his career was off and running.
In his 1981 autobiography Merle Haggard: Sing Me Back Home, Haggard recalls having been talked into visiting Anderson—a woman he didn’t know—at her house to hear her sing some songs she had written. “If there was anything I didn’t wanna do, it was sit around some danged woman’s house and listen to her cute little songs. But I went anyway. She was a pleasant enough lady, pretty, with a nice smile, but I was all set to be bored to death, even more so when she got out a whole bunch of songs and went over to an old pump organ…There they were.
My God, one hit right after another. There must have been four or five number one songs there…” In 1966, Haggard recorded his first number-one song “I’m a Lonesome Fugitive”, also written by Liz Anderson, which Haggard acknowledges in his autobiography remains his most popular number with audiences.”
Haggard felt a connection to the song immediately and when it was released it became his first number one country hit. When Anderson played the song for Haggard, she was unaware about his prison stretch.
“I guess I didn’t realize how much the experience at San Quentin did to him, ’cause he never talked about it all that much,” Bonnie Owens, Haggard’s backup singer and then-wife, is quoted by music journalist Daniel Cooper in the liner notes to the 1994 retrospective Down Every Road. “I could tell he was in a dark mood…and I said, ‘Is everything okay?’ And he said, ‘I’m really scared.’ And I said, ‘Why?’ And he said, ‘Cause I’m afraid someday I’m gonna be out there…and there’s gonna be some convict…some prisoner that was in there the same time I was in, stand up – and they’re gonna be about the third row down – and say, ‘What do you think you’re doing, 45200?'”
Cooper notes that the news had little effect on Haggard’s career:
“It’s unclear when or where Merle first acknowledged to the public that his prison songs were rooted in personal history, for to his credit, he doesn’t seem to have made some big splash announcement. In a May 1967 profile in Music City News, his prison record is never mentioned. But in July 1968, in the very same publication, it’s spoken of as if it were common knowledge.”
The 1966 album Branded Man kicked off an incredible artistic run for Haggard; in 2013 Haggard biographer David Cantwell states, “The immediate successors to I’m a Lonesome Fugitive – Branded Man in 1967 and, in ’68, Sing Me Back Home and The Legend of Bonnie and Clyde – were among the finest albums of their respective years.” Haggard’s new recordings largely centered around Roy Nichols’s Telecaster, Ralph Mooney’s steel guitar, and the harmony vocals provided by Bonnie Owens.
At the time of Haggard’s first top-ten hit “(My Friends Are Gonna Be) Strangers” in 1965, Owens was actually the better known performer, a fixture on the Bakersfieldclub scene who had recorded and appeared on television. Bonnie, who had been married to Buck Owens, won the new Academy of Country Music’s first ever award for Female Vocalist after her 1965 debut album, Don’t Take Advantage of Me, hit the top five on the country albums chart. However, there were no more hit singles, and although Owens recorded six solo albums on Capitol between 1965 and 1970, she became mainly known for her background harmonies on Haggard hits like “Sing Me Back Home” and “Branded Man.”
Producer Ken Nelson took a hands-off approach to producing Haggard. In the episode of American Masters dedicated to him, Haggard remembers: “The producer I had at that time, Ken Nelson, was an exception to the rule. He called me ‘Mr. Haggard’ and I was a little twenty-four, twenty-five year old punk from Oildale…
He gave me complete responsibility. I think if he’d jumped in and said, ‘Oh, you can’t do that,’ it would’ve destroyed me.” In the documentary series Lost Highway, Nelson recalls, “When I first started recording Merle, I became so enamored with his singing that I would forget what else was going on, and I suddenly realized, ‘Wait a minute, there’s musicians here you’ve got to worry about!’ But his songs – he was a great writer.”
Towards the end of the decade, Haggard went on a songwriting tear, composing several #1 hits as “Mama Tried,” “The Legend of Bonnie and Clyde,” “Hungry Eyes,” and “Sing Me Back Home.” Daniel Cooper calls “Sing Me Back Home,” “a ballad that works on so many different levels of the soul it defies one’s every attempt to analyze it.”
In a 1977 interview inBillboard with Bob Eubanks, Haggard reflected, “Even though the crime was brutal and the guy was an incorrigible criminal, it’s a feeling you never forget when you see someone you know make that last walk. They bring him through the yard, and there’s a guard in front and a guard behind – that’s how you know a death prisoner.
They brought Rabbit out…taking him to see the Father,…prior to his execution. That was a strong picture that was left in my mind.” In 1968, Haggard’s first tribute LP Same Train, Different Time: A Tribute to Jimmie Rodgers, was released to acclaim.
Okie From Muskogee”, 1969’s apparent political statement, was, according to some Merle Haggard interviews decades later, actually written as a humorous character portrait. In one such interview, Haggard called the song a “documentation of the uneducated that lived in America at the time
However, he said later on the Bob Edwards Show that “I wrote it when I recently got out of the joint. I knew what it was like to lose my freedom, and I was getting really mad at these protesters.
They didn’t know anything more about the war in Vietnam than I did. I thought how my dad, who was from Oklahoma, would have felt. I felt I knew how those boys fighting in Vietnam felt.” In the country music documentary series Lost Highway, he elaborates: “My dad passed away when I was nine, and I don’t know if you’ve ever thought about somebody you’ve lost and you say, ‘I wonder what so-and-so would think about this?’ I was drivin’ on Interstate 40 and I saw a sign that said “19 Miles to Muskogee.”
Muskogee was always referred to in my childhood as ‘back home.’ So I saw that sign and my whole childhood flashed before my eyes and I thought, ‘I wonder what dad would think about the youthful uprising that was occurring at the time, On December 19, 2006, the Kern County Board of Supervisors approved a citizen-led resolution to rename a portion of 7th Standard Road in Oildale as Merle Haggard Drive, which will stretch from North Chester Avenue west to U.S. Route 99.
The first street travelers will turn onto when they leave the new airport terminal will be Merle Haggard Drive.
In 2006, Haggard was honored as a BMI Icon at the 54th annual BMI Pop Awards. During his songwriting career, Haggard has earned 48 BMI Country Awards, nine BMI Pop Awards, a BMI R&B Award, and 16 BMI “Million-Air” awards, all from a catalog of songs that adds up to over 25 million performances.
Merle Haggard accepted the prestigious award for lifetime achievement and “outstanding contribution to American culture” from the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts on December 4, 2010. At a December 5, 2010 gala in Washington, D.C. he was honored with musical performances by Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, Sheryl Crow, Vince Gill, Jamey Johnson, Kid Rock, Miranda Lambert and Brad Paisley. This tribute was featured on the December 28, 2010 CBS telecast of the Kennedy Center Honors.
On June 14, 2013, the California State University, Bakersfield, honored Merle Haggard for his contributions to the arts with the honorary degree, Doctor of Fine Arts. Haggard stepped to the podium and said, “Thank you. It’s nice to be noticed.” On January 26, 2014, Haggard performed his 1969 song “Okie from Muskogee” at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards along with Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, and Blake Shelton
Gary Keck, a chemistry professor at the University of Utah and an ardent fan of Haggard, introduced a series of chemical analogues of a biologically active natural product called bryostatin 1 and named them “Merle compunds” to honor his idol’s legacy….I understood them, I got along with it, but what if he was to come alive at this moment?
And I thought, what a way to describe the kind of people in America that are still sittin’ in the center of the country sayin’, ‘What is goin’ on on these campuses?’
” In the American Masters episode about his life and career, however, a more defiant Haggard states that the song was more than a satire: ”
That’s how I got into it with the hippies…I thought they were unqualified to judge America, and I thought they were lookin’ down their noses at something that I cherished very much, and it pissed me off. And I thought, ‘You sons of bitches, you’ve never been restricted away from this great, wonderful country, and yet here you are in the streets bitchin’ about things, protesting about a war that they didn’t know any more about than I did.
They weren’t over there fightin’ that war anymore than I was.” Haggard began performing the song in concert in the fall of 1969 and was astounded at the reaction it received. As David Cantwell notes in his 2013 book Merle Haggard: The Running Kind, “The Haggard camp knew they were on to something.
Everywhere they went, every show, ‘Okie’ did more than prompt enthusiastic applause. There was an unanticipated adulation racing through the crowds now, standing ovations that went on and on and sometimes left the audience and the band-members alike teary-eyed.
Merle had somehow stumbled upon a song that expressed previously inchoate fears, spoke out loud gripes and anxieties otherwise only whispered, and now people were using his song, were using him, to connect themselves to these larger concerns and to one another.”
The studio version, which is far mellower than the usually raucous concert versions, topped the charts in the fall of 1969, where it remained for a month, and also hit number 41 on the pop charts, becoming Haggard’s all-time biggest hit (until his 1973 crossover Christmas smash “If We Make It Through December”) and signature tune.
Haggard was beginning to attract attention from artists outside the country field, such as crooner Dean Martin, who recorded “I Take a Lot of Pride in What I Am” for his album of the same name in 1969.
In addition, the Gram Parsons incarnation of the Byrds had performed “Sing Me Back Home” on the Grand Ole Opry and had recorded Haggard’s “Life in Prison” for their album Sweetheart of the Rodeo the same year.
In 1969 the Grateful Dead began performing Haggard’s tune “Mama Tried”, which appeared on their 1971 eponymous live album. The song became a staple in their repertoire until the band’s end in 1995.
Singer-activist Joan Baez, whose political leanings could not be more different from those expressed in Haggard’s above-referenced songs, nonetheless covered “Sing Me Back Home” and “Mama Tried” in 1969. The Everly Brothers also used both songs in their 1968 country-rock album Roots.
In the original Rolling Stone review for Haggard’s 1968 album Mama Tried, Andy Wickham wrote, “His songs romanticize the hardships and tragedies of America’s transient proletarian and his success is resultant of his inherent ability to relate to his audience a commonplace experience with precisely the right emotional pitch…Merle Haggard looks the part and sounds the part because he is the part. He’s great.”
However, his next single, 1970’s “The Fightin’ Side of Me”, was so unapologetically right wing that it left no doubt as to where Haggard stood politically.
It became his fourth consecutive #1 country hit and also made an appearance on the pop chart, but any ideas that Haggard was a closeted liberal sympathizer were irretrievably squashed.
In the song, Haggard allows that he doesn’t mind the counterculture “switchin’ sides and standin’ up for what they believe in” but resolutely declares, “If you don’t love it, leave it!” In May 1970, Haggard explained to John Grissom of Rolling Stone, “I don’t like their views on life, their filth, their visible self-disrespect, y’ know. They don’t give a shit what they look like or what they smell like…What do they have to offer humanity?”
Ironically, Haggard had wanted to follow “Okie from Muskogee” with “Irma Jackson,” a song that dealt head-on with an interracial romance between a white man and an African-American woman.
His producer Ken Nelson discouraged him from releasing it as a single.
As Jonathan Bernstein recounts in his online Rolling Stone article “Merle Haggard Reluctantly Unveils ‘The Fightin’ Side of Me'”, “Hoping to distance himself from the harshly right-wing image he had accrued in the wake of the hippie-bashing “Muskogee,” Haggard wanted to take a different direction and release “Irma Jackson” as his next single…
When the Bakersfield, California native brought the song to his record label, executives were reportedly appalled.
In the wake of ‘Okie,’ Capitol Records was not interested in complicating Haggard’s conservative, blue-collar image.”After “The Fightin’ Side of Me” was released instead, Haggard later commented to the Wall Street Journal, “People are narrow-minded.
Down South they might have called me a nigger lover.. In an interview in 2001, Haggard stated that Nelson, who was also head of the country division at Capitol at the time, never interfered with his music but “this one time he came out and said, ‘Merle…I don’t believe the world is ready for this yet’…And he might have been right. I might’ve canceled out where I was headed in my career..
“Okie From Muskogee”, “The Fightin’ Side of Me”, and “I Wonder If They Think of Me” were hailed as anthems of the Silent Majority and presaged a trend in patriotic songs that would reappear years later with Charlie Daniels’ “In America”, Lee Greenwood’s “God Bless the USA”, and others. Haggard’s next LP was A Tribute to the Best Damn Fiddle Player in the World, dedicated to Bob Wills, which helped spark a permanent revival and expanded audience for western swing.
By this point, Haggard was one of the most famous country singers in the world, having enjoyed an immensely successful artistic and commercial run with Capitol accumulating twenty-four #1 country singles since 1966.
On Tuesday, March 14, 1972, shortly after “Carolyn” became another number one country hit, then-California governor Ronald Reagan granted Haggard a full pardon for his past crimes. In the fall of 1972, “Let Me Tell You about A Song,” the first TV special starring Merle Haggard, was nationally syndicated by Capital Cities TV Productions.
It was a semi-autobiographical, musical profile of Haggard, akin to the contemporary “Behind The Music,” produced and directed by Michael Davis. The 1973 recession anthem “If We Make It Through December” furthered Haggard’s status as a champion of the working class.
“If We Make It Through December” turned out to be Haggard’s last pop hit. Haggard appeared on the cover of TIME on May 6, 1974. He also wrote and performed the theme song to the television series Movin’ On, which in 1975 gave him another number one country hit. During the early to mid-1970s, Haggard’s chart domination continued with songs like “Someday We’ll Look Back”, “Grandma Harp”, “Always Wanting You”, and “The Roots of My Raising”.
Between 1973 and 1976, Haggard scored 9 consecutive #1 country hits. In 1977, he switched to MCA Records and began exploring the themes of depression, alcoholism, and middle age on albums like Serving 190 Proof and The Way I Am. Haggard sang a duet cover of Billy Burnette’s What’s A Little Love Between Friends with Lynda Carter in her 1980 television music special Lynda Carter: Encore!
He also scored a #1 hit in 1980 with “Bar Room Buddies,” a duet with movie star Clint Eastwood that appeared on the Bronco Billy soundtrack.
In 1981, Haggard published an autobiography, Sing Me Back Home. That same year, he alternately spoke and sang the ballad “The Man in the Mask”. Written by Dean Pitchford (whose other output includes “Fame”, “Footloose”, “Sing”, “Solid Gold”, and the musical Carrie), this was the combined narration/theme from the movie The Legend of the Lone Ranger, a box-office flop.
Haggard also jumped record labels again in 1981, moving to Epic and releasing one of his most critically acclaimed albums, Big City. Between 1981 and 1985, Haggard scored twelve Top 10 country hits, with nine of them reaching #1, including “My Favorite Memory,” “Going Where the Lonely Go,” “Someday When Things Are Good,” and “Natural High.”
In addition, Haggard recorded two chart topping duets with George Jones (“Yesterdays’ Wine” in 1982) and Willie Nelson (“Pancho and Lefty” in 1983).
Nelson believed the 1983 Academy Award-winning film Tender Mercies, about the life of fictional singer Mac Sledge, was based on the life of Merle Haggard. Actor Robert Duvall and other filmmakers denied this and claimed the character was based on nobody in particular. Duvall, however, said he was a big fan of Haggard. He won a Grammy Award for Best Male Country Vocal Performance for his 1984 remake of “That’s The Way Love Goes.” Haggard and third wife Leona Williams divorced in 1983 after five stormy years of marriage and the split, which took Haggard by surprise, served as a license to party for Haggard, who spent much of the next decade becoming mired in alcohol and drug problems. Haggard has often stated that he was in the stages of his own mid-life crisis, or “male menopause,” around this time. In the documentary Learning to Live With Myself, the singer is quoted in an interview from around the time: “Things that you’ve enjoyed for years don’t seem nearly as important, and you’re at war with yourself as to what’s happening. ‘Why don’t I like that anymore? Why do I like this now?’ And finally, I think you actually go through a biological change, you just, you become another…
Your body is getting ready to die and your mind doesn’t agree.” By the mid-eighties he was addicted to cocaine but managed to kick the habit. However, he was hampered by financial woes well into the 1990s as his presence on the charts continued to diminish as newer singers had begun to take over country music, and singers like George Strait and Randy Travis had taken over the charts. Haggard’s last number one hit was “Twinkle, Twinkle Lucky Star” from his smash album Chill Factor in 1988.
In 1989, Haggard recorded a song, “Me and Crippled Soldiers Give a Damn”, in response to the Supreme Court’s decision to allow flag burning under the First Amendment. After CBS Records Nashville avoided releasing the song, Haggard bought his way out of the contract and signed with Curb Records, which was willing to release the song.
Of the situation, Haggard commented, “I’ve never been a guy that can do what people told me…It’s always been my nature to fight the system.”
In 2000, Haggard made a comeback of sorts, signing with the independent record label Anti and releasing the spare If I Could Only Flyto critical acclaim.
He followed it in 2001 with Roots, vol. 1, a collection of Lefty Frizzell, Hank Williams, and Hank Thompson covers, along with three Haggard originals.
The album, recorded in Haggard’s living room with no overdubs, featured Haggard’s longtime bandmates The Strangers as well as Frizzell’s original lead guitarist, Norman Stephens.
In December 2004, Haggard spoke at length on Larry King Live about his incarceration as a young man and said it was “hell” and “the scariest experience of my life”.
Haggard’s number one hit single “Mama Tried” is featured in the 2003 film Radio with Cuba Gooding, Jr. and Ed Harris as well as in Bryan Bertino’s “The Strangers” with Liv Tyler. In addition, his song “Swingin’ Doors” can be heard in the 2004 film Crash and his 1981 hit “Big City” is heard in Joel and Ethan Coen’s 1996 film “Fargo” and in the 2008 Larry Bishop film “Hell Ride”.
In October 2005, Haggard released his album Chicago Wind to mostly positive reviews. The album contained an anti-Iraq war song titled “America First,” in which he laments the nation’s economy and faltering infrastructure, applauds its soldiers, and sings, “Let’s get out of Iraq, and get back on track.”
This follows from his 2003 release “Haggard Like Never Before” in which he includes a song, “That’s The News”. Haggard released a bluegrass album, The Bluegrass Sessions, on October 2, 2007.
In 2008, Haggard was going to perform at Riverfest in Little Rock, Arkansas, but the concert was canceled because he was ailing, and three other concerts were canceled as well; however, he was back on the road in June and successfully completed a tour that ended on October 19.
In April 2010, Haggard released a new album, I Am What I Am. Released to strong reviews, Haggard performed the title song on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno in February 2011. His 2014 and 2015 tour schedule has been aggressive, including over 30 cities in 2015 alone, suggesting the kind of performing stamina usually characterized by artists half Haggard’s age.
In 2000, Haggard made a comeback of sorts, signing with the independent record label Anti and releasing the spare If I Could Only Flyto critical acclaim.
He followed it in 2001 with Roots, vol. 1, a collection of Lefty Frizzell, Hank Williams, and Hank Thompson covers, along with three Haggard originals.
The album, recorded in Haggard’s living room with no overdubs, featured Haggard’s longtime bandmates The Strangers as well as Frizzell’s original lead guitarist, Norman Stephens.
In December 2004, Haggard spoke at length onLarry King Live about his incarceration as a young man and said it was “hell” and “the scariest experience of my life”.
Haggard’s number one hit single “Mama Tried” is featured in the 2003 film Radio with Cuba Gooding, Jr. and Ed Harris as well as in Bryan Bertino’s “The Strangers” with Liv Tyler.
In addition, his song “Swingin’ Doors” can be heard in the 2004 film Crash and his 1981 hit “Big City” is heard in Joel and Ethan Coen’s 1996 film “Fargo” and in the 2008 Larry Bishop film “Hell Ride”.
In October 2005, Haggard released his album Chicago Wind to mostly positive reviews. The album contained an anti-Iraq war song titled “America First,” in which he laments the nation’s economy and faltering infrastructure, applauds its soldiers, and sings, “Let’s get out of Iraq, and get back on track.” This follows from his 2003 release “Haggard Like Never Before” in which he includes a song, “That’s The News”.
Haggard released a bluegrass album, The Bluegrass Sessions, on October 2, 2007. In 2008, Haggard was going to perform at Riverfest in Little Rock, Arkansas, but the concert was canceled because he was ailing, and three other concerts were canceled as well; however, he was back on the road in June and successfully completed a tour that ended on October 19.
In April 2010, Haggard released a new album, I Am What I Am. Released to strong reviews, Haggard performed the title song on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno in February 2011.
His 2014 and 2015 tour schedule has been aggressive, including over 30 cities in 2015 alone, suggesting the kind of performing stamina usually characterized by artists half Haggard’s age.
Haggard has been married five times, first to Leona Hobbs from 1956 to 1964. They had four children: Dana, Marty, Kelli, Noel. They divorced, and in 1965 he married singer Bonnie Owens, former wife of Buck Owens, and a successful country singer at the time. Haggard has credited her with helping him make his big break as a country artist. Haggard shared the writing credit with Owens for his hit “Today I Started Loving You Again”, and has acknowledged, including on stage, that the song was about a sudden burst of special feelings he experienced for her while they were touring together.
She also helped care for Haggard’s children from his first wife and was the maid of honor for Haggard’s third marriage. Haggard and Owens divorced in 1978. In 1978 Haggard married Leona Williams; they divorced in 1983.
In 1985 Haggard married Debbie Parret, but they divorced in 1991. He married his current wife, Theresa Ann Lane, on September 11, 1993. They have two children, Jenessa and Ben.
On December 19, 2006, the Kern County Board of Supervisors approved a citizen-led resolution to rename a portion of 7th Standard Road in Oildale as Merle Haggard Drive, which will stretch from North Chester Avenue west to U.S. Route 99. The first street travelers will turn onto when they leave the new airport terminal will be Merle Haggard Drive.
In 2006, Haggard was honored as a BMI Icon at the 54th annual BMI Pop Awards. During his songwriting career, Haggard has earned 48 BMI Country Awards, nine BMI Pop Awards, a BMI R&B Award, and 16 BMI “Million-Air” awards, all from a catalog of songs that adds up to over 25 million performances.
Merle Haggard accepted the prestigious award for lifetime achievement and “outstanding contribution to American culture” from the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts on December 4, 2010. At a December 5, 2010 gala in Washington, D.C.
he was honored with musical performances by Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, Sheryl Crow, Vince Gill, Jamey Johnson, Kid Rock, Miranda Lambert and Brad Paisley.
This tribute was featured on the December 28, 2010 CBS telecast of the Kennedy Center Honors. On June 14, 2013, the California State University, Bakersfield, honored Merle Haggard for his contributions to the arts with the honorary degree, Doctor of Fine Arts.
Haggard stepped to the podium and said, “Thank you. It’s nice to be noticed.” On January 26, 2014, Haggard performed his 1969 song “Okie from Muskogee” at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards along with Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, and Blake Shelton
Gary Keck, a chemistry professor at the University of Utah and an ardent fan of Haggard, introduced a series of chemical analogues of a biologically active natural product called bryostatin 1 and named them “Merle compunds” to honor his idol’s legacy.
SOURCES : WIKIPEDIA
With our APPS : Stay tune on our Webradio : Radio Satellite2 : Daily every evening between 10h00 PM and Midnight (Paris Time ) / 04h00 PM central USA / 03H00 PM Mountain USA 0/02H00 pm Pacific USA / 05h00 PM Eastern USA
or on Computer: RADIO SATELLITE2 PLAYER
Facebook page: FACEBOOK PAGE
Twitter: TWITTER RS2
The Change-Up is a 2011 American comedy film produced and directed by David Dobkin, written by Jon Lucas and Scott Moore, and starring Ryan Reynolds and Jason Bateman.
The film was released on August 5, 2011, in North America, by Universal Pictures, and received mostly negative reviews, with commentators criticizing the overly crude humor and generic plot, but praising the cast and particularly Bateman’s against-type performance.
Dave Lockwood (Jason Bateman) and Mitch Planko (Ryan Reynolds) are close friends who are each jealous of the other’s lifestyle.
While Dave is a lawyer with a wife and kids, Mitch is a freewheeling actor who has sex with many different women.
After getting drunk at a bar, Mitch and Dave urinate in a park’s fountain, and simultaneously wish that they had each other’s lives.
The next morning, Mitch and Dave realize they have switched bodies. Mitch remembers the wish they made the night before and they drive back to the park, planning to urinate again in the fountain and wish for their original lives back, but find the fountain has been removed for restorations.