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Jerry Lewis聽聽(born聽Joseph Levitch; March 16, 1926) is an American actor, comedian, singer, film producer, film director, screenwriter and humanitarian. He is known for his聽slapstick聽humor in film, television, stage and radio.

Picture taken during the 60s of US comedian, direc JERRY LEWIS

He and聽Dean Martin聽were partners as the hit popular comedy duo of聽Martin and Lewis. Following that success, he was a solo star in film,聽nightclubs, television, concerts and musicals. Lewis served as national chairman of the聽Muscular Dystrophy Association聽and hosted the live聽Labor Day聽broadcast of the聽Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon聽for 44 years.

Lewis has received several awards for lifetime achievements from the聽American Comedy Awards,聽Los Angeles Film Critics Association,聽Venice Film Festival,聽Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences聽and been honored with two stars on the聽Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Early life

Lewis was born聽on March 16, 1926 in聽Newark, New Jersey聽to聽Russian Jewish聽parents His father, Daniel Levitch (1902鈥80), was a聽master of ceremonies

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Never judge


No words, no talks, no lessons

Just watch please those 2 videos.

Such emotions…





If you are in France or you work in France ( ALL DEPARTMENTS AND ALL CITIES in FRANCE) : More than 1 300 addresses.

So聽 if you want to keep聽 your young children (under 4 years old)聽 well guarded, and to let them spend educational聽 days? … Here is an address , a website聽 to remember. ( you can use Google translator …Just in case )


Details :


French overseas Regions and Territories

French Overseas Regions and Territories Explained



Sources YOUTUBE :聽



Buddy Valastro Jr the “cake Boss”

Bartolo “Buddy” Valastro Jr. (born March 3, 1977) is an American celebrity chef, entrepreneur, and reality television personality of Italian heritage. He is the owner of Carlo’s Bakery, as well as the face of Buddy V’s Ristorante.

He is perhaps best known as the star of the reality television series Cake Boss, which premiered in April 2009. He has also starred in Kitchen Boss (2011), The Next Great Baker (2010), and Buddy’s Bakery Rescue (2013).

Surprisingly, Buddy Valastro did a cameo in the hit movie Bridesmaids, where he baked one cupcake in the kitchen baking scene only showing his hands.


cake boss photo by NY DAILY NEWS

(credit Photo: NY DAILY NEWS)

Valastro is the owner and head baker of Carlo’s Bakery鈥攖he bakery featured on Cake Boss. Carlo’s has since opened 17 more bakeries due to the popularity of the show. In January 2012, as a result of the attention that the shop and the TV series had brought to the city of Hoboken, the Hudson Reporter named #Valastro as an honorable mention in its list of Hudson County’s 50 most influential people.

Carlo’s Bakery currently has 7 locations in New Jersey鈥Hoboken, Marlton, Morristown, Red Bank, Ridgewood, Wayne, and Westfield. Outside of New Jersey, the bakery operates locations in Philadelphia, PA; Bethlehem, PA; Westbury and New York, NY; Orlando, FL; Frisco, Dallas, and The Woodlands, TX; Sao Paulo, Brazil; Uncasville, CT; Las Vegas and most recently in Minneapolis, The Lackawanna Factory in nearby Jersey City, serves as the corporate office for the business and is used as additional space to create wedding and specialty cakes, as well as bake their specialty baked goods for shipment across the country. Valastro launched an Event Planning & Catering company, Buddy V’s Events. The company was launched in June 2014, and specializes in catering everything from corporate events to family gathers, as well as planning events such as weddings and galas.


In 2016 Valastro partnered with Whole Earth Sweetener Co. on a campaign to 鈥淩ethink Sweet.鈥 “Buddy will serve as the official brand ambassador for the new line of zero- and lower-calorie sweeteners, and will work to help his fans make healthy lifestyle choices, without compromising on taste. Buddy will share his culinary expertise, along with all-new, original and seasonally festive recipes for mouthwatering treats using Whole Earth Sweetener Co. products.”

Sources : Wikipedia / Youtube

Photo : NY Daily News.




Folk, Jazz, Blues, Oldies on RS2

Folk Music / Americana : With MostlyFolk : Artie Martello

Blues Music : With Blues Times in the City聽 聽 : Rojene Bailey

Soft Jazz Music : With Cool Nights聽 聽: Steve Hart

Oldies, Rockn’ll聽 : With The jason Curtman Show : Jason Curtman

Here is the presentation done on this video

A play house, homemade

Comment construire une maisonnette pour enfant (et/ ou pour chiens/chats)

How to built a playhouse for kids ( and/or for cats/dogs)


image playhouse







Home Free is an American acappella group of five vocalists, Austin Brown, Rob Lundquist, Adam Rupp, Tim Foust, and Adam Chance. Starting as a show group, they toured around 200 shows a year across the United States.

The group competed in and won the fourth season of The Sing-Off on NBC in 2013. They sang an arrangement of Hunter Hayes’ “I Want Crazy,” as their final competitive song, earning the group $100,000 and a recording contract with Sony.

Home Free released their first album, Crazy Life, on February 18, 2014. It was released digitally on January 14, 2014.

The group Home Free was originally formed in 2000 by Chris Rupp in Mankato, Minnesota, when some of its members were still in their teens. The five founding members were brothers Chris and Adam Rupp, Matt Atwood, Darren Scruggs, and Dan Lemke; taking their name from a boat owned by Atwood’s grandfather who helped support the group financially in the early years. The group began as a hobby for the singers, but they gradually gained in experience and popularity. By 2007 they had enough of a following to pursue music full-time. During this period, the Rupp brothers and Atwood formed the core of the group, with Atwood singing lead tenor. Other members of the group came and went. Current member Rob Lundquist, another Minnesotan, joined in 2008.

For much of the group’s history they worked with many talented bass singers, but did not have a full-time committed bass voice. In 2007 Chris Foss (currently a member of Cantus) sang with them. Elliott Robinson was added as bass in September 2008, and was replaced in June 2009 by Troy Horne. Later that year, Horne left to rejoin The House Jacks. To replace Horne they turned to Tim Foust, who first sang with them as a guest on their 2010 tour. A Texas native, Foust was then pursuing a career as a singer/songwriter of country music and had recently released a solo album, but was not ready to sign on full-time. Matthew Tuey sang with the group in the interim of 2011, until Foust joined them full-time in January 2012.

The five members of Home Free, performing at the Decatur Celebration Party in August 2015. From top to bottom: Austin Brown, Rob Lundquist, Chris Rupp, Tim Foust, Adam Rupp.

In 2012, Matthew “Austin” Brown was working on a Royal Caribbean cruise ship as a featured singer in their production shows. When Home Free joined the cruise as a guest performing group, they met and became close. Brown, who was born in Tifton, Georgia, let Home Free know that he would be interested in joining the group if they ever had an opening. At the end of 2012 lead singer Matt Atwood, who had gotten married the previous year, and his wife were expecting their first child. Finding the group’s touring schedule incompatible with family life, and having an opportunity to take over his family’s real estate business in Mankato, Atwood made the decision to retire from the group. Home Free then invited Brown to join as lead tenor. He sang his first show with the group in October 2012, and became full-time in January 2013.


聽In 2015 they made a guest appearance on Kenny Rogers’ holiday album Once Again It’s Christmas on the track “Children Go Where I Send Thee”; a music video was released in November 2015.

On March 18, 2016 it was announced that after 16 years founder Chris Rupp would be leaving the group to pursue a solo career and would be replaced after May 8 by Adam Chance, formerly of Street Corner Symphony.

聽Chris has gone on to release his own solo album Shine and has also formed a new mixed group called 7th Ave that is non-acappella based.

Musical background and style

All five of Home Free鈥檚 singers have formal musical training. Lundquist and the Rupp brothers all have bachelor鈥檚 degrees in music. Adam Rupp’s primary instrument is trumpet, but he also plays drums, keyboard, and bass guitar. Since joining, Foust and Brown have also become very active in writing and arranging.


In terms of musical roles, Home Free is structured like a traditional barbershop quartet, with a lead tenor, two harmony voices, and a bass. The lead tenor, who fronts the group and sings most of the solos, is Austin Brown. Tenor harmony is sung by Rob Lundquist, baritone harmony is sung by Adam Chance, and Tim Foust sings bass. In addition to the four voices, percussion sounds are provided by beatboxer Adam Rupp. Although Brown is Home Free鈥檚 primary soloist, all of the other members occasionally sing solos as well.

Home Free鈥檚 styling as a country group is relatively recent. Before Foust joined the group, Home Free was an all-purpose a cappella group, singing in a wide variety of styles, of which country was only a minor one. With the additions of Foust and Brown, the group moved more in the direction of country and found that audiences responded well to it. Home Free had three times auditioned for The Sing-Off (without Foust and Brown) and not been accepted. When auditioning for the fourth season, they made a conscious decision to style themselves as a country group. In an interview Brown said this identity is what grabbed the attention of The Sing-Off鈥檚 casting director, who said, 鈥淵ou guys really fit something we don鈥檛 have.鈥















Sources Wikipedia


Read also聽 :聽聽












Video: Natjonal Geographic : Big Bigger Biggest





The A-Team is an American action-adventure television series that ran from 1983 to 1987 about a fictitious former United States Army Special Forces unit whose members, after being court-martialed “for a crime they didn’t commit”, escaped from military prison and, while still on the run, worked as soldiers of fortune. A feature film based on the series was released by 20th Century Fox in June 2010.




The A-Team was created by writers and producers Stephen J. Cannell and Frank Lupo at the behest of Brandon Tartikoff, NBC’s Entertainment president. Cannell was fired from ABC in the early 1980s, after failing to produce a hit show for the network, and was hired by NBC;

His first project was The A-Team. Brandon Tartikoff pitched the series to Cannell as a combination of The Dirty Dozen, Mission Impossible, The Magnificent Seven, Mad Max and Hill Street Blues, with “Mr. T driving the car”.

The A-Team was not generally expected to become a hit, although Stephen J. Cannell has said that George Peppard suggested it would be a huge hit “before we ever turned on a camera”.

The show became very popular; the first regular episode, which aired after Super Bowl XVII on January 30, 1983, reached 26.4% of the television audience, placing fourth in the top 10 Nielsen-rated shows.

The A-Team was always portrayed as acting on the side of good and helping the oppressed. Cannell was known for having a particular skill at capitalizing on momentary cultural trends, such as the helicopters, machine guns, cartoonish violence, and joyful militarism of this series, which are now recognizable as trademarks of popular entertainment in the 1980s as seen in the TV shows Magnum, P.I. and Airwolf as well as the films Rambo: First Blood Part II and Top Gun.

The show remains prominent in popular culture for its cartoonish, over-the-top violence (in which people were seldom seriously hurt), formulaic episodes, its characters’ ability to form weaponry and vehicles out of old parts, and its distinctive theme tune.

The show boosted the career of Mr. T, who portrayed the character of B. A. Baracus, around whom the show was initially conceived. 聽Some of the show’s catchphrases, such as “I love it when a plan comes together”, “Hannibal’s on the jazz”, and “I ain’t gettin’ on no plane!” have also made their way onto T-shirts and other merchandise.

The show’s name comes from the “A-Teams”, the nickname coined for U.S. Special Forces’ Operational Detachments Alpha (ODA) during the Vietnam War, although this connection was never referenced on-screen.

In a 2003 Yahoo! survey of 1,000 television viewers, The A-Team was voted the one “oldie” television show viewers would most like to see revived, beating out such popular television series from the 1980s as The Dukes of Hazzard and Knight Rider.

“In 1972, a crack commando unit was sent to prison by a military court for a crime they didn’t commit. These men promptly escaped from a maximum security stockade to the Los Angeles underground. Today, still wanted by the government, they survive as soldiers of fortune. If you have a problem, if no one else can help, and if you can find them, maybe you can hire… the A-Team.”

The A-Team is a naturally episodic show, with few overarching stories, except the characters’ continuing motivation to clear their names, with few references to events in past episodes and a recognizable and steady episode structure.

In describing the ratings drop that occurred during the show’s fourth season, reviewer Gold Burt points to this structure as being a leading cause for the decreased popularity “because the same basic plot had been used over and over again for the past four seasons with the same predictable outcome”.

Similarly, reporter Adrian Lee called the plots “stunningly simple” in a 2006 article for The Express (UK newspaper), citing such recurring elements “as BA’s fear of flying, and outlandish finales when the team fashioned weapons from household items”.

The show became emblematic of this kind of “fit-for-TV warfare” due to its depiction of high-octane combat scenes, with lethal weapons, wherein the participants (with the notable exception of General Fulbright) are never killed and rarely seriously injured (see also On-screen violence section).

As the television ratings of The A-Team fell dramatically during the fourth season, the format was changed for the show’s final season in 1986鈥87 in a bid to win back viewers.

After years on the run from the authorities, the A-Team is finally apprehended by the military. General Hunt Stockwell, a mysterious CIA operative played by Robert Vaughn, propositions them to work for him, whereupon he will arrange for their pardons upon successful completion of several suicide missions. In order to do so, the A-Team must first escape from their captivity.

With the help of a new character, Frankie “Dishpan Man” Santana, Stockwell fakes their deaths before a military firing squad. The new status of the A-Team, no longer working for themselves, remained for the duration of the fifth season while Eddie Velez and Robert Vaughn received star billing along with the principal cast.


Mister T

Mr T

Premiere Of Walt Disney Animation Studios' "Bolt" - Arrivals

Mr T

The missions that the team had to perform in season five were somewhat reminiscent of Mission: Impossible, and based more around political espionage than beating local thugs, also usually taking place in foreign countries, including successfully overthrowing an island dictator, the rescue of a scientist from East Germany, and recovering top secret Star Wars defense information from Soviet hands.

These changes proved unsuccessful with viewers, however, and ratings continued to decline. Only 13 episodes aired in the fifth season. In what was supposed to be the final episode, “The Grey Team” (although “Without Reservations” was broadcast on NBC as the last first-run episode in March 1987), Hannibal, after being misled by Stockwell one time too many, tells him that the team will no longer work for him.

At the end, the team discusses what they were going to do if they get their pardon, and it is implied that they would continue doing what they were doing as the A-Team. The character of Howling Mad Murdock can be seen in the final scene wearing a T-shirt that says, “fini”.

During the Vietnam War, the A-Team were members of the 5th Special Forces Group (see Season 1, Episode 10, “West Coast Turnaround”).

In Season 2, Episode 4, “Bad Time on the Border”, Colonel John “Hannibal” Smith, portrayed by George Peppard, indicated that the A-Team were “ex鈥揋reen Berets”.

During the Vietnam War, the A-Team’s commanding officer, Colonel Morrison, gave them orders to rob the Bank of Hanoi to help bring the war to an end. They succeeded in their mission, but on their return to base four days after the end of the war, they discovered that Morrison had been killed by the Viet Cong, and that his headquarters had been burned to the ground.

This meant that the proof that the A-Team members were acting under orders had been destroyed. They were arrested, and imprisoned at Fort Bragg, from which they quickly escaped before standing trial.

The origin of the A-Team is directly linked to the Vietnam War, during which the team formed.

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The show’s introduction in the first four seasons mentions this, accompanied by images of soldiers coming out of a helicopter in an area resembling a forest or jungle.

Besides this, The A-Team would occasionally feature an episode in which the team came across an old ally or enemy from those war days.

For example, the first season’s final episode “A Nice Place To Visit” revolved around the team traveling to a small town to honor a fallen comrade and end up avenging his death, and in season two’s “Recipe For Heavy Bread”, a chance encounter leads the team to meet both the POW cook who helped them during the war, and the American officer who sold his unit out.

An article in the New Statesman (UK) published shortly after the premiere of The A-Team in the United Kingdom, also pointed out The A-Team’s connection to the Vietnam War, characterizing it as the representation of the idealization of the Vietnam War, and an example of the war slowly becoming accepted and assimilated into American culture.

One of the team’s primary antagonists, Col. Roderick Decker (Lance LeGault), had his past linked back to the Vietnam War, in which he and Hannibal had come to fisticuffs in “the DOOM Club” (Da Nang Open Officers’ Mess).


At other times, members of the team would refer back to a certain tactic used during the War, which would be relevant to the team’s present predicament. Often, Hannibal would refer to such a tactic, after which the other members of the team would complain about its failure during the War. This was also used to refer to some of Face’s past accomplishments in scamming items for the team, such as in the first season episode “Holiday In The Hills”, in which Murdock fondly remembers Face being able to secure a ’53 Cadillac while in the Vietnam jungle.

The team’s ties to the Vietnam War were referenced again in the fourth season finale, “The Sound of Thunder”, in which the team is introduced to Tia (Tia Carrere), a war orphan and daughter of fourth season antagonist General Fulbright. Returning to Vietnam, Fulbright is shot in the back and gives his last words as he dies.

The 2006 documentary Bring Back The A-Team joked that the scene lasted seven and a half minutes, but his death actually took a little over a minute. His murderer, a Vietnamese colonel, is killed in retaliation. Tia then returns with the team to the United States (see also: casting).

This episode is notable for having one of the show’s few truly serious dramatic moments, with each team member privately reminiscing on their war experiences, intercut with news footage from the war with Barry McGuire’s Eve of Destruction playing in the background.

The show’s ties to the Vietnam War are fully dealt with in the opening arc of the fifth season, dubbed “The Revolution”/”The Court-Martial”, in which the team is finally court-martialed for the robbery of the bank of Hanoi.

The character of Roderick Decker makes a return on the witness stand, and various newly introduced characters from the A-Team’s past also make appearances. The team, after a string of setbacks, decides to plead guilty to the crime and they are sentenced to be executed. They escape this fate and come to work for a General Hunt Stockwell, leading into the remainder of the fifth season.

The A-Team revolves around the four members of a former commando outfit, now mercenaries.


Their leader is Lieutenant Colonel/Colonel John “Hannibal” Smith (George Peppard), whose plans tend to be unorthodox but effective.

Lieutenant Templeton Peck (Dirk Benedict; Tim Dunigan appeared as Templeton Peck in the pilot), usually called “Face” or “Faceman”, is a smooth-talking con man who serves as the team’s appropriator of vehicles and other useful items, as well as the team’s second-in-command.

The team’s pilot is Captain H.M. “Howling Mad” Murdock (Dwight Schultz), who has been declared insane and lives in a Veterans’ Administration mental institution for the show’s first four seasons.

Finally, there is the team’s strong man, mechanic and Sergeant First Class Bosco Albert “B.A.”, or “Bad Attitude”, Baracus (Mr. T).

It is unclear to which U.S. Army unit the four belonged. A patch on Hannibal’s uniform in the season 1 episode “A Nice Place To Visit” indicates they belonged to the 101st Airborne division in Vietnam, but the patch was replaced by the 1st Air Cavalry Division patch in the Season 5 episode “Trial by Fire”. In the Season 1 episode “West Coast Turnaround”, Hannibal stated they were with the 5th Special Forces Group.

Then, in Season 2 episode “Bad Time on the Border”, Hannibal refers to his friends as “ex-Green Berets”. Though the name they have adopted comes from the “A-Teams”, the nickname coined for Special Forces Operational Detachments Alpha, these detachments usually consisted of twelve members; whether the four were considered a “detachment” of their own or had once had eight compatriots who were killed in action was never revealed.

For its first season and the first half of the second season, the team was assisted by reporter Amy Amanda Allen (Melinda Culea).

In the second half of the second season, Allen was replaced by fellow reporter Tawnia Baker (Marla Heasley). The character of Tia (Tia Carrere), a Vietnam war orphan now living in the United States, was meant to join the Team in the fifth season, but she was replaced by Frankie Santana (Eddie Velez), who served as the team’s special effects expert. Velez was added to the opening credits of the fifth season after its second episode.

During their adventures, the A-Team was constantly met by opposition from the Military Police. In the show’s first season, the MPs were led by Colonel Francis Lynch (William Lucking), but he was replaced for the second, third, and earlier fourth season by Colonel Roderick Decker (Lance LeGault) and his aide Captain Crane (Carl Franklin).

Lynch returned for one episode in the show’s third season (“Showdown!”) but was not seen after. Decker was also briefly replaced by a Colonel Briggs (Charles Napier) in the third season for one episode (“Fire!”) when LeGault was unavailable, but returned shortly after. For the latter portion of the show’s fourth season, the team was hunted by General Harlan “Bull” Fulbright (Jack Ging), who would later hire the A-Team to find Tia in the season four finale, during which Fulbright was killed.


The fifth season introduced General Hunt Stockwell (Robert Vaughn) who, while serving as the team’s primary antagonist, was also the team’s boss and joined them on several missions. He was often assisted by Carla (Judith Ledford, sometimes credited as Judy Ledford).

Character traits

John “Hannibal” Smith: Master of Disguise. His most used disguise (although not onscreen) is Mr. Lee, the dry cleaner. This is one of the final parts of the client screening process, as he tells the client where to go in order to make full contact with the A-Team. He dresses most often in a white safari jacket and black leather gloves. He also is constantly seen smoking a cigar. Hannibal carries either a Browning Hi-Power, Colt M1911A1 or a Smith & Wesson Model 39 as a sidearm, most often “Mexican Carried” although he uses a holster when on missions. His catchphrase is “I love it when a plan comes together”. Often said, usually by B.A., to be “on the jazz” when in the fury of completing a mission.

Templeton “Faceman” Peck: Master of the Persuasive Arts. The team’s scrounger, he can get virtually anything he sets his mind to, usually exploiting women with sympathy-appeal and flirtation. However, he is not without integrity, as stated by Murdock in the episode “Family Reunion”: “He would rip the shirt off his back for you, and then scam one for himself.” Faceman is also the A-Team’s accountant. He dresses suavely, often appearing in suits. Faceman carries a Colt Lawman Mk III revolver for protection, and drives a white Corvette with orange trim.

Bosco Albert “B.A.” (Bad Attitude) Baracus: The muscle for the A-Team, Able to perform amazing feats of strength. He is also the team’s mechanic. B.A. affects a dislike for Murdock, calling him a “crazy fool”, but his true feelings of friendship are revealed when he prevents Murdock from drowning in his desire to live like a fish. B.A. also has a deep fear of flying, and the others usually have to trick and/or knock him out in order to get him on a plane.

It is very rare that B.A is awake while flying, and even rarer for him actually to consent to it. However, he then goes into a catatonic state. B.A generally wears overalls and leopard or tiger print shirts in the early seasons, then later wears a green jumpsuit in the later seasons.



He is almost always seen with about 50 pounds of gold necklaces and rings on every finger, and also wears a weightlifting belt. Baracus’s hair is always styled in a mohawk-like cut. He drives a customized black GMC van, which is the team’s usual mode of transport.

H.M “Howling Mad” Murdock: The A-Team’s pilot, he can fly any kind of aircraft with extreme precision. However, due to a helicopter crash in Vietnam, Murdock apparently went insane. He lives in a Veterans’ Hospital in the mental wing. Whenever the rest of the team requires a pilot, they have to break him out of the hospital, generally using Faceman to do so. In Seasons 1-4, Murdock has a different pet, imaginary friend, or persona in each episode. Whenever one of his pets or imaginary friends is killed by an enemy, Murdock snaps and takes revenge (but never kills).

Many times, when B.A is mad at Murdock for being crazy, Hannibal will side with Murdock in a sympathetic way. Once he is discharged from the hospital in Season 5, Murdock has a different job each episode. Essentially, B.A. and Murdock get on each other’s nerves. Murdock usually wears a leather flight jacket, a baseball cap, and basketball sneakers.


Although the part of Face was written by Frank Lupo and Stephen J. Cannell with Dirk Benedict in mind, NBC insisted that the part should be played by another actor, instead.

Therefore, in the pilot, Face was portrayed by Tim Dunigan, who was later replaced by Dirk Benedict, with the comment that Dunigan was “too tall and too young”.

According to Dunigan: “I look even younger on camera than I am. So it was difficult to accept me as a veteran of the Vietnam War, which ended when I was a sophomore in high school.”

Carrere was intended to join the principal cast of the show in its fifth season after appearing in the season four finale, providing a tie to the team’s inception during the war. Unfortunately for this plan, Carrere was under contract to General Hospital, which prevented her from joining The A-Team. Her character was abruptly dropped as a result.

According to Mr. T’s account in Bring Back… The A-Team in 2006, the role of B. A. Baracus was written specifically for him. This is corroborated by Stephen J. Cannell’s own account of the initial concept proposed by Tartikoff.

James Coburn, who co-starred in The Magnificent Seven, was considered for the role of Hannibal in The A-Team, while George Peppard (Hannibal) was the original consideration for the role of Vin (played by Steve McQueen instead) in The Magnificent Seven.

Robert Vaughn, of course, actually appeared in the film.

According to Dirk Benedict, Robert Vaughn was actually added to the cast in season 5 because of his friendship with the notoriously difficult George Peppard. It was hoped that Vaughn would help ease worsening tensions between Peppard and Mr. T.






L’Agence tous risques (The A-Team) est une s茅rie t茅l茅vis茅e am茅ricaine en 98 茅pisodes de 45 minutes, cr茅茅e par Frank Lupo et Stephen J. Cannell, diffus茅e entre le 23 janvier 19831 et le 8 mars 1987 sur le r茅seau NBC.

En France, les saisons 1 脿 4 ont 茅t茅 diffus茅es 脿 partir du 1er juillet 1984 sur TF12. Diffusion de la saison 5 in茅dite du 5 f茅vrier 19963 au 16 f茅vrier 19964 sur TF1. Rediffusion int茅grale du 6 juillet 20025 au 8 mai 20046 sur M6. Puis en 20037 sur 13e rue, de juin 2010 脿 ao没t 2013 sur TMC ainsi qu’脿 partir du 16 d茅cembre 2013 jusqu’en juillet 2014 sur HD1 et depuis le 19 f茅vrier 2015 sur Paris Premi猫re.

Le 16 juin 2010, un film du m锚me nom est commercialis茅 par 20th Century Fox8.





Pendant la guerre du Vi锚t Nam, le chef hi茅rarchique de l’Agence tous risque, le g茅n茅ral Morrison, leur a donn茅 l’ordre de voler la banque de Hano茂 afin de pr茅cipiter la fin de la guerre. La mission est un succ猫s, mais quatre jours apr猫s la fin de la guerre, ils retrouvent le g茅n茅ral assassin茅 par les Viet Cong, le quartier g茅n茅ral 茅tant enti猫rement br没l茅. Par cons茅quent, aucune preuve indiquant que l’Agence tous risques agissait sur ordre n’existe. Les membres passent alors devant une cour de justice militaire, celle-ci les condamnant 脿 la prison. Incarc茅r茅s aux 脡tats-Unis, ils s’茅vadent rapidement et m猫nent d茅sormais une vie de mercenaires au service 芦 de la veuve et de l’orphelin 禄, combattant les injustices locales.


Acteurs principaux

George Peppard 聽: colonel John 芦 Hannibal 禄 Smith

Dirk Benedict 聽: lieutenant Peck 芦 Fut茅 禄 Templeton (VO : 芦 Face 禄) (脿 partir de l’茅pisode 2)

Dwight Schultz 聽: capitaine Henry 芦 Looping 禄 Murdock (VO : 芦 Howling Mad 禄)

Mister T. 聽: sergent Bosco Albert 芦 Barracuda 禄 Baracus (VO : 芦 B. A. 禄

Melinda Culea 聽: Amy Amanda 芦 Triple A 禄 Allen (saisons 1 et 2)

Robert Vaughn 聽: g茅n茅ral Hunt Stockwell (saison 5)

Eddie Velez 聽: Frankie Santana (saison 5)

Tim Dunigan 聽: lieutenant Templeton 芦 Fut茅 禄 Peck (VO : 芦 Face 禄) (茅pisode pilote uniquement)



L’Agence tous risques a 茅t茅 cr茅茅e par les producteurs am茅ricains Stephen J. Cannell et Frank Lupo 脿 la demande du pr茅sident du r茅seau NBC, Brandon Tartikoff.

Stephen J. Cannell a 茅t茅 renvoy茅 de chez ABC au d茅but des ann茅es 1980, apr猫s avoir 茅chou茅 dans sa tentative de produire une 茅mission 脿 succ猫s pour la cha卯ne. Cannell est engag茅 脿 la NBC et son premier projet 茅tait de cr茅er L’Agence tous risques.

Brandon Tartikoff consid猫re l’茅mission comme un m茅lange de Les Douze Salopards, Mission Impossible, Les Sept Mercenaires, Mad Max et Capitaine Furillo, avec 芦 Mr. T conduisant l’engin. 禄

L’Agence tous risques n’茅tait, au d茅part, pas consid茅r茅e comme une future s茅rie 脿 succ猫s, mais Stephen J. Cannell explique que George Peppard 茅tait persuad茅 qu’elle deviendrait un succ猫s 芦 avant m锚me que l’on allume la cam茅ra 禄13. L’茅mission se popularise ; le premier 茅pisode, diffus茅e juste apr猫s le Super Bowl XVII le 30 janvier 1983, atteint 26,4 % de l’audience sur la cha卯ne, le classant ainsi quatri猫me sur l’脡chelle de Nielsen.

Le titre original de la s茅rie vient des 芦 Special Forces 禄 (SF, 芦 forces sp茅ciales 禄), que les am茅ricains surnomment A-Teams et populairement connues sous le surnom des 芦 b茅rets verts 禄 (green berets), qui sont une des forces sp茅ciales de l’US Army.

Sp茅cialis茅es dans la guerre non conventionnelle, les actions commandos et la formation de troupes alli茅es, elles ont, depuis leur cr茅ation au d茅but des ann茅es 1950, 茅t茅 engag茅es dans la plupart des conflits impliquant les 脡tats-Unis.

La s茅rie s’inscrit dans un contexte particulier aux 脡tats-Unis, qui voit appara卯tre divers avatars de v茅t茅rans de la guerre du Vi锚t Nam, comme le d茅tective priv茅 Thomas Magnum ou le sergent T.J. Hooker.



Rapatri茅s apr猫s la fin officielle de la guerre, en 1975, de tr猫s nombreux v茅t茅rans am茅ricains ont 茅prouv茅 de grandes difficult茅s 脿 se r茅int茅grer dans une soci茅t茅 qui ne les reconnaissait plus.

D’une part, les traumatismes physiques et psychologiques des soldats les rendaient extr锚mement fragiles, d’autre part, 脿 la frustration patriotique de la population s’est ajout茅 le rejet de soldats dont l’opinion publique d茅couvrit brusquement les techniques de combat.

En effet, si l’Am茅rique moyenne soutenait la guerre au d茅but des ann茅es 1960, dans un contexte de guerre froide, il en allait tout autrement quinze ans plus tard.

Les milliers de morts et de bless茅s dans le camp am茅ricain ne trouvaient plus aucun sens dans l’opinion publique, tandis que de nombreux journalistes r茅v茅laient la nature des combats, opposant des soldats lourdement arm茅s 脿 des combattants m锚l茅s 脿 la population.

Des photos d’enfants br没l茅s au napalm ont t么t fait de retourner le peuple am茅ricain contre une guerre jug茅e mal pr茅par茅e, id茅ologiquement discut茅e et grande consommatrice d’hommes et d’argent public.

Dans ce contexte d’apr猫s-guerre, la soci茅t茅 am茅ricaine rejette les v茅t茅rans du Vi锚t Nam, une attitude illustr茅e notamment par la chanson Born in the USA de Bruce Springsteen, le film Rambo ou plus tard le film N茅 un 4 juillet avec Tom Cruise.

L鈥橝gence tous risques en est une autre illustration, puisque des soldats ayant agi sur ordre de la hi茅rarchie se retrouvent face 脿 la justice de leur pays, pour un d茅lit qu’ils n’ont commis que dans le cadre de leur fonction.

脡vad茅s, ils seront pourchass茅s pour ce d茅lit, ne parvenant pas 脿 faire reconna卯tre par le d茅partement de la D茅fense le contexte dans lequel les faits reproch茅s ont 茅t茅 commis.

Par ailleurs, d’un point de vue plus strictement formel, la s茅rie marque une 茅volution (ou du moins y participe) dans la structure des personnages. Autrefois seul, tel un Colombo ou une Arabesque, le h茅ros se multiplie, ici par quatre, offrant plus de possibilit茅s d’identification au spectateur.


Chaque personnage est nettement marqu茅 dans ses singularit茅s, l’ensemble formant une 茅quipe h茅t茅rog猫ne mais n茅anmoins soud茅e, o霉 tous les grands types de caract猫res se reconna卯tront.

Cette formule d’茅criture des s茅ries coexistera n茅anmoins avec d’autres personnages isol茅s, tels Magnum ou MacGyver, mais elle continuera de se d茅velopper pour atteindre un casting 茅tendu dans des s茅ries comparable 脿 聽Jump Street, Beverly Hills 聽ou Urgences. Dans ces derniers exemples, il est possible de voir appara卯tre une n茅buleuse de personnages, chacun d茅veloppant une histoire parall猫le ou imbriqu茅e avec celle des autres protagonistes.

De multiples spectateurs peuvent d茅sormais s’identifier 脿 un personnage en particulier, peu importe leur race, sexe, religion ou orientation sexuelle dans certains cas.

Enfin, pour les s茅ries plus r茅centes, une telle 茅volution correspond peut-锚tre aussi aux plans de carri猫re des acteurs, qui profitent des s茅ries pour d茅velopper une carri猫re au cin茅ma (tels Johnny Depp) ou pas (Jason Priestley).

Dans une telle perspective, les producteurs de la s茅rie ne peuvent se permettre d’interrompre une saison 脿 cause du d茅part du r么le-titre. La multiplication des h茅ros offre une solution 脿 ce probl猫me, puisqu’une s茅rie peut se passer d’un personnage dont l’histoire dira qu’il est parti 脿 l’茅tranger, d茅c茅d茅 ou quoi que ce soit qui explique son absence au g茅n茅rique.


Saisons une 脿 quatre


Les 茅pisodes sont en g茅n茅ral construits sur des sch茅mas tr猫s semblables. Le d茅but de l’茅pisode correspond 脿 la prise de contact entre un client qui est terroris茅 par une association de malfaiteurs ou un potentat local.

La mani猫re classique de cette rencontre est que le client entre en contact alors qu’Hannibal Smith est d茅guis茅, afin de v茅rifier que le client n’est pas en r茅alit茅 脿 la solde des militaires.

Dans d’autres cas, l’Agence est en train de rouler et tombe sur quelqu’un qui a besoin d’aide. La plupart du temps, les honoraires pour l’intervention de l’Agence ne sont soit pas demand茅s, soit pas per莽us ou sont r茅cup茅r茅s d’une autre mani猫re (en pr茅levant sur l’argent des malfaiteurs par exemple).

G茅n茅ralement, Looping n’est pas pr茅sent dans l’茅quipe car il est intern茅 dans un h么pital psychiatrique, et l’Agence utilise en g茅n茅ral Fut茅 pour aller le r茅cup茅rer gr芒ce 脿 divers stratag猫mes.

Ou alors il s’茅vade de lui-m锚me pour aller rejoindre l’Agence. Dans beaucoup d’茅pisodes, il aime avoir un objet ou un animal qui ne le quitte pas jusqu’脿 la fin, tel qu’un cafard, un homard, une chaussette, avec lequel il agace g茅n茅ralement Barracuda avec ses fac茅ties.

Ensuite, l’Agence qui doit se rendre sur le lieu des crimes et d茅lits des malfaiteurs emprunte parfois l’avion, ce que Barracuda d茅teste particuli猫rement auquel cas ils doivent l’endormir.

Une fois sur les lieux, il y a souvent une annonce d’Hannibal aux malfaiteurs indiquant qu’ils doivent d茅sormais compter avec eux. Cela produit en g茅n茅ral une bagarre sans armes que l’Agence gagne facilement, tout en laissant curieusement leurs ennemis s’茅chapper.

Peut-锚tre dans l’espoir que ces derniers, impressionn茅s par les membres de l’Agence, abandonnent leurs entreprises malhonn锚tes et s’en aillent.

Les antagonistes reviennent et au lieu de tuer les membres de l’Agence, les laissent (souvent, sans m锚me les ligoter et/ou les b芒illonner) dans une grange, un garage ou un entrep么t, voire une mine.

Priv茅s de leurs armes, ils ont n茅anmoins 脿 leur disposition du mat茅riel tel que de l’ac茅tyl猫ne, de la poudre, des t么les et des tubes d’acier permettant 脿 Barracuda de bricoler des armes ou de refaire fonctionner un engin (voiture, tracteur…) ce qui leur permet de s’茅chapper, et d’arriver 脿 arr锚ter les malfaiteurs.

Dans d’autres cas, Looping arrive 脿 prendre le contr么le d’un h茅licopt猫re, souvent sous le nez de son propri茅taire, ce qui permet de constituer un appui a茅rien non n茅gligeable.

L’arrestation finale des m茅chants se fait parfois par un combat 脿 mains nues, qui oppose toujours les m茅chants 脿 l’agence en respectant la hi茅rarchie (Hannibal contre le chef de l’茅quipe, Barracuda contre le noir ou le plus costaud des m茅chants), ou alors au terme d’une des innombrables poursuites hom茅riques de la s茅rie, qui permettent 脿 chaque fois d’admirer les talents de pilote de Barracuda au volant de sa camionnette ou d’un bolide 茅trange bricol茅 par l’agence.

Ils doivent souvent partir rapidement apr猫s l’arrestation des m茅chants pour 茅chapper aux colonels Lynch ou Decker. Dans tous les cas, il n’y a en g茅n茅ral, m锚me avec l’utilisation d’armes de guerres mortelles, pas de personnes qui soient tu茅es, voire s茅rieusement bless茅es.

La plupart du temps, les ennemis sont sonn茅s, ou tr猫s l茅g猫rement bless茅s (une douleur 脿 un membre ou 脿 la t锚te). Il n’y a eu, en tout et pour tout, que deux morts dans toute la s茅rie. Cette s茅rie est devenue pour cette raison un genre 脿 part enti猫re dans la t茅l茅vision, puisque c’est la premi猫re s茅rie violente 脿 avoir 茅t茅 diffus茅e aux heures de grande 茅coute aux 脡tats-Unis justement en raison de l’absence, ou presque, de morts.

脌 ce titre, la s茅rie appara卯t quelquefois peu cr茅dible, notamment dans l’茅pisode Tirez sur le Cheik, o霉 l’h茅licopt猫re des m茅chants s’茅crase contre une falaise et que leurs occupants en ressortent indemnes.

Cinqui猫me saison

L’avant-derni猫re saison perdant en popularit茅[r茅f. n茅cessaire], le format de la s茅rie a 茅t茅 chang茅 pour la derni猫re saison (1986-1987).

Apr猫s avoir 茅chapp茅 pendant des ann茅es aux militaires, l鈥橝gence tous risques est finalement arr锚t茅e. Ils ont le choix entre retourner en prison, 锚tre ex茅cut茅s ou 锚tre affect茅s 脿 une agence gouvernementale dirig茅e par le g茅n茅ral Hunt Stockwell qui r茅alise des missions secr猫tes. Ils choisissent de travailler avec Stockwell.


Arr锚t de la s茅rie

Selon le producteur Stephen J. Cannell, la s茅rie s’est arr锚t茅e au bout de cinq ans parce qu’elle devenait de plus en plus ch猫re 脿 produire. Qui plus est, les acteurs George Peppard, Dirk Benedict et Mr. T 茅taient de plus en plus d茅motiv茅s (ce dernier avait d’ailleurs sa propre s茅rie, de 1988 脿 1990).


L’Agence tous risques b茅n茅ficie de g茅n茅riques diff茅rents 脿 chaque saison, avec une accroche commune : 芦 Il y a dix ans (en 1972), une unit茅 de commando d’茅lite stationn茅e au Vi锚t Nam fut envoy茅e en prison par un tribunal militaire, pour un crime qu’ils n’avaient pas commis.

Ces hommes s’茅vad猫rent rapidement de leur prison militaire de haute s茅curit茅, se r茅fugiant dans les bas-fonds de Los Angeles. Aujourd’hui, encore recherch茅s par le gouvernement, ils fuient encore et toujours devant leurs poursuivants et survivent comme des mercenaires.

Si vous avez un probl猫me, si vous 锚tes seul, si personne ne peut vous aider, si vous 锚tes accul茅, si la justice ne peut plus rien pour vous, il vous reste un recours, un seul : l’Agence tous risques. 禄

Plus tard, au cours de la saison 2, l’accroche fut modifi茅e : 芦 accus茅s d’un vol qu’ils n’ont pas commis, n’ayant aucun moyen d’en faire la preuve, ils fuient sans cesse devant leurs poursuivants. Pour subsister, ils emploient leurs comp茅tences. Si la loi ne peut plus rien pour vous, il vous reste un recours, un seul : l’Agence tous risques. 禄









Mamma Mia! (promoted as Mamma Mia! The Movie) is a 2008 British-American-Swedish musical romantic comedy film adapted from the 1999 West End/2001 Broadway musical of the same name, based on the songs of successful popgroup ABBA, with additional music composed by ABBA member Benny Andersson.

The film was directed by Phyllida Lloyd and distributed by Universal Pictures in partnership with Tom Hanks and Rita Wilson’s Playtone and Littlestar 聽and the title originates from ABBA’s 1975 chart-topper “Mamma Mia”.

Meryl Streep heads the cast, playing the role of single mother Donna Sheridan. Pierce Brosnan (Sam Carmichael), Colin Firth (Harry Bright), and Stellan Skarsg氓rd (Bill Anderson) play the three possible fathers to Donna’s daughter, Sophie (Amanda Seyfried).

Mamma Mia! received mixed reviews from critics and earned $609.8 million 聽on a $52 million budget.

On a Greek island called Kalokairi, bride-to-be Sophie Sheridan posts three wedding invitations (“I Have a Dream”) to different men.

Sophie’s bridesmaids, Ali and Lisa, arrive. Sophie reveals that she found her mother’s diary and has three possible fathers: Irish-American architect Sam Carmichael, Swedish adventurer and writer Bill Anderson, and British banker Harry Bright.


As Sophie wants her father to give her away at the altar, she invited them without telling her mother, believing that after she spends time with them she will know who her father is (“Honey, Honey”).

Villa owner Donna Sheridan, Sophie’s mom, is ecstatic to reunite with her former Dynamos bandmates, wisecracking author Rosie Mulligan and wealthy multiple divorc茅e Tanya Chesham-Leigh, and reveals her bafflement at her daughter’s desire to get married.

Donna shows off the villa to Rosie and Tanya (“Money, Money, Money”). The three men arrive;

Sophie smuggles them to their room and explains that she sent the invitations. She begs them to hide so Donna will have a surprise at the wedding: seeing the old friends of whom she “so often” favourably speaks. They overhear Donna working (humming “Fernando”) and swear not to reveal her secret.

Donna spies them and is dumbfounded to find herself facing former lovers (“Mamma Mia”), and is adamant that they leave.

She confides in Tanya and Rosie (“Chiquitita”) that she is uncertain which of the men is Sophie’s father. Tanya and Rosie rally her spirits by getting Donna to dance with the female staff and islanders (“Dancing Queen”).

Sophie finds the men aboard Bill’s yacht, and they sail around Kalokairi (“Our Last Summer”) and tell stories of Donna as a carefree girl. Sophie plans to tell her fianc茅 Sky about her ploy, but loses her nerve.

Sky and Sophie sing to each other (“Lay All Your Love on Me”), but Sky is snatched for his bachelor party.


At Sophie’s bachelorette party, Donna, Tanya and Rosie perform as Donna and The Dynamos (“Super Trouper”). The festivities are interrupted by the arrival of Sam, Bill and Harry. Sophie decides to talk with each of her prospective dads alone.

While her girlfriends dance with the men (“Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)”), Sophie learns from Bill that Donna received the money to invest in her villa from his great aunt Sofia.

Sophie guesses she must be Sofia’s namesake and Bill is her father. She asks him to give her away and keep their secret from Donna until the wedding.

Sophie’s happiness is short-lived as Sam and Harry each tell her they must be her dad and will give her away (“Voulez-Vous”). Sophie cannot tell them the truth and, overwhelmed by the consequences of her actions, faints.

In the morning, Rosie and Tanya assure Donna they will take care of the men.

Bill and Harry are about to confide in each other, but are interrupted by Rosie. Donna confronts Sophie, believing Sophie wants the wedding stopped. Sophie says that all she wants is to avoid her mother’s mistakes.

Donna is accosted by Sam, concerned about Sophie getting married so young. Donna confronts him and they realize they still have feelings for each other (“SOS”). Tanya and young Pepper continue their flirtations from the previous night (“Does Your Mother Know”). Sophie confesses to Sky and asks for his help.

He reacts angrily to Sophie’s deception and she turns to her mother for support. As Donna helps her daughter dress for the wedding, their rift is healed and Donna reminisces about Sophie’s childhood and how quickly she has grown (“Slipping Through My Fingers”). Donna admits that her own mother disowned her when she learned that she was pregnant. Sophie asks Donna to give her away.

As the bridal party walks to the chapel, Sam intercepts Donna. She reveals the pain she felt over losing him (“The Winner Takes It All”).

Sophie and Donna walk down the aisle as the band plays “Knowing Me, Knowing You”. Donna tells 聽Sophie that her father could be any of the three men.

Sam reveals that while he left to get married, he did not go through with it, and returned to find Donna with another man.


Harry confesses that Donna was the first and last woman he loved and he has begun a relationship with a waiter from the taverna.

The men agree that they would be happy to be one-third of a father for Sophie. She tells Sky they should postpone their wedding and travel the world as they have wanted. Sam proposes to Donna (“I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do”).

She accepts and they are married. At the reception, Sam sings to Donna (“When All Is Said and Done”), which prompts Rosie to make a play for Bill (“Take a Chance on Me”). All the couples present proclaim their love (“Mamma Mia” reprise).

Sophie and Sky sail away (“I Have a Dream” reprise).

During the principal credits, Donna, Tanya and Rosie reprise “Dancing Queen”, followed by “Waterloo” with the rest of the cast. Amanda Seyfried sings “Thank You for the Music” over the end credits, followed by an instrumental of “Does Your Mother Know”.


Meryl Streep as Donna Sheridan, Sophie’s mother, owner of the hotel Villa Donna, wife and one true love of Sam at the end.

Amanda Seyfried as Sophie Sheridan, Donna’s daughter, Sky’s fianc茅e.

Pierce Brosnan as Sam Carmichael, Sophie’s possible father and an Irish-American architect, husband and one true love of Donna.

Colin Firth as Harry Bright, Sophie’s possible father and a British banker; based on “Our Last Summer”, which he sings at one point.

Stellan Skarsg氓rd as Bill Anderson, Sophie’s possible father, a Swedish sailor and travel writer.

Dominic Cooper as Sky, Sophie’s fianc茅, designing a website for the hotel.

Julie Walters as Rosie Mulligan, one of Donna’s former bandmates in Donna and the Dynamos; an unmarried fun-loving author.

Christine Baranski as Tanya Chesham-Leigh, Donna’s other former bandmate; a rich three-time divorcee.

Philip Michael as Pepper, Sky’s best man who likes Tanya. He is also a bartender.

Juan Pablo Di Pace as Petros.

Ashley Lilley as Ali, close friend of Sophie and her bridesmaid.

Rachel McDowall as Lisa, close friend of Sophie and her bridesmaid.

Enzo Squillino as Gregoris, one of Donna Sheridan’s employees.

Niall Buggy as Father Alex, priest who nearly married Sophie and Sky, but ends up marrying Sam and Donna.

Cameo appearances and Uncredited Roles

Benny Andersson聽 聽( FROM ABBA ) as “Dancing Queen” piano player

Bj枚rn Ulvaeus聽 ( FROM ABBA ) as Greek god

Rita Wilson as Greek goddess













Angie Dickinson (born September 30, 1931) is an American actress. She began her career on television, appearing in many anthology series during 1950s, before landing her breakthrough role in the 1959 western film Rio Bravo, for which she received Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year.

Dickinson has appeared in more than 50 films, including Ocean’s 11 (1960), The Sins of Rachel Cade (1961), Jessica (1962), Captain Newman, M.D. (1963), The Killers (1964), The Art of Love (1965), The Chase (1966) and the neo-noir classic Point Blank (1967). From 1974 to 1978, Dickinson starred as Sergeant Leann “Pepper” Anderson in the NBC crime series Police Woman, for which she received Golden Globe Award for Best Actress 鈥 Television Series Drama and three Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series nominations.

During her later career, Dickinson starred in a number of television movies and miniseries, also playing supporting roles in films such as Sabrina (1995), Pay It Forward (2000) and Big Bad Love (2001). As lead actress, she starred in the 1980 erotic crime thriller Dressed to Kill, for which she received a Saturn Award for Best Actress.


Dickinson, the second of four daughters, was born Angeline Brown (called “Angie” by family and friends) in Kulm, North Dakota, the daughter of Fredericka (n茅e Hehr) and Leo Henry Brown.

Her family is of German descent and she was raised Roman Catholic.

Her father was a small-town newspaper publisher and editor, working on the Kulm Messenger and the Edgeley Mail.

In 1942, her family moved to Burbank, California, where she attended Bellarmine-Jefferson High School, graduating in 1947 at 15 years of age. The previous year, she had won the Sixth Annual Bill of Rights essay contest.

She studied at Glendale Community College and in 1954 graduated from Immaculate Heart College with a degree in business. Taking a cue from her publisher father, she had intended to be a writer. While a student from 1950鈥52, she worked as a secretary at Lockheed Air Terminal in Burbank (now Bob Hope Airport) and in a parts factory. She became Angie Dickinson in 1952, when she married football player Gene Dickinson.

Dickinson entered a beauty pageant in 1953 and placed second. The exposure brought her to the attention of a television industry producer, who asked her to consider a career in acting. She studied the craft and a few years later was approached by NBC to guest-star on a number of variety shows, including The Colgate Comedy Hour. She soon met Frank Sinatra, who became a lifelong friend. She later was cast as Sinatra’s wife in the film Ocean’s 11.


On New Year’s Eve 1954, Dickinson made her television acting debut in an episode of Death Valley Days. This led to other roles in such productions as Matinee Theatre (eight episodes), Buffalo Bill Jr., City Detective, It’s a Great Life (two episodes), Gray Ghost, General Electric Theater, Broken Arrow, The People’s Choice (twice), Meet McGraw (twice), Northwest Passage, Gunsmoke, The Virginian, Tombstone Territory, Cheyenne, and The Restless Gun.

In 1956, Dickinson was cast as Ann Drew, who slips a gun to her jailed husband, Harry (John Craven), a former associate of the Jesse James gang, in the ABC/Desilu western series, The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, starring Hugh O’Brian. In the story line, Harry vowed never to go to prison and was shot to death while escaping.


In 1957, she was cast as Amy Bender in Richard Boone’s series “Have Gun-Will Travel” in the episode “A Matter of Ethics.” She played the sister of a man who was killed and who wanted the murderer lynched.

In 1958, she was cast as Laura Meadows in the episode “The Deserters” of an ABC/Warner Brothers western series, Colt .45, with Wayde Preston.

That year she also played the role of defendant Mrs. Fargo in the Perry Mason episode “The Case of the One-Eyed Witness.”


Dickinson went on to create memorable characters in Mike Hammer, Wagon Train, and Men into Space. In 1965, she had a recurring role as Carol Tredman on NBC’s Dr. Kildare. She had a memorable turn as the duplicitous murder conspirator in a 1964 episode of The Fugitive series with David Janssen and fellow guest star Robert Duvall. She was at her evil best as an unfaithful wife and bank robber in the 1958 “Wild Blue Yonder” episode of Rod Cameron’s syndicated television series State Trooper.

She starred in two Alfred Hitchcock Hour episodes, “Captive Audience” with James Mason on Oct. 18, 1962, and “Thanatos Palace Hotel” on Feb. 1, 1965.

Dickinson’s motion picture career began with a small, uncredited role in Lucky Me (1954) starring Doris Day, followed by The Return of Jack Slade (1955), Man with the Gun (1955), and Hidden Guns (1956). She had her first starring role in Gun the Man Down (1956) with James Arness, followed by the Sam Fuller cult film China Gate (1957), which depicted an early view of the Vietnam War.

Rejecting the Marilyn Monroe/Jayne Mansfield style of platinum blonde sex-symbolism because she felt it would narrow her acting options, Dickinson initially allowed studios to lighten her naturally brunette hair to only honey-blonde.

She appeared early in her career mainly in B-movies or westerns, including Shoot-Out at Medicine Bend (1957), in which she co-starred with James Garner. In the 1958 crime drama Cry Terror!, Dickinson had a supporting role opposite James Mason and Rod Steiger as a femme fatale.



In 1959, Dickinson’s big-screen breakthrough role came in Howard Hawks’ Rio Bravo, in which she played a flirtatious gambler called “Feathers” who becomes attracted to the town sheriff played by Dickinson’s childhood idol John Wayne. The film co-starred Dean Martin, Ricky Nelson, and Walter Brennan. When Hawks sold his personal contract with her to a major studio without her knowledge, she was unhappy. Dickinson nonetheless became one of the more prominent leading ladies of the next decade, beginning with The Bramble Bush with Richard Burton. She also took a supporting role in Ocean’s 11 with friends Sinatra and Martin, released in 1960.

These were followed by a political potboiler, A Fever in the Blood (1961); a Belgian Congo-based melodrama, The Sins of Rachel Cade (1961), in which she played a missionary nurse tempted by lust; a scheming woman in Rome Adventure (1962), filmed in Italy, and the title role in Jean Negulesco’s Jessica (1962) with Maurice Chevalier, in which she played a young midwife resented by the married women of the town, set in Sicily.

Angie would also share the screen with friend Gregory Peck as a military nurse in the dark comedy Captain Newman, M.D. (1963).

For The Killers (1964), originally intended to be the very first made-for-television movie but released to theatres due to its violent content, Dickinson played a femme fatale opposite future U.S. President Ronald Reagan in his last movie role.

Directed by Don Siegel, it was a remake of the 1946 version based on a story by Ernest Hemingway and the only film Reagan made in which he was cast as a villain. He viciously slaps Dickinson in one of the film’s scenes.[8]

Dickinson co-starred in the comedy The Art of Love (1965), playing the love interest of both James Garner and Dick Van Dyke. She joined a star-studded Arthur Penn/Sam Spiegel production, The Chase (1966), along with Marlon Brando, Jane Fonda, Robert Redford, and Robert Duvall. That same year she was featured in Cast a Giant Shadow, a war story with Kirk Douglas.


Dickinson’s best movie of this era was arguably John Boorman’s cult classic Point Blank (1967), a lurid crime drama with Lee Marvin as a criminal betrayed by his wife and best friend and out for revenge. The film epitomized the stark urban mood of the period, and its reputation has grown through the years.

Westerns would continue to be a part of her work in the late ’60s, when she starred in The Last Challenge opposite Glenn Ford, in Young Billy Young with Robert Mitchum, and in Sam Whiskey, where she gave rising star Burt Reynolds his first on-screen kiss.

In 1971, she played a lascivious substitute high school teacher in the dark comedy Pretty Maids All in a Row for director Roger Vadim and writer-producer Gene Roddenberry, in which her character seduces a sexually inexperienced student, portrayed by John David Carson, against the backdrop of a series of murders of female students at the same high school; it was a box-office failure. In 1972’s The Outside Man, a French movie shot in L.A., with Jean-Louis Trintignant, directed by Jacques Deray, she plays the wife of a mobster. In 1973, she co-starred with Roy Thinnes in the supernatural thriller The Norliss Tapes, a TV movie produced and directed by Dan Curtis.

One of Dickinson’s best known and most sexually provocative movie roles followed, that of the tawdry widow Wilma McClatchie from the Great Depression romp Big Bad Mama (1974) with William Shatner and Tom Skerritt. Although well into her forties at the time, she appeared nude in several scenes, which created interest in the movie and a new generation of male fans for Dickinson.


A 1966 Esquire magazine cover gained Dickinson additional fame and notoriety, her having posed in nothing but a sweater and a pair of panty hose. The photo became so iconic that, while celebrating the magazine’s 70th anniversary in 2003, the Dickinson pose was recreated for the cover by Britney Spears.


Police Woman


Dickinson as Pepper Anderson, 1975 in Police Woman

Dickinson returned to the small screen in March 1974 for an episode of the critically acclaimed hit anthology series Police Story. That one guest appearance proved to be so popular that NBC offered Dickinson her own television show, which became a ground-breaking weekly series called Police Woman; it was the first successful dramatic TV series to feature a woman in the title role. At first, Dickinson was reluctant, but when producers told her she could become a household name, she accepted the role. They were right.

In the series, she played Sgt. Leann “Pepper” Anderson, an officer of the Los Angeles Police Department’s Criminal Conspiracy Unit who often works undercover.

The show became a hit, reaching number one in many countries in which it aired during its first year. It ran for four seasons and Dickinson would win a Golden Globe award, and receive Emmy nominations for three consecutive years.


dickinson police woman

Angie Dickinson

Co-starring on the show was Earl Holliman as Sergeant Bill Crowley, Anderson’s commanding officer, along with Charles Dierkop as investigator Pete Royster and Ed Bernard as investigator Joe Styles.

The series ran from 1974 to 1978. The same year the show ended, Dickinson reprised her Pepper Anderson character on the television special Ringo, co-starring with Ringo Starr and John Ritter. She also parodied the part in the 1975 and 1979 Bob Hope Christmas specials for NBC. She would do the same years later on the 1987 Christmas episode of NBC’s Saturday Night Live.

Police Woman caused a surge of applications for employment from women to police departments around the United States; journalists who have in recent years examined the inspiration for long-term female law enforcement officials to adopt this vocation as their own have been surprised by how often Dickinson’s Police Woman has been referenced.

Dickinson and Police Woman proved that a female lead could carry an hour-long television series, paving the way for several female-starring, hour-long TV series during the 1970s and 1980s, such as Charlie’s Angels, Wonder Woman, The Bionic Woman and Cagney and Lacey. In 1987, the Los Angeles Police Department awarded Dickinson an honorary doctorate, which led her to quip, “Now you can call me Doctor Pepper.”



On occasion during the 1970s, Dickinson took part in the popular Dean Martin Celebrity Roast on television, and herself was the guest of honor on August 2, 1977, roasted by a dais of celebrities that included James Stewart, Orson Welles and her Police Woman series co-star Earl Holliman.


The 1980s

Having done a television series plus the mini-series Pearl (1978) about the Pearl Harbor bombing of 1941, Dickinson’s career in feature films appeared to be in decline. But she returned to the big screen in Brian De Palma’s erotic thriller Dressed to Kill (1980), for which she gained considerable notice, particularly for a long, silent scene in a museum before the character meets her fate. The role of Kate Miller, a sexually frustrated New York housewife, earned her a 1981 Saturn Award for Best Actress. “The performers are excellent,” wrote Vincent Canby in his July 25, 1980 New York Times review, “especially Miss Dickinson.”


She took a less substantial role in 1981’s Death Hunt, reuniting her with Lee Marvin, and also appeared in Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen. Earlier that year, she had been the first choice to play the character Krystle Carrington on the television series Dynasty but, deciding she wanted to spend more time with her daughter, she turned it down; the role instead went to Linda Evans. In the mid-1980s Dickinson declined the role of Sable Colby on the Dynasty spin-off, The Colbys.

After nixing her own Johnny Carson-produced prospective sitcom, The Angie Dickinson Show, in 1980 after only two episodes had been shot because she did not feel she was funny enough, the private-eye series Cassie & Co. became her unsuccessful attempt at a television comeback. She then starred in several TV movies, such as One Shoe Makes It Murder (1982), Jealousy (1984), A Touch of Scandal (1984), and Stillwatch (1987). She had a pivotal role in the highly rated mini-series Hollywood Wives (1985), based on a novel by Jackie Collins.

In 1982, and again in 1986, Dickinson appeared in two of Perry Como’s Christmas specials for the ABC television network, in both of which she did something she was not known to have done before: singing. The specials in which she appeared, and in which she sang songs, were Perry Como’s Christmas In Paris, produced on location in Paris, France, which was transmitted on Saturday, December 18, 1982, and The Perry Como Christmas Special, produced on location in San Antonio, Texas, and transmitted on Saturday, December 6, 1986. As of early January of 2013, these two specials were not known to be available on home video.[citation needed] Dickinson later denied having sung on camera since then in an interview with Larry King conducted at the approximate time of her appearance in Duets.



In motion pictures, Dickinson reprised her role as Wilma McClatchie for Big Bad Mama II (1987) and completed the television movie Kojak: Fatal Flaw, in which she was reunited with Telly Savalas. She co-starred with Willie Nelson and numerous buddies in the 1988 television western Once Upon a Texas Train.

She was presented one of the Golden Boot Awards in 1989 for her contributions to western cinema.


1990s and 2000s

In the 1993 ABC miniseries Wild Palms, produced by Oliver Stone, she was the sadistic, militant sister of Senator Tony Kruetzer, played by Robert Loggia. That same year, she starred as a ruthless Montana spa owner in Gus Van Sant’s Even Cowgirls Get the Blues with Uma Thurman.

In 1995, Sydney Pollack cast her as the prospective mother-in-law of Greg Kinnear in the romantic comedy Sabrina starring Harrison Ford, a remake of the Billy Wilder classic. She played Burt Reynolds’ wife in the thriller The Maddening and the mother of Rick Aiello and Robert Cicchini in the National Lampoon comedy The Don’s Analyst. In 1997, she seduced old flame Artie (Rip Torn) in an episode of HBO’s The Larry Sanders Show called “Artie and Angie and Hank and Hercules.”

Dickinson acted out the alcoholic, homeless mother of Helen Hunt’s character in Pay It Forward (2000); the grandmother of Gwyneth Paltrow’s character in the drama Duets (2000), and the mother of Arliss Howard’s character in Big Bad Love (2001), co-starring Debra Winger.

Having appeared in the original Ocean’s 11 (1960) with good friends Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin, four decades later she made a brief cameo in the 2001 remake with George Clooney and Brad Pitt.

An avid poker player, during the summer of 2004 she participated in the second season of Bravo’s Celebrity Poker Showdown. After announcing her name, host Dave Foley said, “Sometimes, when we say ‘celebrity,’ we actually mean it.”

Dickinson is a recipient of the state of North Dakota’s Rough Rider Award.

In 1999, Playboy ranked Dickinson No. 42 on their list of the “100 Sexiest Stars of the Century.” In 2002, TV Guide ranked her No. 3 on a list of the “50 Sexiest Television Stars of All Time,” behind Diana Rigg and George Clooney (who tied for No. 1).

In 2009, Dickinson starred in a Hallmark Channel film, Mending Fences. It is her last screen role to date.


Personal life


With husband-composer Burt Bacharach and new child, 1966

She was married to Gene Dickinson, a former football player, from 1952 to 1960. Close friends with John Kenneth Galbraith and Catherine Galbraith, her extensive visits to them and touring when John was American Ambassador to India is amply recounted in Galbraith memoirs including Ambassador’s Journal and A Life in Our Times. Dickinson kept her married name after her first divorce.

She married Burt Bacharach in 1965. They remained a married couple for 15 years, though late in their marriage, they had a period of separation where each dated other people.

Their daughter, Lea Nikki, known as Nikki, arrived a year after they were married. Born three months prematurely, Nikki suffered from chronic health problems, including visual impairment; she was later diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Burt composed the music of the song Nikki for their fragile young daughter, and Angie rejected many roles to focus on caring for their daughter. Nikki’s parents eventually placed her at the Wilson Center, a psychiatric residential treatment facility for adolescents in Faribault, Minnesota, where she remained for nine years. Later, Nikki studied geology at California Lutheran University, but her poor eyesight prevented her from pursuing a career in that field. On January 4, 2007, Nikki killed herself by suffocation in her apartment in the Ventura County suburb of Thousand Oaks. She was 40.

In a joint statement, Dickinson and Bacharach said, “She quietly and peacefully committed suicide to escape the ravages to her brain brought on by Asperger’s… She loved kitties, earthquakes, glacial calving, meteor showers, science, blue skies and sunsets, and Tahiti. She was one of the most beautiful creatures created on this earth, and she is now in the white light, at peace.”

In a 2006 interview with NPR, Dickinson stated that she was a Democrat. She supported John F. Kennedy’s presidential campaign in 1960.

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Year Title Role Notes
1954 Lucky Me Party Guest Uncredited
1955 Tennessee’s Partner Abby Dean
1955 The Return of Jack Slade Polly Logan
1955 Man with the Gun Kitty Uncredited
1956 Down Liberty Road Mary Short film
1956 Hidden Guns Becky Carter
1956 Tension at Table Rock Cathy
1956 Gun the Man Down Janice
1956 The Black Whip Sally Morrow
1957 Shoot-Out at Medicine Bend Priscilla King
1957 China Gate Lucky Legs
1957 Calypso Joe Julie
1957 Run of the Arrow Yellow Moccasin Voice
1958 I Married a Woman Screen Wife
1958 Cry Terror! Eileen Kelly
1959 Rio Bravo Feathers
1960 I’ll Give My Life Alice Greenway Bradford
1960 The Bramble Bush Fran
1960 Ocean’s Eleven Beatrice Ocean
1961 A Fever in the Blood Cathy Simon
1961 The Sins of Rachel Cade Rachel Cade
1962 Jessica Jessica Brown Visconti
1962 Rome Adventure Lyda Kent
1963 Captain Newman, M.D. Lt. Francie Corum
1964 The Killers Sheila Farr
1965 The Art of Love Laurie Gibson
1966 The Chase Ruby Calder
1966 Cast a Giant Shadow Emma Marcus
1966 The Poppy Is Also a Flower Linda Benson
1967 Point Blank Chris
1967 The Last Challenge Lisa Denton
1969 Sam Whiskey Laura Breckenridge
1969 Some Kind of a Nut Rachel Amidon
1969 Young Billy Young Lily Beloit
1971 Pretty Maids All in a Row Miss Betty Smith
1971 The Resurrection of Zachary Wheeler Dr. Layle Johnson
1972 The Outside Man Jackie Kovacs
1974 Big Bad Mama Wilma McClatchie
1979 L’homme en col猫re Karen
1980 Klondike Fever Belinda McNair
1980 Dressed to Kill Kate Miller
1981 Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen Dragon Queen
1981 Death Hunt Vanessa McBride
1987 Big Bad Mama II Wilma McClatchie
1993 Even Cowgirls Get the Blues Miss Adrian
1995 Sabrina Ingrid Tyson
1996 The Maddening Georgina Scudder
1996 The Sun, the Moon and the Stars Abbie McGee
2000 The Last Producer Poker Player Cameo
2000 Duets Blair
2001 Pay It Forward Grace
2001 Big Bad Love Mrs. Barlow
2001 Ocean’s Eleven Boxing Spectator Cameo
2004 Elvis Has Left the Building Bobette


Year Title Role Notes
1954 I Led 3 Lives Comrade Margaret Episode: “Asylum”
1954 The Mickey Rooney Show Receptionist Episode: “The Executive”
1954 Death Valley Days Salina Harris 3 episodes
1955 City Detective Cigarette Girl Episode: “The Perfect Disguise”
1955 Buffalo Bill, Jr. Anna Louise Beaumont Episode: “The Death of Johnny Ringo”
1955 Matinee Theatre 7 episodes
1955 It’s a Great Life Myra Episode: “The Raffle Ticket”
1956 General Electric Theater Shaw Episode: “Try to Remember”
1956 It’s a Great Life Rita Moore Episode: “The Voice”
1956 The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp Ann Drew Episode: “One of Jesse’s Gang”
1956 Chevron Hall of Stars Bertha Episode: “Mr. Thompson”
1956 Four Star Playhouse Episode: “The Rites of Spring”
1956 The Millionaire Jane Carr / Janice Corwin Episode: “Millionaire Jane Carr”
1956 Schlitz Playhouse of Stars Ann Episode: “Always the Best Man”
1956 Broken Arrow Terry Weaver Episode: “The Conspirators”
1957 The Gray Ghost Edie Page Episode: “Point of Honor”
1957 Gunsmoke Rose Daggit Episode: “War Party”
1957 Alcoa Theatre Mrs. Garron Episode: “Circumstantial”
1957 Have Gun – Will Travel Amy Bender Episode: “A Matter of Ethics”
1956-1957 The Lineup Doris Collins 3 episodes
1957 M Squad Hazel McLean Episode: “Diamond Hard”
1957 Meet McGraw Mary Gaan Episode: “Tycoon”
1957 Meet McGraw Lisa Parish Episode: “McGraw in Reno”
1958 The Restless Gun Evelyn Niemack Episode: “Imposter for a Day”
1958 Perry Mason Marian Gallagher Episode: “The Case of the One-Eyed Witness”
1958 The Bob Cummings Show Milly Episode: “Bob and Automation”
1958 Tombstone Territory Dolores Episode: “Geronimo”
1958 State Trooper Betty Locke Episode: “Wild Green Yonder”
1958 Colt .45 Laura Meadows Episode: “The Deserters”
1958 Studio 57 Episode: “Gambler’s Luck”
1958 The People’s Choice Geraldine Gibson Hexley Episodes: “Rollo Makes Good” and “Rollo’s Wedding”
1958 Mike Hammer Lucille Hart Episode: “Letter Edged in Blackmail”
1958 Mike Hammer Rita Patten Episode: “Look at the Old Man Go”
1958 Target Betty Nelson Episode: “Unreasonable Doubt”
1958 Northwest Passage Rose Carver Episode: “The Bound Women”
1958 Man with a Camera Norma Delgado Episode: “Closeup on Violence”
1959 Wagon Train Clara Duncan Episode: “The Clara Duncan Story”
1959 Men Into Space Mary McCauley Episode: “Moon Probe”
1960 Lock Up Betty Nelson Episode: “Sentenced to Die”
1962 Checkmate Karen Vale Episode: “Remembrance of Crimes Past”
1962 The Alfred Hitchcock Hour Janet West Episode: “Captive Audience”
1962 The Dick Powell Show Judy Maxwell Episode: “No Strings Attached”
1964 The Fisher Family Helen Episode: “Bright Shadows”
1965 The Fugitive Norma Sessions Episode: “Brass Ring”
1965 The Man Who Bought Paradise Ruth Paris Pilot
1965 The Alfred Hitchcock Hour Ariane Shaw Episode: “Thanatos Palace Hotel”
1965 Dr. Kildare Carol Tredman 3 episodes
1966 The Virginian Annie Carlson Episode: “Ride to Delphi”
1966 Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre Christina Episode: “And Baby Makes Five”
1968 A Case of Libel Anita Corcoran Television film
1970 The Love War Sandy Television film
1971 Thief Jean Melville Television film
1971 The Man and the City Charlene Episode: “Running Scared”
1971 See the Man Run Joanne Taylor Television film
1972 Ghost Story Carol Finney Episode: “Creatures of the Canyon”
1973 The Norliss Tapes Ellen Sterns Cort Television film
1973 Hec Ramsey Sarah Detweiler Episode: “The Detroit Connection”
1974 Pray for the Wildcats Nancy McIlvain Television film
1974 Police Story Lisa Episode: “The Gamble”
1977 A Sensitive, Passionate Man Marjorie ‘Margie’ Delaney Television film
1974-1978 Police Woman Sgt. Suzanne ‘Pepper’ Anderson Series regular, 91 episodes
1978 Ringo Sgt. Suzanne ‘Pepper’ Anderson Television film
1978 Overboard Lindy Garrison Television film
1978 Pearl Midge Forrest Miniseries
1979 The Suicide’s Wife Diana Harrington Television film
1981 Dial M for Murder Margot Wendice Television film
1982 Cassie & Co. Cassie Holland Series regular, 13 episodes
1982 One Shoe Makes It Murder Fay Reid Television film
1984 Jealousy Georgia / Laura / Ginny Television film
1984 A Touch of Scandal Katherine Gilvey Television film
1984 Hollywood Wives Sadie LaSalle Miniseries
1987 Stillwatch Abigail Winslow Television film
1987 Police Story: The Freeway Killings Officer Anne Cavanaugh Television film
1988 Once Upon a Texas Train Maggie Hayes Television film
1989 Fire and Rain Beth Mancini Television film
1989 Prime Target Sgt. Kelly Mulcahaney Television film
1991 Empty Nest Jackie Sheridan Episode: “Almost Like Being in Love”
1991 Kojak: Fatal Flaw Carolyn Payton Television film
1992 Treacherous Crossing Beverly Thomas Television film
1993 Wild Palms Josie Ito Miniseries
1993 Daddy Dearest Mrs. Winters Episode: “Mother Love”
1996 Remembrance Margaret Fullerton Television film
1997 Deep Family Secrets R茅nee Chadway Television film
1997 The Don’s Analyst Victoria Leoni Television film
1997 Diagnosis Murder Capt. Cynthia Pike Episode: “Murder Blues”
1997 Ellen Betsy Episode: “G.I. Ellen”
1997 George & Leo Sheila Smith Episode: “The Witness”
1999 Sealed with a Kiss Lucille Ethridge Television film
2004 Judging Amy Evelyn Worth Episode: “Catching It Early”
2009 Mending Fences Ruth Hanson Television film



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Simon & Garfunkel


Simon & Garfunkel was an American folk rock duo consisting of singer-songwriter Paul Simon and singer Art Garfunkel. They were one of the most popular recording artists of the 1960s and became counterculture icons of the decade’s social revolution, alongside artists such as the Beatles, the Beach Boys, and Bob Dylan.

Simon and Garfunkel3

Simon and Garfunkel album cover 1

English article / En Fran莽ais plus bas svp / French below

Their biggest hits鈥攊ncluding “The Sound of Silence” (1964/1965), “Mrs. Robinson” (1968), “Bridge over Troubled Water” (1969), and “The Boxer” (1969)鈥攔eached number one on singles charts worldwide.

Their often rocky relationship led to artistic disagreements, which resulted in their breakup in 1970.

Their final studio record, Bridge over Troubled Water, was their most successful, becoming one of the world’s best-selling albums. Since their split in 1970 they have reunited several times, most famously in 1981 for the “The Concert in Central Park”, which attracted more than 500,000 people, the seventh-largest concert attendance in history.

The duo met as children in Queens, New York in 1953, where they learned to harmonize together and began writing original material. By 1957, under the name Tom & Jerry, the teenagers had their first minor success with “Hey Schoolgirl”, a song imitating their idols the Everly Brothers.

Afterwards, the duo went their separate ways, with Simon making unsuccessful solo records. In 1963, aware of a growing public interest in folk music, they regrouped and were signed to Columbia Records as Simon & Garfunkel. Their d茅but, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., sold poorly, and they once again disbanded;

Simon returned to a solo career, this time in England. A remix of their song “The Sound of Silence” was played widely on U.S. AM radio in 1965, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100. Simon & Garfunkel reunited, releasing their second studio album Sounds of Silence and touring colleges nationwide.

On their third release, Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966), the duo assumed more creative control. Their music was featured in the 1967 film The Graduate, giving them further exposure. Bookends (1968), their next album, topped the Billboard 200 chart and included the #1 single “Mrs. Robinson” from the film.

After their 1970 breakup following the release of Bridge over Troubled Water, they both continued recording, Simon releasing a number of highly acclaimed albums, including 1986’s Graceland.

Garfunkel also briefly pursued an acting career, with leading roles in two Mike Nichols films, Catch-22 and Carnal Knowledge, and in Nicolas Roeg’s 1980 Bad Timing.

Simon & Garfunkel were described by critic Richie Unterberger as “the most successful folk-rock duo of the 1960s” and one of the most popular artists from the decade in general. They won 10 Grammy Awards and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990.

Their Bridge over Troubled Water album was nominated at the 1977 Brit Awards for Best International Album and is ranked at #51 on Rolling Stone’s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.

Early years (1953鈥1956)

Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel grew up in the 1940s and 1950s in the predominantly Jewish neighborhood of Forest Hills in Queens, New York, just three blocks away from one another, and attended the same schools, Public School 164 in Flushing, Parsons Junior High School, and Forest Hills High School.

Individually, when still young, they developed a fascination with music; both listened to the radio and were taken with rock and roll as it emerged, particularly the Everly Brothers.

Early Simon & Garfunkel F

When Simon first noticed Garfunkel, he was singing in a fourth grade talent show, and Simon thought that was a good way to attract girls;

he hoped for a friendship which eventually started in 1953 when they were in the sixth grade and appeared on stage together in a school play adaptation of Alice in Wonderland. That first stage appearance was followed by the duo forming a street-corner doo-wop group, the Peptones, with three other friends, and learning to harmonize together. They began performing for the first time as a duo at school dances.

They moved to Forest Hills High School in 1955, where, in 1956, they wrote their first song, “The Girl for Me”; Simon’s father sending a handwritten copy to the Library of Congress to register a copyright.

While trying to remember the lyrics to the Everly’s song “Hey Doll Baby“, they created their own song, “Hey Schoolgirl”, which they recorded themselves for $25 at Sanders Recording Studio in Manhattan.

While recording they were overheard by a promoter, Sid Prosen, who 鈥 after speaking to their parents 鈥 signed them to his independent label Big Records.

From Tom & Jerry to Simon & Garfunkel (1957鈥1964)

While still aged 15, Simon & Garfunkel now had a recording contract with Sid Prosen’s independent label Big Records.

Using the name Tom & Jerry; Garfunkel naming himself Tom Graph, a reference to his interest in mathematics;

Simon naming himself Jerry Landis, after the surname of Sue Landis, a girl he had dated, the single “Hey Schoolgirl” was released, with the B-side “Dancin’ Wild”, in 1957.

Prosen, using the payola system, bribed Alan Freed $200 to get the single played on his radio show, where it became a nightly staple.

“Hey Schoolgirl” attracted regular rotation on nationwide AM pop stations, leading it to sell over 100,000 copies and to land on Billboard’s charts at number 49.

Prosen promoted the group heavily, getting them a spot on Dick Clark’s American Bandstand (headlining alongside Jerry Lee Lewis).

The duo shared approximately $4,000 from the song 鈥 earning two percent each from royalties, the rest staying with Prosen.

They released three more singles on Big Records: “Our Song”, “That’s My Story”, and “Don’t Say Goodbye”, none of them successful.

After graduating from Forest Hills High School in 1959, they were still exploring the possibilities of a music career, though continued their education as a back up; Simon studying English at Queens College, City University of New York, Garfunkel studying first architecture, then switching to art history at Columbia College, Columbia University.

While still with Big Records as a duo, Simon released a solo single, “True or False”, under the name “True Taylor”.

This recording upset Garfunkel, who regarded it as a betrayal; the emotional tension from that incident occasionally surfacing throughout their relationship.

Their last recording with Big Records was a cover of a Jan and Dean single, “Baby Talk”, but the company became bankrupt soon after release; the track was reissued on Bell Records, but failed to sell, so Tom & Jerry was dissolved.

Both, however, continued recording, albeit as solo artists: Garfunkel composing and recording “Private World” for Octavia Records, and – under the name Artie Garr – “Beat Love” for Warwick; Simon recorded with The Mystics, and Tico & The Triumphs, and wrote and recorded under the names Jerry Landis and Paul Kane.

Simon also wrote and performed demos for other artists, working for a while with Carole King and Gerry Goffin.

After graduating in 1963, Simon joined Garfunkel, who was still at Columbia, to perform together again as a duo, this time with a shared interest in folk music.

Simon enrolled part-time in Brooklyn Law School,By late 1963, billing themselves as “Kane & Garr”, they performed at Gerde’s Folk City, a Greenwich club that hosted Monday night open mic performances.

The duo performed three new songs 鈥 “Sparrow”, “He Was My Brother”, and “The Sound of Silence” 鈥 and got the attention of Columbia producer Tom Wilson, who worked with Bob Dylan.

As a “star producer” for the label, he wanted to record “He Was My Brother” with a new British act named the Pilgrims.

Simon convinced Wilson to let him and his partner have a studio audition, and they performed “The Sound of Silence”. House engineer Roy Halee recorded the audition, and at Wilson’s urging, Columbia signed the duo.

Their debut studio album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., was recorded over three daytime sessions in March 1964 and released in October. The album contains four original Simon compositions, with the remainder consisting of three traditional folk songs and five folk-influenced singer-songwriter numbers.

Simon was adamant that they would no longer use stage names, and they adopted the name Simon & Garfunkel.

Columbia set up a promotional showcase at Folk City on March 31, 1964, the duo’s first public concert as Simon & Garfunkel. The showcase, as well as other scheduled performances, did not go well.

Simon in England (1964鈥1965)

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. sold only 3,000 copies upon its October release, and its poor sales led Simon to move to England where he had previously visited and played some gigs.

He toured the small folk clubs, appearing on the same bill and befriending British folk artists such as Bert Jansch, Martin Carthy, Al Stewart, and Sandy Denny.

He met Kathy Chitty, who became the object of his affection and is the Kathy in “Kathy’s Song” and “America”.

A small music publishing company, Lorna Music, licensed “Carlos Dominguez”, a single Simon had cut two years prior as “Paul Kane”, for a cover by Val Doonican that sold very well.

Simon visited Lorna to thank them, and the meeting resulted in a publishing and recording contract. He signed to the Oriole label and released “He Was My Brother” as a single.

Simon invited Garfunkel to stay for the summer of 1964.

Near the end of the season, Garfunkel returned to Columbia for class, and Simon surprised his friends by saying that he would be returning to the States as well.

He would resume his studies at Brooklyn Law School for one semester, partially at his parents’ insistence. He returned to England in January 1965, now certain that music was his calling.

In the meantime, his landlord, Judith Piepe, had compiled a tape from his work at Lorna and sent it to the BBC in hopes they would play it.

Simon and Garfunkel (1966)


The demos aired on the Five to Ten morning show, and were instantly successful. Oriole had folded into CBS by that point, and hoped to record a new Paul Simon album.

The Paul Simon Songbook was recorded in June 1965 and featured multiple future Simon & Garfunkel staples, among them “I Am a Rock” and “April Come She Will”. CBS flew Wilson over to produce the record, and he stayed at Simon’s flat.

The album saw release in August, and although sales were poor, Simon felt content with his future in England.

Meanwhile, in the United States, a late-night disc jockey at WBZ-FM in Boston played “The Sound of Silence”, where it found a college demographic.

It was picked up the next day along the East Coast of the United States, down to Cocoa Beach, Florida. Wilson, inspired by the folk rock sound of the Byrds’ cover of “Turn! Turn! Turn!” and Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone”, created a rock remix of the song with the same musicians who overdubbed the Dylan song. The remix of “The Sound of Silence” was issued in September 1965, where it reached the Billboard Hot 100.

Wilson had not informed the duo of his intention to remix the track; as such, Simon was “horrified” when he first heard it.

Garfunkel graduated in 1965, returning to Columbia University to do a master’s degree in mathematics.

Mainstream breakthrough and success (1965鈥66)

By January 1966, “The Sound of Silence” topped the Hot 100, selling over one million copies.

Simon reunited with Garfunkel that winter in New York, leaving Chitty and his friends in England behind. CBS demanded a new album from the duo, to be called Sounds of Silence to ride the wave of the hit.

Recorded in three weeks, and mainly consisting of re-recorded songs from The Paul Simon Songbook, plus four new tracks, Sounds of Silence was rush-released onto the market in mid-January 1966, peaking at number 21 Billboard Top LPs chart.

A week later, “Homeward Bound” was released as a single, entering the USA top ten, followed by “I Am a Rock” peaking at number three.

The duo supported the recordings with a nationwide tour of America, while CBS continued their promotion by re-releasing Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., which promptly charted at number 30.

Despite the commercial and popular success, the duo received critical derision, as many considered them a manufactured imitation of folk.

As they considered their previous effort a “rush job” to capitalize on their sudden success, the duo spent more time crafting the follow-up. It was the first time Simon insisted on total control in aspects of recording.

Work began in 1966 and took nine months. Garfunkel considered the recording of “Scarborough Fair” the moment they stepped into the role as producer, because they were constantly beside engineer Roy Halee mixing the track.

Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme was issued in October 1966, following the release of several singles and receiving sold-out college campus shows.

The duo resumed their trek on the college circuit eleven days following the release, crafting an image that was described as “alienated”, “weird”, and “poetic”.

Manager Mort Lewis also was responsible for this public perception, as he withheld them from television appearances (unless they were allowed to play an uninterrupted set or choose the setlist).

Simon and Garfunkel album1

Simon, then 26 , felt he had finally “made it” into an upper echelon of rock and roll, while most importantly retaining artistic integrity (“making him spiritually closer to Bob Dylan than to, say, Bobby Darin”, wrote biographer Marc Eliot).

The duo chose William Morris as their booking agency after a recommendation from Wally Amos, a mutual friend through their producer, Tom Wilson.

During the sessions for Parsley, the duo cut “A Hazy Shade of Winter”; it was released as a single, peaking at number 13 on the national charts.

Similarly, they recorded “At the Zoo” for single release in early 1967 (it charted lower, at number 16).

Simon began work for their next album around this time, noting to a writer at High Fidelity that “I’m not interested in singles anymore”.

He had hit a dry spell in his writing, which led to no Simon & Garfunkel album on the horizon for 1967.

Artists at the time were expected to release two, perhaps three albums each year and the lack of productivity from the duo worried executives at Columbia Records.

Amid concerns for Simon’s idleness, Columbia Records chairman Clive Davis arranged for up-and-coming record producer John Simon to kick-start the recording.

Simon was distrustful of “suits” at the label; on one occasion, he and Garfunkel brought a tape recorder into a meeting with Davis, who was giving a “fatherly talk” on speeding up production, in order to laugh at it later.

The rare television appearances at this time saw the duo performing on such diverse network broadcasts as the Ed Sullivan, Mike Douglas and Andy Williams shows in 1966 and twice on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour in 1967.

Meanwhile, director Mike Nichols, then filming The Graduate, had become fascinated with the duo’s past two efforts, listening to them nonstop before and after filming.

The graduate


After two weeks of this obsession, he met with Clive Davis to ask for permission to license Simon & Garfunkel music for his film. Davis viewed it as a perfect fit and envisioned a best-selling soundtrack album.

Simon was not as immediately receptive, viewing movies akin to “selling out”, creating a damper on his artistic integrity. However, after meeting Nichols and becoming impressed by his wit and the script, he agreed to write at least one or two new songs for the film.

Leonard Hirshan, a powerful agent at William Morris, negotiated a deal that paid Simon $25,000 to submit three songs to Nichols and producer Lawrence Turman.

Several weeks later, Simon re-emerged with two new tracks, “Punky’s Dilemma” and “Overs”, neither of which Nichols was particularly taken with. The duo offered another new song, which later became “Mrs. Robinson”, that was not as developed. Nichols loved it.

Studio time and low profile (1967鈥68)

The duo’s fourth studio album, Bookends, was recorded in fits and starts over various periods from late 1966 to early 1968. The duo were signed under an older contract that specified the label pay for sessions, and Simon & Garfunkel took advantage of this indulgence, hiring viola and brass players, as well as percussionists. The record’s brevity reflects its concise and perfectionist production. The team spent over 50 studio hours recording “Punky’s Dilemma”, for example, and re-recorded vocal parts, sometimes note by note, until they were satisfied.

While Garfunkel’s songs and voice took a lead role on some songs, the harmonies the band were known for gradually disappeared. For Simon, Bookends represented the end of the duo and became an early indicator of his intentions to go solo.

Although the album had been planned long in advance, work did not begin in earnest until the late months of 1967.

Prior to release, the band helped put together and performed at the Monterey Pop Festival, which signaled the beginning of the Summer of Love on the West Coast.

“Fakin’ It” was issued as a single that summer and found only modest success on AM radio; the duo were much more focused on the rising FM format, which played album cuts and treated their music with respect.

In January 1968, the duo appeared on a Kraft Music Hall special, Three for Tonight, performing ten songs largely culled from their third album.

Bookends was released by Columbia Records in April 1968. In a historical context, this was just 24 hours before the assassination of civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr., which spurred nationwide outrage and riots.

The album debuted on the Billboard Top LPs in the issue dated April 27, 1968, climbing to number one and staying at that position for seven non-consecutive weeks; it remained on the chart as a whole for 66 weeks.

Bookends received such heavy orders weeks in advance of its release that Columbia was able to apply for award certification before copies left the warehouse, a fact it touted in magazine ads.The record became the duo’s best-selling album to date: it fed off the buzz created by the release of The Graduate soundtrack album ten weeks earlier, creating an initial combined sales figure of over five million units.

Davis had predicted this fact, and suggested raising the list price of Bookends by one dollar to $5.79, above the then standard retail price, to compensate for including a large poster included in vinyl copies.

Simon instead scoffed and viewed it as charging a premium on “what was sure to be that year’s best-selling Columbia album”. According to biographer Marc Eliot, Davis was “offended by what he perceived as their lack of gratitude for what he believed was his role in turning them into superstars”.

Rather than implement Davis’ price increase plan, Simon & Garfunkel signed a contract extension with Columbia that guaranteed them a higher royalty rate.

Lead single “Mrs. Robinson” became, at the 1969 Grammy Awards the first rock and roll song to receive Record of the Year; it was also awarded Best Contemporary Pop Performance by a Duo or Group.

Growing apart and final years (1969鈥70)

Bookends, alongside The Graduate soundtrack, propelled Simon & Garfunkel to become the biggest rock duo in the world.

Simon was approached by producers to write music for films or license songs; he turned down Franco Zeffirelli, who was preparing to film Brother Sun, Sister Moon, and John Schlesinger, who likewise was readying to shoot Midnight Cowboy.

In addition to Hollywood proposals, producers from the Broadway show Jimmy Shine (starring Simon’s friend Dustin Hoffman, also the lead in Midnight Cowboy) asked for two original songs and Simon declined.

He collaborated briefly with Leonard Bernstein on a sacred mass before withdrawing from the project due to “finding it perhaps too far afield from his comfort zone”.

Garfunkel took the role of Captain Nately in the Nichols film, Catch-22, based on the Catch-22 novel. Initially Simon was to play the character of Dunbar, but screenwriter Buck Henry felt the film was already crowded with characters and subsequently wrote Simon’s part out.

The filming of Catch-22 began in January 1969 and lasted about eight months.

The unexpectedly long film production endangered the relationship between the duo;

Simon had not completed any new songs at this point, and the duo planned to collaborate when the filming would be finished.

Following the end of filming of Catch-22 in October, the first performance of what was, for a time, their last tour, took place in Ames, Iowa.

The US leg of the tour ended in the sold-out Carnegie Hall on November 27.

After breaking for Christmas, the duo continued working on the album in early 1970 and finished it in late January.

Meanwhile, the duo, working with director Charles Grodin, produced an hourlong CBS special, Songs of America, which is a mixture of scenes featuring notable political events and leaders concerning the USA, such as the Vietnam War, Martin Luther King, John F. Kennedy’s funeral procession, Cesar Chavez and the Poor People’s March. It was broadcast only once, due to internal tension at the network regarding its content.

Bridge over Troubled Water, their final studio album, was released in January 1970 and charted in over 11 countries, topping the charts in 10, including the Billboard Top LP’s chart in the US and the UK Albums Chart.

It was the best-selling album in 1970, 1971 and 1972 and was at that time the best-selling album of all time.

It was also CBS Records’ best-selling album before the release of Michael Jackson’s Thriller in 1982.

The album topped the Billboard charts for 10 weeks and stayed in the charts for 85 weeks.

In the United Kingdom, the album topped the charts for 35 weeks, and spent 285 weeks in the top 100, from 1970 to 1975.[88] It has since sold over 25 million copies worldwide.

“Bridge over Troubled Water”, the album’s lead single, hit number one in five countries and became their biggest seller.

The song has been covered by over 50 artists since then, including Elvis Presley and Johnny Cash. “Cecilia”, the follow-up, hit number four in the US, and “El Condor Pasa” hit number 18

The recording process was tough for both musicians, and their breakup was almost certain considering the deterioration of their relationship. “At that point, I just wanted out,” Simon later said.

Their breakup was not intended to be semi-permanent: Garfunkel hoped for a two-year break from Simon & Garfunkel and did not intend to pursue a film-career. Likewise, Simon did not intend to begin a solo career.

A brief British tour followed the album release, and the duo’s last concert as Simon & Garfunkel occurred at Forest Hills Stadium.

In 1971, the album took home six awards at the 13th Annual Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year. Simon’s wife, Peggy Harper, pushed for him to make the split official, and he placed a call to Davis to confirm the duo’s breakup: “I want you to know I鈥檝e decided to split with Artie. I don鈥檛 think we鈥檒l be recording together again.”

For the next several years, the duo would only speak “two or three” times a year.

Breakup, rifts, and reunions (1971鈥2003)

In the 1970s, the duo reunited several times. Their first reunion was a benefit concert for presidential candidate George McGovern at New York’s Madison Square Garden in June 1972.

In 1975, they reconciled once more when they visited a recording session with John Lennon and Harry Nilsson.

For the rest of the year, they attempted to make the reunion work, but their collaboration only yielded one song, “My Little Town,” that was featured on Simon’s Still Crazy After All These Years and Garfunkel’s Breakaway.

It peaked at number nine on the Hot 100. In 1975, Garfunkel joined Simon for a medley of three songs on the television series Saturday Night Live which Simon was guest hosting.

In 1977, Garfunkel joined Simon for a brief performance of their old songs on Simon’s television special The Paul Simon Special, and later that year they recorded a cover of Sam Cooke’s “(What a) Wonderful World” along with James Taylor.

Old tensions finally appeared to dissipate upon Garfunkel’s return to New York in 1978, when the duo began interacting more often.

On May 1, 1978, Simon joined Garfunkel for a concert held at Carnegie Hall to benefit the hearing disabled.

By 1980, the duo’s respective solo efforts were not doing well. To help alleviate New York’s economic decline, concert promoter Ron Delsener came up with the idea to throw a free concert in Central Park.

Delsener contacted Simon with the idea of a Simon & Garfunkel reunion, and once Garfunkel agreed, plans were made.

The Concert in Central Park, performed September 19, 1981, attracted more than 500,000 people, at that time the largest-ever concert attendance.

Warner Bros. Records released a live album of the show that went double platinum in the US.

A 90-minute recording of the concert was sold to Home Box Office (HBO) for over $1 million.

The concert created a renewed interest in the duo’s work.

They had several “heart-to-heart talks,” attempting to put past issues behind them.

The duo planned a world tour, kicking off in May 1982, but their relationship grew contentious: for the majority of the tour, they did not speak to one another.

Warner Bros. pushed for them to extend the tour and release an all-new Simon & Garfunkel studio album.

After recording several vocal tracks for a possible new Simon & Garfunkel album, Simon decided to adopt it as his own solo album. Garfunkel had refused to learn the songs in the studio, and would not give up cannabis and cigarettes, despite Simon’s requests.

An official spokesperson remarked, “Paul simply felt the material he wrote is so close to his own life that it had to be his own record. Art was hoping to be on the album, but I’m sure there will be other projects that they will work on together. They are still friends.”

The material was later released on Simon’s 1983 effort Hearts and Bones.

Another rift opened between the duo when the lengthy recording of Simon’s 1986 album Graceland prevented Garfunkel from working with Roy Halee on a Christmas album.

In 1990, the duo were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Garfunkel thanked his partner, calling him “the person who most enriched my life by putting those songs through me,” to which Simon responded, “Arthur and I agree about almost nothing. But it’s true, I have enriched his life quite a bit.” After three songs, the duo left without speaking.

We are indescribable. You’ll never capture it. It’s an ingrown, deep friendship. Yes, there is deep love in there. But there’s also shit. =>聽 Garfunkel describing his six-decade-long friendship with Simon

By 1993, their relationship had thawed again, and Simon invited Garfunkel on an international tour with him.

Following a 21-date, sold-out run at the Paramount Theater in New York and an appearance at that year’s Bridge School Benefit in California, the duo toured the Far East.

The duo had a falling out over the course of the rest of the decade, the details of which have never been disclosed.

Simon thanked Garfunkel at his 2001 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a solo artist: “I regret the ending of our friendship. I hope that some day before we die we will make peace with each other,” resuming after a pause, “No rush.”

They were awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 45th Annual Grammy Awards in 2003, for which the promoters convinced them to reconcile and open the show with a performance of “The Sound of Silence.”

The performance was satisfying for both musicians, and they planned out a full-scale reunion tour over the summer.

The Old Friends tour began in October 2003 and played to sold-out audiences across the United States for 30 dates until mid-December.

The tour earned an estimated $123 million.

Following a twelve-city run in Europe in 2004, they ended their nine-month tour with a free concert at the Colosseum in Rome. It attracted 600,000 fans, more than their The Concert in Central Park.

Recent years (2009鈥損resent)

In 2009, the duo reunited again for three songs during Simon’s two-night arrangement at New York’s Beacon Theatre. This led to a reunion tour of Asia and Australia in June 2009.

Their headlining set at the 2010 New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival was very difficult for Garfunkel, who was experiencing serious vocal problems. “I was terrible, and crazy nervous. I leaned on Paul Simon and the affection of the crowd,” he told Rolling Stone several years later.

Garfunkel was diagnosed with vocal cord paresis, and the remaining tour dates were postponed indefinitely. His manager, John Scher, informed Simon’s camp that Garfunkel would be ready within a year, which did not happen, leading to poor relations between the two. He regained his vocal strength over the course of the next four years, performing shows in a Harlem theater and to underground audiences.



Despite this, the duo have not staged a full-scale tour or performed shows since 2010. Garfunkel confirmed to Rolling Stone in 2014 that he believes they will tour in the future, although Simon had been too “busy” in recent years. “I know that audiences all over the world like Simon and Garfunkel. I’m with them. But I don’t think Paul Simon’s with them,” he remarked.

Musical style and legacy

Over the course of their career, Simon & Garfunkel’s music gradually moved from a very basic, folk rock sound to incorporate more experimental elements for the time, including Latin and gospel music. Many adolescents of the 1960s found their music relevant, while adults regarded them as intelligent.

Their music, according to Rolling Stone, struck a chord among lonely, alienated young adults near the end of the decade.

Despite its popularity, the group was also criticized sharply, especially in its heyday. Rolling Stone critic Arthur Schmidt, for example, described the duo’s music as “questionable…it exudes a sense of process, and it is slick, and nothing too much happens.”

New York Times critic Robert Shelton said that the group had “a kind of Mickey Mouse, timid, contrived” approach to music.

Their clean sound and muted lyricism “cost them some hipness points during the psychedelic era” according to Richie Unterberger of AllMusic, who also notes that the duo “inhabited the more polished end of the folk-rock spectrum and was sometimes criticized for a certain collegiate sterility.”



Unterberger further observes that some critics would later regard Simon’s lyricism in his work with Simon & Garfunkel to pale in comparison to his later solo material.

But Unterberger himself believed that “the best of S&G’s work could stand among Simon’s best material, and the duo did progress musically over the course of their five albums, moving from basic folk-rock productions into Latin rhythms and gospel-influenced arrangements that foreshadowed Simon’s eclecticism on his solo albums.”

Their rocky personal relationship led to their “breaking up and making up about every dozen years.”

Simon and Garfunkel est un duo am茅ricain de folk rock, constitu茅 du guitariste et auteur-compositeur-interpr猫te Paul Simon et du chanteur Arthur Garfunkel. Tous deux se rencontrent pour la premi猫re fois dans le Queens en 1953.

Simon and Garfunkel album2

Ils apprennent 脿 s’accorder l’un avec l’autre et commencent 脿 茅crire leurs propres compositions. Ils connaissent leur premier succ猫s en 1957, sous le nom de Tom & Jerry, avec la chanson Hey Schoolgirl, qui imite le style de leurs idoles The Everly Brothers.

Mais ce succ猫s n’est pas confirm茅 et ils poursuivent ensuite leurs 茅tudes universitaires chacun de leur c么t茅. Ils se retrouvent en 1963, avec un int茅r锚t accru pour la musique folk, et signent un contrat avec Columbia Records. Leur premier album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. (1964), est un 茅chec commercial 脿 sa sortie et le duo se s茅pare, Simon d茅cidant de poursuivre sa carri猫re en solo en Angleterre.

Cependant, une nouvelle version de leur chanson The Sound of Silence conna卯t le succ猫s sur les ondes am茅ricaines en 1965 et atteint la premi猫re place du Billboard Hot 100.

Le duo se reforme alors et enregistre un deuxi猫me album, Sounds of Silence (1966), qui est rapidement suivi par Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966), album sur lequel le duo prend un plus grand contr么le cr茅atif. La popularit茅 du duo s’accro卯t avec la bande originale du film Le Laur茅at (1967), compos茅e en majeure partie par leurs chansons.

Leur album suivant, Bookends (1968), les propulse au rang de stars internationales majeures. N茅anmoins, les relations entre les deux hommes se d茅gradent et le duo se s茅pare peu apr猫s la sortie de leur album suivant, Bridge over Troubled Water (1970), qui est leur plus grand succ猫s commercial.

Simon and Garfunkel comptent parmi les artistes les plus populaires des ann茅es 1960 et sont consid茅r茅s comme des ic么nes de la contre-culture de cette d茅cennie, au m锚me titre que les Beatles et Bob Dylan.

Leurs chansons les plus c茅l猫bres, The Sound of Silence, I Am a Rock, Homeward Bound, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, A Hazy Shade of Winter, Mrs. Robinson, Bridge over Troubled Water, The Boxer, Cecilia et El C贸ndor Pasa (If I Could), ont 聽connu un tr猫s grand succ猫s international.

Depuis leur s茅paration, Simon et Garfunkel ont reform茅 plusieurs fois le duo, notamment 脿 l’occasion d’un concert 脿 Central Park en 1981 qui r茅unit plus de 500 000 spectateurs, ce qui constitue 脿 l’茅poque la plus grande affluence de tous les temps pour un concert.

Rencontre et d茅buts musicaux (1953-1962)

Paul Frederic Simon et Arthur Ira Garfunkel, n茅s tous deux en 1941, grandissent 脿 New York dans le quartier du Queens de Kew Gardens Hills 脿 seulement trois p芒t茅s de maisons l’un de l’autre1. Ils se passionnent pour la musique d猫s leur plus jeune 芒ge, notamment avec l’av猫nement du rock ‘n’ roll2. Garfunkel commence 脿 chanter dans des radio-crochets d猫s le CM1 et rencontre Simon deux ans plus tard, en 1953.

Leur amiti茅 s’茅panouit quand tous deux sont choisis pour jouer dans une adaptation th茅芒trale d’Alice au pays des merveilles, Simon dans le r么le du Lapin blanc et Garfunkel dans celui du Chat du Cheshire. Ils commencent 脿 chanter ensemble dans des groupes de doo-wop et apprennent ainsi 脿 s’accorder l’un avec l’autre.

Simon et Garfunkel entrent 脿 la Forest Hills High School en septembre 1955 et entreprennent d’enregistrer leurs arrangements sur des bandes magn茅tiques. Ils 茅crivent leur premi猫re chanson, The Girl for Me, en 1956 et commencent 脿 se produire en tant que duo dans des 茅coles de musique. Tr猫s influenc茅s par Elvis Presley et The Everly Brothers, ils d茅cident de pr茅senter une maquette d’une de leurs compositions, Hey Schoolgirl, 脿 des 茅diteurs musicaux de Manhattan.

Ils enregistrent la chanson, avec Dancin’ Wild en face B, au Sanders Recording Studio, un minuscule studio d’enregistrement de Manhattan.

Ils rencontrent ensuite Sid Prosen, qui dirige le label ind茅pendant Big Records, et celui-ci leur fait signer un contrat en proclamant qu’ils sont les nouveaux Everly Brothers. Le duo adopte le nom de Tom and Jerry, d’apr猫s le cartoon du m锚me nom.

Garfunkel prend le pseudonyme de Tom Graph, en r茅f茅rence 脿 ses aptitudes en math茅matiques et 脿 sa manie de consigner les classements de singles sous forme de graphiques sur du papier millim茅tr茅

Simon prend celui de Jerry Landis, d’apr猫s le nom de famille d’une fille qu’il a fr茅quent茅.

Sid Prosen verse un pot-de-vin 脿 Alan Freed afin que ce dernier diffuse Hey Schoolgirl dans son 茅mission de radio, et la chanson devient rapidement l’un des morceaux les plus populaires de l’茅mission.

Hey Schoolgirl est alors diffus茅e r茅guli猫rement sur les ondes 脿 l’茅chelle nationale.

Le single se vend 脿 plus de 100 000 copies en 1957 et se hisse 脿 la 49e place du Billboard Hot 100. Prosen assure efficacement la promotion du duo, en les faisant notamment passer dans l’茅mission t茅l茅vis茅e American Bandstand aux c么t茅s de Jerry Lee Lewis.

Le producteur s’adjuge toutefois la part du lion dans les royalties d茅gag茅es par le duo, pr茅levant 96% de celles-ci

. Garfunkel, qui n’appr茅cie pas le milieu de l’industrie musicale, informe Simon qu’il souhaite se consacrer 脿 ses 茅tudes.

Simon d茅cide alors de continuer sa carri猫re en solo sous le pseudonyme de True Taylor. 脌 sa sortie du lyc茅e, Simon poursuit des 茅tudes d’anglais au Queens College alors que Garfunkel 茅tudie les math茅matiques 脿 l’universit茅 Columbia.

Les ventes des disques de Simon ne d茅collant pas, celui-ci propose 脿 Garfunkel de reprendre leur collaboration et son ami accepte.

Simon and Garfunkel3

Simon and Garfunkel Cover album3

Cependant, les nouveaux singles sortis par le duo sont des 茅checs commerciaux, ce qui provoque la fin de leur collaboration avec Sid Prosen.

Simon reprend sa carri猫re en solo, ce qui entame son amiti茅 avec Garfunkel, qui voit cela comme une trahison.

Cette tension jamais r茅solue entre les deux hommes influera sur leurs relations durant tout leur parcours commun. Simon ach猫ve son premier cycle universitaire et s’inscrit 脿 temps partiel 脿 la Brooklyn Law School.

Un nouveau d茅part (1963-1964)

Le premier concert de Simon and Garfunkel sous ce nom est 脿 l’origine d’une longue brouille entre Paul Simon et Bob Dylan, ici en 1963.

Simon et Garfunkel s’int茅ressent chacun de leur c么t茅 au mouvement 茅mergeant de la contre-culture et de la musique folk.

Simon devient un habitu茅 de Greenwich Village alors que Garfunkel retourne 脿 l’universit茅 Columbia afin de conserver son statut d’茅tudiant et d’茅viter d’锚tre incorpor茅 alors que l’engagement am茅ricain au Vi锚t Nam se pr茅cise.

Tous deux se retrouvent pour discuter des nouvelles compositions de Simon et les interpr茅ter au si猫ge de la fraternit茅 茅tudiante Alpha Epsilon Pi.

Fin 1963, ils se produisent sous le nom de Kane & Garr 脿 la Gerde’s Folk City, une salle de concerts de West Village.

Ils y interpr猫tent trois nouvelles chansons, Sparrow, He Was My Brother et The Sound of Silence, et captent l’attention du producteur Tom Wilson, qui a d茅j脿 travaill茅 avec Bob Dylan.

Wilson souhaite faire enregistrer He Was My Brother 脿 un groupe britannique mais Simon le persuade de les laisser faire une audition. Leur interpr茅tation de The Sound of Silence lors de celle-ci convainc Wilson, qui presse Columbia Records de leur faire signer un contrat.

Le premier album du duo, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., est enregistr茅 sur trois sessions en mars 1964 et sort le 19 octobre.

L’album contient cinq compositions originales de Simon, les sept autres 茅tant des reprises de chansons folk dont The Times They Are a-Changin’ de Bob Dylan.


Simon insiste aupr猫s de Garfunkel pour qu’ils utilisent d茅sormais leurs v茅ritables noms.

Columbia met en place un concert promotionnel 脿 Folk City le 31 mars 1964, qui est le premier concert o霉 le duo se produit sous le nom de Simon and Garfunkel.

Dylan est pr茅sent 脿 ce concert et une altercation l’oppose 脿 Simon, ce qui sera 脿 l’origine d’une longue rancune entre les deux hommes. L’origine de cette tension reste peu claire, certains biographes affirmant que Dylan aurait d茅lib茅r茅ment parl茅 tr猫s fort tout au long du concert alors que d’autres soutiennent qu’il aurait totalement d茅daign茅 celui-ci.

Le concert, tout comme d’autres organis茅s plus tard, n’est pas un succ猫s.

Simon, anticipant l’茅chec de l’album, part pour l’Angleterre et rencontre Kathy Chitty dans un club de folk o霉 il se produit.

Ils tombent amoureux et Kathy lui inspirera plusieurs chansons, notamment Kathy’s Song, America et Homeward Bound.

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. ne se vend qu’脿 3 000 exemplaires en quelques semaines et cet 茅chec pousse Simon 脿 rester en Angleterre tandis que Garfunkel reprend ses 茅tudes d’architecture.

Le son du succ猫s (1965-1966)

Les d茅mos que Simon enregistre en Angleterre sont diffus茅es sur les ondes par la BBC et connaissent le succ猫s.

En juin 1965, Columbia fait alors enregistrer 脿 Simon un album solo, The Paul Simon Songbook, qui sort en Angleterre deux mois plus tard et contient plusieurs chansons qui seront reprises plus tard par le duo.

Les ventes de l’album sont m茅diocres mais Simon demeure confiant sur son avenir en Angleterre. Pendant ce temps, de l’autre c么t茅 de l’Atlantique, un disc-jockey de Boston commence 脿 diffuser The Sound of Silence et la chanson devient populaire dans le milieu 茅tudiant de la c么te Est des 脡tats-Unis.

Tom Wilson l’apprend et d茅cide de faire r茅enregistrer la chanson dans une version 茅lectrique sans en informer le duo.

Le single sort en septembre et entre dans le Billboard Hot 100. Garfunkel informe Simon, toujours en Europe, de ce qui est en train de se passer. Simon est horrifi茅 lorsqu’il entend la version 茅lectrique pour la premi猫re fois mais les deux hommes appr茅cient le succ猫s du single28,29.

Simon revient 脿 New York vers la fin de l’ann茅e 1965 afin de reformer son duo avec Garfunkel.

Columbia leur fait enregistrer en d茅cembre un nouvel album et l’intitule 芦聽Sounds of Silence聽禄 afin de profiter du succ猫s du single.

Ce dernier s’empare de la premi猫re place du Billboard Hot 100 en janvier 1966 et d茅passe d茅sormais le million d’exemplaires vendus.

En plus d’une r茅茅dition de The Sound of Silence, l’album comprend cinq chansons de l’album solo de Simon, dont I Am a Rock, et seulement deux titres sont de nouvelles compositions originales.

L’album sort de fa莽on pr茅cipit茅e le 17 janvier 1966 et est suivi quelques jours plus tard par le single Homeward Bound, qui ne figure pas sur l’album et qui int猫gre le top 10 des classements musicaux dans plusieurs pays.

Au mois de mars, c’est ensuite I Am a Rock qui sort en single et qui se classe 3e du Billboard Hot 100. Mais en d茅pit du succ猫s commercial remport茅 par l’album, 21e au Billboard 200, et les singles, le duo est tourn茅 en d茅rision par de nombreux critiques musicaux qui estiment qu’il ne produit qu’une imitation manufactur茅e de la folk.

Alors que le duo part en tourn茅e 脿 travers les 脡tats-Unis, Columbia r茅茅dite Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. et l’album acc猫de 脿 la 30e place du Billboard 2003.

Simon and Garfunkel en 1966.

Conscients que Sounds of Silence est un travail r茅alis茅 dans la pr茅cipitation afin de capitaliser sur leur succ猫s soudain, Simon et Garfunkel d茅cident de peaufiner leur prochain album.

Simon insiste d’ailleurs pour avoir le contr么le total pendant la production de celui-ci. Garfunkel consid猫re l’enregistrement de leur version de la chanson traditionnelle 芦聽Scarborough Fair聽禄 comme le moment o霉 ils sont devenus les v茅ritables producteurs de leurs albums.

Le duo travaille plusieurs mois sur l’album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme et celui-ci sort le 10 octobre. Comprenant notamment Homeward Bound, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin’ Groovy), The Dangling Conversation et For Emily, Whenever I May Find Her, il se caract茅rise par de vifs contrastes entre les chansons et obtient l’approbation de la critique, qui reconna卯t son int茅grit茅 artistique, Simon se r茅v茅lant comme 芦 l’un des auteurs-compositeurs les plus dou茅s de l’茅poque 禄.

L’album se hisse par ailleurs 脿 la 4e place du Billboard 200.

Le duo entame dans la foul茅e une mini-tourn茅e sur les campus universitaires o霉 tous les concerts se jouent 脿 guichets ferm茅s. Mort Lewis, leur agent artistique, entretient l’image d茅cal茅e et po茅tique du duo en refusant qu’ils fassent des apparitions 脿 la t茅l茅vision 脿 moins que des conditions draconiennes ne soient accept茅es par l’茅mission.

A Hazy Shade of Winter, qui n’a pas 茅t茅 retenu par le duo pour figurer sur Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, sort en single deux semaines apr猫s la sortie de l’album et se classe 13e du Billboard Hot 100.

Popularit茅 et r茅compenses : les laur茅ats (1967-1968)

Simon et Garfunkel enregistrent en janvier 1967 le single At the Zoo et ce dernier est publi茅 le mois suivant, atteignant la 16e place du Billboard Hot 100.

Simon commence alors 脿 travailler sur le prochain album du duo, affirmant qu’il n’est plus int茅ress茅 par les singles.

Il est cependant affect茅 par un blocage de l’茅crivain qui a pour cons茅quence que ce nouvel album ne voit pas le jour en 1967.

脌 cette 茅poque, il est courant que les artistes sortent deux voire trois albums par an et ce manque de productivit茅 inqui猫te les dirigeants de Columbia. Clive Davis, le pr茅sident de Columbia, tente d’acc茅l茅rer la production de l’album en convoquant Simon et Garfunkel 脿 plusieurs reprises pour leur adresser des discours paternalistes mais les deux amis, d茅j脿 m茅fiants envers l’industrie musicale, tournent cela en d茅rision en enregistrant un sermon de Davis pour en rire par la suite.


Le 16 juin 1967, Simon and Garfunkel se produisent sur la sc猫ne du festival international de musique pop de Monterey qui marque le coup d’envoi du Summer of Love. Fakin’ It sort en single quelques semaines plus tard mais ne remporte qu’un succ猫s mod茅r茅.

Pendant ce temps, le r茅alisateur Mike Nichols tourne Le Laur茅at et se prend de passion pour la musique du duo, 茅coutant leurs chansons en boucle. Deux semaines plus tard, il rencontre Clive Davis pour lui demander l’autorisation d’utiliser certains morceaux du duo pour la musique du film. Davis est enthousiaste, flairant une parfaite occasion de placer une musique de film en t锚te des ventes de disques.

Simon est beaucoup plus r茅ticent, craignant de compromettre son int茅grit茅 artistique. Il change d’avis apr猫s avoir rencontr茅 Nichols, qui l’impressionne par son intelligence et la qualit茅 de son sc茅nario, et accepte d’茅crire de nouvelles chansons pour le film.

L’agent du duo n茅gocie un contrat qui offre 脿 Simon 25 000 $ pour la composition de trois chansons. Simon propose d’abord 脿 Nichols Punky’s Dilemma et Overs mais aucune des deux ne satisfait le r茅alisateur. Simon revient alors avec une premi猫re version de Mrs. Robinson, qui ne porte pas encore ce titre, qui enthousiasme Nichols.

L’album 芦聽The Graduate聽禄, compos茅 essentiellement de chansons du duo dont Mrs. Robinson, sort le 21 janvier 1968 et s’empare de la premi猫re place du Billboard 200 en avril.

Entretemps, l’enregistrement de Bookends, le quatri猫me album du duo, est enfin termin茅 apr猫s avoir 茅t茅 茅chelonn茅 sur plusieurs sessions depuis un an et demi, mais plus particuli猫rement depuis octobre 1967.

La production de l’album est marqu茅e par son perfectionnisme, l’enregistrement de Punky’s Dilemma 茅tant par exemple 茅tal茅 sur une cinquantaine d’heures. Mrs. Robinson est r茅茅crite et r茅enregistr茅e en f茅vrier 1968, lors des derni猫res sessions et constitue l’une des chansons-phares de l’album aux c么t茅s d’autres titres c茅l猫bres tels que America, A Hazy Shade of Winter et At the Zoo. Bookends, consid茅r茅 comme l’album 芦 le plus intellectuel 禄 du duo, est compos茅 sur sa premi猫re face d’un cycle de chansons plut么t sombres, 茅voquant une m茅ditation sur le passage du temps, qui sont suivies dans sa deuxi猫me partie par des titres plus l茅gers et au son plus rock. Il marque par ailleurs le d茅clin des harmonies du duo, qui disparaissent graduellement au profit d’un chant individuel.


Bookends sort le 3 avril 1968 et est suivi deux jours plus tard par la sortie en single de Mrs. Robinson dans un contexte tr猫s particulier puisque Martin Luther King est assassin茅 le 4 avril, ce qui provoque une grande 茅motion et une s茅rie d’茅meutes 脿 travers les 脡tats-Unis.

Bookends prend au mois de mai la premi猫re place du Billboard 200, occup茅e jusqu’alors par The Graduate, tandis que Mrs. Robinson s’installe au sommet du Billboard Hot 100 au mois de juin. Bookends devient 脿 cette date le plus grand succ猫s commercial du duo, ayant profit茅 du ph茅nom猫ne de bouche-脿-oreille engendr茅 par la sortie de The Graduate, et les ventes combin茅es des deux albums d茅passent les 5 millions de copies. Lors des Grammy Awards qui se tiennent en mars 1969 et c茅l猫brent les accomplissements des artistes pour l’ann茅e 1968, Mrs. Robinson remporte le prix de l’enregistrement de l’ann茅e, The Graduate celui de la meilleure musique de film et Simon and Garfunkel celui de la meilleure prestation pop d’un duo ou groupe avec chant.

聽BRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATER : dernier album et s茅paration (1969-1970)

Bookends et The Graduate propulsent Simon and Garfunkel au rang de stars internationales majeures, les deux hommes devenant le duo musical le plus c茅l猫bre du monde. Malgr茅 un d茅saccord avec Clive Davis, qui d茅sirait augmenter d’un dollar le prix de vente de Bookends ce que le duo a refus茅 et que Davis per莽oit comme un manque de gratitude58, Simon et Garfunkel prolongent leur contrat avec Columbia et n茅gocient au passage une augmentation de leur pourcentage de royalties.

Simon est approch茅 par plusieurs producteurs de cin茅ma qui souhaitent qu’il 茅crive des musiques de films et refuse notamment une offre pour Macadam Cowboy (1969).

Il d茅cline 茅galement une offre d’茅criture pour un spectacle de Broadway et collabore bri猫vement avec Leonard Bernstein sur une messe avant de se retirer du projet. De son c么t茅, Garfunkel est engag茅 par Mike Nichols pour interpr茅ter l’un des r么les principaux du film de guerre satirique Catch22 , dans lequel Simon devait aussi jouer avant que son r么le ne soit supprim茅.

Le tournage de Catch 22 commence en janvier 1969 et dure huit mois car il est entrav茅 par de nombreux probl猫mes.

Dans l’intervalle, le single The Boxer est publi茅 en avril et se classe dans le top 10 de plusieurs pays. Cette absence prolong茅e de Garfunkel affecte les relations entre les deux hommes car Simon, qui pr茅pare pendant ce temps le prochain album du duo, se sent abandonn茅.

D猫s le retour de Garfunkel, le duo se met au travail avec ardeur et d茅cline l’invitation qui leur est faite de participer au festival de Woodstock.

En octobre et novembre 1969, Simon and Garfunkel font une mini-tourn茅e aux 脡tats-Unis qui se termine par un concert 脿 guichets ferm茅s 脿 Carnegie Hall.

Le duo produit par ailleurs un documentaire musical, Songs of America, qui est diffus茅 sur CBS le 30 novembre et qui m锚le des extraits de leurs chansons 脿 des images d’茅v茅nements importants des ann茅es 1960.

Ce documentaire n’est diffus茅 qu’une fois en raison des tensions, en rapport avec son contenu politiquement charg茅, qu’il provoque sur la cha卯ne.

L’album 芦聽Bridge ove r Troubled聽禄 Water sort le 26 janvier 1970, tout comme le single du m锚me nom. Dans cet album, le duo abandonne en partie le son folk rock qui a fait sa gloire pour explorer d’autres sonorit茅s, comme le gospel, la musique sud-am茅ricaine, le latin jazz, le rockabilly ou encore le reggae, un m茅lange d’influences qui contribue 脿 sa 芦 richesse musicale 禄. L’album contient onze titres dont Bridge over Troubled Water, Cecilia, El C贸ndor Pasa (If I Could), The Boxer et The Only Living Boy in New York. L’inclusion d’un douzi猫me titre est longuement discut茅 sans que les deux hommes n’arrivent 脿 se mettre d’accord sur son choix.

L’album arrive au sommet des classements musicaux dans dix pays dont les 脡tats-Unis, le Royaume-Uni et la France. C’est l’album le plus vendu des ann茅es 1970, 1971 et 1972 ; il devient 脿 cette 茅poque l’album le plus vendu de tous les temps.

Le single homonyme s’empare lui aussi de la premi猫re place des classements musicaux dans plusieurs pays, alors que les autres singles tir茅s de l’album, Cecilia en avril et El C贸ndor Pasa (If I Could) en ao没t, se vendent aussi tr猫s bien4.

Malgr茅 cet 茅norme succ猫s, le processus d’enregistrement s’est r茅v茅l茅 tr猫s 茅prouvant pour les deux hommes et les tensions accumul茅es entre eux rendent leur s茅paration prochaine presque certaine avant m锚me la sortie de l’album.

Cette s茅paration n’est cependant pas pr茅vue au d茅part pour 锚tre permanente, Garfunkel souhaitant seulement faire une pause de deux ans et Simon ne pr茅voyant pas de reprendre sa carri猫re en solo.

En avril et mai, le duo se produit pour quelques dates en Europe, dont un passage 脿 l’Olympia le 1er mai, avant de jouer son dernier concert le 18 juillet 1970 au Forest Hills Stadium.

Lors de la c茅r茅monie des Grammy Awards 1971, l’album et la chanson Bridge over Troubled Water remportent six r茅compenses, dont celles de l’album de l’ann茅e et de la chanson de l’ann茅e. Quelque temps plus tard, Peggy Harper, l’茅pouse de Simon depuis 1969, pousse celui-ci 脿 rendre la s茅paration du duo officielle.

Simon appelle alors Clive Davis pour lui annoncer qu’il ne pense pas reprendre sa collaboration avec Garfunkel. Durant les quelques ann茅es qui suivent, les deux hommes ne se parlent que deux ou trois fois par an.

R茅unions occasionnelles

Le duo se reforme pour la premi猫re fois au Madison Square Garden en juin 1972 脿 l’occasion d’un concert de soutien pour George McGovern en vue de l’茅lection pr茅sidentielle am茅ricaine.

En 1975, les deux hommes se r茅concilient, dans une atmosph猫re embarrass茅e, 脿 l’occasion d’un passage 脿 une session d’enregistrement avec John Lennon et Harry Nilsson.

Ils tentent de produire de nouvelles chansons ensemble mais n’en concr茅tisent qu’une seule, My Little Town, qui para卯t 脿 la fois sur l’album de Paul Simon Still Crazy After All These Years, et sur celui de Art Garfunkel, Breakaway.

En 1977, Garfunkel vient se joindre 脿 Simon pour une br猫ve repr茅sentation lors d’une 茅mission t茅l茅vis茅e consacr茅e 脿 ce dernier. L’ann茅e suivante, ils enregistrent en compagnie de James Taylor une reprise de Wonderful World.

Les deux hommes passent plus de temps ensemble lorsque Garfunkel revient s’installer 脿 New York en 1978.

En 1981, alors que les carri猫res respectives des deux hommes battent de l’aile, ils sont contact茅s par le producteur de spectacles Ron Delsener qui leur propose de se produire pour un concert gratuit 脿 Central Park.

Le concert se d茅roule le 19 septembre 1981 et attire plus de 500 000 personnes, ce qui constitue pour l’茅poque la plus grande affluence de tous les temps pour un concert. Un enregistrement du concert est r茅alis茅 et donne lieu au premier album live du duo, The Concert in Central Park, qui sort le 16 f茅vrier 1982 et conna卯t un grand succ猫s commercial international.

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L’茅v茅nement renouvelle 茅galement l’int茅r锚t du public pour le duo, et les deux hommes ont plusieurs conversations 脿 c艙ur ouvert afin d鈥檈ssayer de mettre leurs probl猫mes derri猫re eux80. En mai et juin 1982, Simon and Garfunkel font une tourn茅e au Japon et en Europe mais leurs vieilles querelles refont surface85. N茅anmoins, Warner Bros. insiste pour qu’ils repartent en tourn茅e, ce qu’ils font en f茅vrier 1983 en Australie et en Nouvelle-Z茅lande, puis en juillet et ao没t 1983 en Am茅rique du Nord, et pour qu’ils pr茅parent un nouvel album en commun.

Malgr茅 plusieurs sessions d’enregistrement, leurs diff茅rends se r茅v猫lent 锚tre trop nombreux et Simon enregistre 脿 la place un nouvel album solo, Hearts and Bones, la raison officielle 茅tant qu’il trouve les textes qu’il a 茅crits trop personnels pour 锚tre interpr茅t茅s par quelqu’un d’autre.

En 1990, le duo est intronis茅 au Rock and Roll Hall of Fame et les deux hommes interpr猫tent trois chansons ensemble 脿 cette occasion, sans toutefois s’attarder.

Trois ans plus tard, leurs relations s’茅tant am茅lior茅es, ils se r茅unissent 脿 nouveau en octobre 1993 pour une s茅rie de 21 concerts jou茅s 脿 guichets ferm茅s au Paramount Theatre de New York, qui sont suivis par quelques dates en Asie. Cependant, une nouvelle brouille les tient 茅loign茅s pour le reste de la d茅cennie4.

En 2003, ils sont r茅compens茅s aux Grammy Awards pour l’ensemble de leur carri猫re et les organisateurs les persuadent de se r茅concilier pour cette occasion. Les deux hommes interpr猫tent ensemble The Sound of Silence en ouverture de la c茅r茅monie et jugent cette exp茅rience satisfaisante. Ils mettent alors en place une nouvelle tourn茅e, nomm茅e Old Friends Tour, pendant laquelle ils sillonnent les 脡tats-Unis d’octobre 脿 d茅cembre en jouant 40 concerts.

Ils repartent en tourn茅e, pour 20 dates aux 脡tats-Unis et 12 en Europe, en juin et juillet 200488. Cette tourn茅e se termine par un concert gratuit au Colis茅e de Rome qui r茅unit environ 600 000 personnes89. Un double CD-DVD intitul茅 Old Friends: Live on Stage immortalise cette tourn茅e.

Simon and Garfunkel en concert au New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival en 2010.

En 2009, le duo se r茅unit une nouvelle fois pour interpr茅ter trois chansons au Beacon Theatre de New York. Une tourn茅e en Oc茅anie et au Japon est organis茅e dans la foul茅e en juin et juillet90. Cette tourn茅e se passe tr猫s bien et de nouveaux concerts en Am茅rique du Nord sont planifi茅s pour l’茅t茅 2010. Cependant, alors qu’ils se produisent le 24 avril 2010 sur la sc猫ne du New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Garfunkel est atteint de s茅rieux probl猫mes vocaux. Une paralysie des cordes vocales lui est diagnostiqu茅e et la tourn茅e doit 锚tre annul茅e. Garfunkel ne r茅cup猫re totalement sa voix qu’apr猫s un combat de quatre ans et esp猫re une nouvelle r茅union du duo dans le futur91.


Simon and Garfunkel sont consid茅r茅s comme le duo le plus c茅l猫bre de l’histoire de la musique populaire. Leurs chansons ont laiss茅 une impression forte et durable sur la g茅n茅ration du baby boom et ils comptent, aux c么t茅s des Beatles et Bob Dylan, parmi les artistes les plus repr茅sentatifs du mouvement culturel des ann茅es 1960.

En 2004, le magazine Rolling Stone les classe 脿 la 40e place de sa liste des 100 plus grands artistes musicaux de tous les temps, consid茅rant que 芦 l’茅norme impact 禄 qu’ils ont laiss茅 sur la d茅cennie est d没 principalement 脿 l’alliage entre les talents d’auteur-compositeur de Paul Simon, cr茅ateur d’hymnes dans une palette musicale tr猫s vaste, et la voix unique d’Art Garfunkel.

Dans le Dictionnaire du Rock, ils sont d茅crits comme ayant apport茅 au folk militant un 芦 m茅lange in茅gal茅 de raffinement vocal et de tendresse m茅lancolique 禄.

Pour Gilles Verlant et Thomas Causs茅, dans la Discoth猫que parfaite de l’odyss茅e du rock, 芦 la seconde moiti茅 des sixties est marqu茅e de leur empreinte 禄 gr芒ce 脿 leurs 芦 m茅lodies fines, l茅g猫res et reconnaissables entre mille 禄 alors que 芦 le mariage de leurs voix, absolument unique, est au c艙ur de leur magie, tout comme les textes r茅solument po茅tiques et modernes, remplis d’images singuli猫res 禄.



Lana Parrilla, the evil queen of “once upon a time”

Lana Parrilla (born July 15, 1977) is an American actress.

Parrilla is best known for her roles on television and radio.





She was a regular cast member in the fifth season of the ABC sitcom Spin City from 2000 to 2001.

She ( later )guest-starred in Boomtown (2002-2003), Windfall (2006), Swingtown (2008) and as Doctor Eva Zambrano in the short-lived medical drama Miami Medical (2010). She also played the role of Sarah Gavin on the season four of Fox series 24 in 2005. In 2011, Parrilla began starring as The Evil Queen/Regina Mills in the ABC fantasy drama series, Once Upon a Time.

Parrilla was born in Brooklyn. Her father, Sam Parrilla (1943鈥94), was a Puerto Rican-born baseball player who played professionally for 11 seasons (1963鈥73), including one season with the Major League Philadelphia Phillies in 1970 as an outfielder.



Her mother is an American painter of Sicilian descent who works in banking. Parrilla has one older sister, Deena, and a nephew named Sammy.

She is also the niece of character actress Candice Azzara. Parrilla’s parents legally divorced when she was four years old. She spent her first ten years living with her mother, and then lived with her father. During the time she lived with her father, he was too protective to allow her to attend a performing arts school, which delayed her acting career.

Parrilla lived with her father until his murder in 1994, when she was 16 and he was 50. Her father was shot once in the chest by a 15-year-old female assailant at point blank range and later died from the wound.

After the death of her father, Parrilla moved in with her mother in Burbank, California. Parrilla visited Granada in 2007 to learn Spanish. After high school she moved to Los Angeles and attended Beverly Hills Playhouse to study acting. She also studied voice for ten years. Parrilla then began to be cast in small parts and later on, larger ones.

In her early career, Parrilla appeared in several movies, including Very Mean Men (2000), Spiders (2000), Replicant (2001) and Frozen Stars (2003). She made her television debut in 1999, on the UON sitcom Grown Ups.

In 2000, she joined the cast of the ABC comedy series Spin City, playing Angie Ordonez for one season. She left the show in 2001.

After that she joined Donnie Wahlberg and Neal McDonough in the 2002 critically acclaimed but short-lived crime drama Boomtown, for which she received the Imagen Award for Best Supporting Actress, for her portrayal of Teresa, a paramedic. Initially a success, Boomtown began to struggle, and Parrilla’s character became a police academy rookie, to tie her more closely to the rest of the show. “Boomtown” was cancelled just two episodes into its second season.

Parrilla guest-starred in a number of television dramas, including JAG, Six Feet Under, Covert Affairs, Medium, The Defenders and Chase. She had a recurring role in 2004 as Officer Janet Grafton in NYPD Blue.


In 2005, Parrilla took a recurring guest role on the fourth season of the Fox series 24 as Sarah Gavin, a Counter Terrorist Unit agent. After just six episodes, Lana was made a regular cast member; but in the thirteenth episode, her character was written out after she tried to thwart another character’s promotion from temporary to permanent CTU head Michelle Dessler (Reiko Aylesworth).

In 2006, Parrilla starred in the NBC summer series Windfall alongside Luke Perry, fellow former 24 cast member Sarah Wynter, and Parilla’s former Boomtown castmate Jason Gedrick. In 2007, she guest starred as Greta during the third season of ABC’s Lost in the episodes “Greatest Hits” and “Through the Looking Glass” In 2008, she had a leading role on the Lifetime movie The Double Life of Eleanor Kendall, in which she played Nellie, a divorcee whose identity has been stolen.

Also in 2008, she starred in the CBS summer series Swingtown as Trina Decker, a woman who is part of a Swinging couple. In 2010, Parrilla had a female lead role in the Jerry Bruckheimer-produced Miami Medical on CBS, which had a short run towards the end of the 2009鈥10 television season before it was canceled in July 2010.

Windfall, Swingtown and Miami Medical were all canceled after 13 episodes.

In February 2011, she was cast as Mayor Regina Mills/The Evil Queen, the main antagonist in the ABC adventure fantasy drama pilot, Once Upon a Time created by Edward Kitsis and Adam Horowitz.

The series debuted in October 2011.

The pilot episode was watched by 12.93 million viewers and achieved an adult 18鈥49 rating/share of 4.0/10 during the first season, receiving generally favorable reviews from critics.

Parrilla’s performance also received positive reviews from critics. In 2012 and 2013, she was regarded as a promising contender for an Emmy Award in the Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series category, though she did not receive a nomination.

She won the TV Guide Award for Favorite Villain and the ALMA Award for Outstanding Actress in a Drama Series in 2012.

Parrilla also received a nomination for Best Supporting Actress on Television from the 38th Saturn Awards.


Parrilla became engaged to boyfriend Fred Di Blasio on April 28, 2013, while in Israel.

The two were married June 5, 2014, shortly before Parrilla began filming the fourth season of Once Upon a Time.”

Parrilla confirmed the news on her Twitter account on August 1. Parrilla is the stepmother to Di Blasio’s three sons: Jack, age 18, Patrick, age 15, and Matthew, age 13.




Lana Maria Parrilla, n茅e le 15 juillet 1977 脿 Brooklyn dans l’脡tat de New York, est une actrice am茅ricaine.




Lana Parrilla est n茅e d’une m猫re italienne artiste-peintre et d’un p猫re porto-ricain, Sam Parrilla. Ce dernier fut un joueur professionnel de baseball am茅ricain 茅voluant dans l’茅quipe des Phillies de Philadelphie dans les ann茅es 1970. Il est assassin茅 en 1994 脿 la suite d’une altercation qui a mal tourn茅. Elle a une s艙ur a卯n茅e pr茅nomm茅e Deena et est la ni猫ce de l’actrice Candice Azzara, qui l’a inspir茅e dans sa carri猫re d’actrice.

Apr猫s le lyc茅e, Lana Parrilla a d茅m茅nag茅 脿 Los Angeles pour commencer sa carri猫re o霉 elle a 茅tudi茅 脿 la Beverly Hills Playhouse.

Elle r茅side 脿 Vancouver avec son mari Alfredo “Fred” DiBlasio. Elle n’a pas d’enfant mais vit avec les trois adolescents de son compagnon ainsi que leurs animaux de compagnie. Elle s’est fianc茅e en Isra毛l le 29 avril 2013 et s’est mari茅e le 5 juillet 2014.

Elle d茅veloppe tr猫s jeune un go没t pour la com茅die, inspir茅e par sa tante, l’actrice am茅ricaine Candice Azzara. Elle suit des cours 脿 Los Angeles avant de d茅buter dans une s茅rie en 1999, Grown Ups durant deux 茅pisodes. Elle encha卯ne les s茅ries avec le r么le r茅gulier d’Angie Ordonez dans Spin City en 2000, puis Boomtown en 2002.



Elle joue dans des s茅ries d’action et policier avec JAG en 2000, New York Police Blues en 2004 ainsi que dans une saison de 24 heures chrono dans le r么le de Sarah Gavin.

En 2008, elle incarne Trina Decker dans la s茅rie Swingtown. Elle incarne une voisine d’un couple qui va d茅couvrir, gr芒ce 脿 elle, la lib茅ration sexuelle.

En 2011, dans la nouvelle s茅rie t茅l茅vis茅e fantastique am茅ricaine Once Upon a Time, elle joue l’un des r么les principaux f茅minins en incarnant le Maire de Storybrooke, Regina Mills, ainsi que le personnage de la M茅chante Reine, belle-m猫re de Blanche-Neige.

Lana Parrilla a 茅t茅 attaqu茅e 脿 dix ans par un chien, ce qui lui a laiss茅 une cicatrice visible sur le c么t茅 droit de sa l猫vre sup茅rieure

Elle est 茅galement une chanteuse 脿 certaines occasions, pr锚tant sa voix en fond sonore pour un tube de musique compos茅 par deux des trois fils de son compagnon. Ces derniers forment un groupe de musique appel茅 45 Spacer et Lana a contribu茅 脿 leur tube appel茅 Naughty Boys, en 2012 ainsi qu’脿 You and Me en 2013.

Elle a obtenu le r么le r茅gulier d’Angie Ordonez dans la s茅rie Spin City en 2000 apr猫s avoir d没 passer six auditions au total.

Lana Parrilla connaissait toute l’histoire de la Reine Regina d猫s le pilote de la saison 1 de Once Upon a Time. Les sc茅naristes Edward Kitsis et Adam Horowitz lui ont r茅v茅l茅 le pass茅 du personnage avec Blanche-Neige afin qu’elle incarne au mieux son r么le.



Lana et l’acteur Jorge Garcia se connaissent depuis pr猫s de vingt ans. En effet, ils ont d茅but茅 ensemble leurs cours de th茅芒tre 脿 Los Angeles et sont devenus tr猫s amis. Ils se sont retrouv茅s lors du tournage de la saison 3 de Lost, en 2006, o霉 Garcia incarnait un survivant alors qu’ils 茅taient log茅s dans la m锚me hutte. Ils se sont ensuite retrouv茅s ensemble dans la saison 2 de Once Upon a Time.

Jack DiBlasio, le fils a卯n茅 de son compagnon, a fait une apparition dans le dernier 茅pisode de la saison 2 de Once Upon a Time, dans le r么le d’un des Enfants Perdus du Pays Imaginaire.

Elle a une petite plume tatou茅e au poignet droit, symbole d’espoir.




2000 : Spiders de Gary Jones : Marci

2000 : Very Mean Men de Tony Vitale : Teresa

2001 : Replicant de Ringo Lam : Marci

2003 : One Last Ride de Tony Vitale : Antoinette



1999 : Grown Ups de Brian K. Roberts & Richard Correll (S茅rie TV) : Une serveuse

2000 – 2001 : Spin City de Ted Wass (S茅rie TV) : Angie Ordonez

2001 : Semper fi de Michael W. Watkins (T茅l茅film)

2002 – 2003 : Boomtown de Frederick King Keller, Jon Avnet (S茅rie TV) : Teresa Ortiz

2002 : The Shield de Scott Brazil (S茅rie TV) : Sedona Tellez

2002 : JAG de Terrence O’Hara (S茅rie TV) : Lt. Stephanie Donato

2004 : Six Feet Under (Six Feet Under) de Peter Webber et Miguel Arteta (S茅rie TV) : Maile

2004 : New York Police Blues (NYPD Blue) de Robert J. Doherty, Mark Tinker & Dennis Dugan (S茅rie TV) : Officier Janet Grafton

2005 : 24 heures chrono de Ken Girotti, Jon Cassar (S茅rie TV) : Sarah Gavin

2006 : Windfall : Des dollars tomb茅s du ciel d’Ellen S. Pressman, Matt Shakman (S茅rie TV) : Nina Schaefer

2007 : Lost : Les Disparus de Stephen Williams & Jack Bender (S茅rie TV) : Greta

2008 : Swingtown d’Alex Zakrzewski, Alan Poul (S茅rie TV) : Trina Decker

2008 : Mon identit茅 vol茅e (The Double Life of Eleanor Kendall) de Richard Roy (T茅l茅film) : Nellie

2010 : M茅dium (s茅rie t茅l茅vis茅e) (S茅rie TV) : Lydia

2010 : Miami Medical (S茅rie TV) : Dr Eva Zambrano

2010 : Chase (S茅rie TV) : Isabella

2011 : Covert Affairs (S茅rie TV) : Julia Suarez

2011 – en cours : Once Upon a Time (S茅rie TV) : La M茅chante Reine / Regina Mills