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Thomas Wright Waller was the youngest of 11 children (five survived childhood) born to Adeline Locket Waller and Reverend Edward Martin Waller in New York City.
He started playing the piano when he was six and graduated to the organ of his father’s church four years later.
His mother instructed him as a youth. At the age of 14 he was playing the organ at Harlem’s Lincoln Theater and within 12 months he had composed his first rag. Waller’s first piano solos (“Muscle Shoals Blues” and “Birmingham Blues”) were recorded in October 1922 when he was 18 years old.
He was the prize pupil, and later friend and colleague, of stride pianist James P. Johnson.
Overcoming opposition from his clergyman father, Waller became a professional pianist at 15, working in cabarets and theaters. In 1918 he won a talent contest playing Johnson’s “Carolina Shout”, a song he learned from watching a player piano play it.
Waller ultimately became one of the most popular performers of his era, finding critical and commercial success in his homeland and in Europe. He was also a prolific songwriter and many songs he wrote or co-wrote are still popular, such as “Honeysuckle Rose”, “Ain’t Misbehavin'” and “Squeeze Me”.
Fellow pianist and composer Oscar Levant dubbed Waller “the black Horowitz”. Waller is believed to have composed many novelty tunes in the 1920s and 1930s and sold them for relatively small sums, the attributions of which, on becoming widely known, went only to a later composer and lyricist.
Standards alternatively and sometimes controversially attributed to Waller include “I Can’t Give You Anything but Love, Baby”.
Biographer Barry Singer conjectured that this jazz classic was written by Waller and lyricist Andy Razaf, and provides a description of the sale given by Waller to the NY Post in 1929—for $500, to a white songwriter, ultimately for use in a financially successful show (consistent with Jimmy McHugh’s contributions first to Harry Delmar’s Revels, 1927, and then to Blackbirds, 1928).
He further supports the conjecture, noting that early handwritten manuscripts in the Dana Library Institute of Jazz Studies of “Spreadin’ Rhythm Around” (Jimmy McHugh ©1935) are in Waller’s hand.
Jazz historian P.S. Machlin comments that the Singer conjecture has “considerable [historical] justification”.
Waller’s son Maurice wrote in his 1977 biography of his father that Waller had once complained on hearing the song, and came from upstairs to admonish him never to play it in his hearing because he had had to sell it when he needed money.
Maurice Waller’s biography similarly notes his father’s objections to hearing “On the Sunny Side of the Street” playing on the radio.
Waller recorded “I Can’t Give You…” in 1938, playing the tune but making fun of the lyrics; the recording was with Adelaide Hall who had introduced the song to the world at Les Ambassadeurs Club in New York in 1928.
The anonymous sleeve notes on the 1960 RCA Victor album Handful of Keys state that Waller copyrighted over 400 songs, many of which co-written with his closest collaborator Andy Razaf.
Razaf described his partner as “the soul of melody… a man who made the piano sing… both big in body and in mind… known for his generosity… a bubbling bundle of joy”.
Gene Sedric, a clarinetist who played with Waller on some of his 1930s recordings, is quoted in these same sleeve notes recalling Waller’s recording technique with considerable admiration: “Fats was the most relaxed man I ever saw in a studio, and so he made everybody else relaxed.
After a balance had been taken, we’d just need one take to make a side, unless it was a kind of difficult number.”
Waller played with many performers, from Nathaniel Shilkret and Gene Austin, to Erskine Tate, Fletcher Henderson, McKinney’s Cotton Pickers and Adelaide Hall, but his greatest success came with his own five- or six-piece combo, “Fats Waller and his Rhythm”.
His playing once put him at risk of injury. Waller was kidnapped in Chicago leaving a performance in 1926. Four men bundled him into a car and took him to the Hawthorne Inn, owned by Al Capone.
Waller was ordered inside the building, and found a party in full swing. Gun to his back, he was pushed towards a piano, and told to play. A terrified Waller realized he was the “surprise guest” at Capone’s birthday party, and took comfort that the gangsters did not intend to kill him.
It is rumored that Waller stayed at the Hawthorne Inn for three days and left very drunk, extremely tired, and had earned thousands of dollars in cash from Capone and other party-goers as tips.
In 1926, Waller began his recording association with the Victor Talking Machine Company/RCA Victor, his principal record company for the rest of his life, with the organ solos “St. Louis Blues” and his own composition, “Lenox Avenue Blues”.
Although he recorded with various groups, including Morris’s Hot Babes (1927), Fats Waller’s Buddies (1929) (one of the earliest multiracial groups to record), and McKinney’s Cotton Pickers (1929), his most important contribution to the Harlem stride piano tradition was a series of solo recordings of his own compositions: “Handful of Keys”, “Smashing Thirds”, “Numb Fumblin'”, and “Valentine Stomp” (1929).
After sessions with Ted Lewis (1931), Jack Teagarden (1931) and Billy Banks’ Rhythmakers (1932), he began in May 1934 the voluminous series of recordings with a small band known as Fats Waller and his Rhythm.
This six-piece group usually included Herman Autrey (sometimes replaced by Bill Coleman or John “Bugs” Hamilton), Gene Sedric or Rudy Powell, and Al Casey.
Waller wrote “Squeeze Me” (1919), “Keepin’ Out of Mischief Now”, “Ain’t Misbehavin'” (1929), “Blue Turning Grey Over You”, “I’ve Got a Feeling I’m Falling” (1929), “Honeysuckle Rose” (1929) and “Jitterbug Waltz” (1942). He composed stride piano display pieces such as “Handful of Keys”, “Valentine Stomp” and “Viper’s Drag”.
He enjoyed success touring the United Kingdom and Ireland in the 1930s. He appeared in one of the first BBC television broadcasts.
Waller was returning to New York City from Los Angeles, after the smash success of Stormy Weather, and after a successful engagement at the Zanzibar Room, during which he had fallen ill.
More than 4,000 people attended his funeral in Harlem, which prompted Dr. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., who delivered the eulogy, to say that Fats Waller “always played to a packed house.”
Afterwards he was cremated and his ashes were scattered, from an airplane piloted by an unidentified World War black aviator, over Harlem.
One of his surviving relatives is former Georgia Tech Yellow Jacket and current Baltimore Ravens wideout Darren Waller, who is Fats’ paternal great-grandson.
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Dickinson has appeared in more than 50 films, including Ocean’s 11 (1960), The Sins of Rachel Cade (1961), Jessica (1962), Captain Newman, M.D. (1963), The Killers (1964), The Art of Love (1965), The Chase (1966) and the neo-noir classic Point Blank (1967). From 1974 to 1978, Dickinson starred as Sergeant Leann “Pepper” Anderson in the NBC crime series Police Woman, for which she received Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama and three Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series nominations.
During her later career, Dickinson starred in a number of television movies and miniseries, also playing supporting roles in films such as Sabrina (1995), Pay It Forward (2000) and Big Bad Love (2001). As lead actress, she starred in the 1980 erotic crime thriller Dressed to Kill, for which she received a Saturn Award for Best Actress.
Dickinson, the second of four daughters, was born Angeline Brown (called “Angie” by family and friends) in Kulm, North Dakota, the daughter of Fredericka (née Hehr) and Leo Henry Brown.
Her family is of German descent and she was raised Roman Catholic.
Her father was a small-town newspaper publisher and editor, working on the Kulm Messenger and the Edgeley Mail.
In 1942, her family moved to Burbank, California, where she attended Bellarmine-Jefferson High School, graduating in 1947 at 15 years of age. The previous year, she had won the Sixth Annual Bill of Rights essay contest.
She studied at Glendale Community College and in 1954 graduated from Immaculate Heart College with a degree in business. Taking a cue from her publisher father, she had intended to be a writer. While a student from 1950–52, she worked as a secretary at Lockheed Air Terminal in Burbank (now Bob Hope Airport) and in a parts factory. She became Angie Dickinson in 1952, when she married football player Gene Dickinson.
Dickinson entered a beauty pageant in 1953 and placed second. The exposure brought her to the attention of a television industry producer, who asked her to consider a career in acting. She studied the craft and a few years later was approached by NBC to guest-star on a number of variety shows, including The Colgate Comedy Hour. She soon met Frank Sinatra, who became a lifelong friend. She later was cast as Sinatra’s wife in the film Ocean’s 11.
On New Year’s Eve 1954, Dickinson made her television acting debut in an episode of Death Valley Days. This led to other roles in such productions as Matinee Theatre (eight episodes), Buffalo Bill Jr., City Detective, It’s a Great Life (two episodes), Gray Ghost, General Electric Theater, Broken Arrow, The People’s Choice (twice), Meet McGraw (twice), Northwest Passage, Gunsmoke, The Virginian, Tombstone Territory, Cheyenne, and The Restless Gun.
In 1956, Dickinson was cast as Ann Drew, who slips a gun to her jailed husband, Harry (John Craven), a former associate of the Jesse James gang, in the ABC/Desilu western series, The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, starring Hugh O’Brian. In the story line, Harry vowed never to go to prison and was shot to death while escaping.
In 1957, she was cast as Amy Bender in Richard Boone’s series “Have Gun-Will Travel” in the episode “A Matter of Ethics.” She played the sister of a man who was killed and who wanted the murderer lynched.
In 1958, she was cast as Laura Meadows in the episode “The Deserters” of an ABC/Warner Brothers western series, Colt .45, with Wayde Preston.
That year she also played the role of defendant Mrs. Fargo in the Perry Mason episode “The Case of the One-Eyed Witness.”
Dickinson went on to create memorable characters in Mike Hammer, Wagon Train, and Men into Space. In 1965, she had a recurring role as Carol Tredman on NBC’s Dr. Kildare. She had a memorable turn as the duplicitous murder conspirator in a 1964 episode of The Fugitive series with David Janssen and fellow guest star Robert Duvall. She was at her evil best as an unfaithful wife and bank robber in the 1958 “Wild Blue Yonder” episode of Rod Cameron’s syndicated television series State Trooper.
She starred in two Alfred Hitchcock Hour episodes, “Captive Audience” with James Mason on Oct. 18, 1962, and “Thanatos Palace Hotel” on Feb. 1, 1965.
Dickinson’s motion picture career began with a small, uncredited role in Lucky Me (1954) starring Doris Day, followed by The Return of Jack Slade (1955), Man with the Gun (1955), and Hidden Guns (1956). She had her first starring role in Gun the Man Down (1956) with James Arness, followed by the Sam Fuller cult film China Gate (1957), which depicted an early view of the Vietnam War.
Rejecting the Marilyn Monroe/Jayne Mansfield style of platinum blonde sex-symbolism because she felt it would narrow her acting options, Dickinson initially allowed studios to lighten her naturally brunette hair to only honey-blonde.
She appeared early in her career mainly in B-movies or westerns, including Shoot-Out at Medicine Bend (1957), in which she co-starred with James Garner. In the 1958 crime drama Cry Terror!, Dickinson had a supporting role opposite James Mason and Rod Steiger as a femme fatale.
In 1959, Dickinson’s big-screen breakthrough role came in Howard Hawks’ Rio Bravo, in which she played a flirtatious gambler called “Feathers” who becomes attracted to the town sheriff played by Dickinson’s childhood idol John Wayne. The film co-starred Dean Martin, Ricky Nelson, and Walter Brennan. When Hawks sold his personal contract with her to a major studio without her knowledge, she was unhappy. Dickinson nonetheless became one of the more prominent leading ladies of the next decade, beginning with The Bramble Bush with Richard Burton. She also took a supporting role in Ocean’s 11 with friends Sinatra and Martin, released in 1960.
These were followed by a political potboiler, A Fever in the Blood (1961); a Belgian Congo-based melodrama, The Sins of Rachel Cade (1961), in which she played a missionary nurse tempted by lust; a scheming woman in Rome Adventure (1962), filmed in Italy, and the title role in Jean Negulesco’s Jessica (1962) with Maurice Chevalier, in which she played a young midwife resented by the married women of the town, set in Sicily.
Angie would also share the screen with friend Gregory Peck as a military nurse in the dark comedy Captain Newman, M.D. (1963).
For The Killers (1964), originally intended to be the very first made-for-television movie but released to theatres due to its violent content, Dickinson played a femme fatale opposite future U.S. President Ronald Reagan in his last movie role.
Directed by Don Siegel, it was a remake of the 1946 version based on a story by Ernest Hemingway and the only film Reagan made in which he was cast as a villain. He viciously slaps Dickinson in one of the film’s scenes.
Dickinson co-starred in the comedy The Art of Love (1965), playing the love interest of both James Garner and Dick Van Dyke. She joined a star-studded Arthur Penn/Sam Spiegel production, The Chase (1966), along with Marlon Brando, Jane Fonda, Robert Redford, and Robert Duvall. That same year she was featured in Cast a Giant Shadow, a war story with Kirk Douglas.
Dickinson’s best movie of this era was arguably John Boorman’s cult classic Point Blank (1967), a lurid crime drama with Lee Marvin as a criminal betrayed by his wife and best friend and out for revenge. The film epitomized the stark urban mood of the period, and its reputation has grown through the years.
Westerns would continue to be a part of her work in the late ’60s, when she starred in The Last Challenge opposite Glenn Ford, in Young Billy Young with Robert Mitchum, and in Sam Whiskey, where she gave rising star Burt Reynolds his first on-screen kiss.
In 1971, she played a lascivious substitute high school teacher in the dark comedy Pretty Maids All in a Row for director Roger Vadim and writer-producer Gene Roddenberry, in which her character seduces a sexually inexperienced student, portrayed by John David Carson, against the backdrop of a series of murders of female students at the same high school; it was a box-office failure. In 1972’s The Outside Man, a French movie shot in L.A., with Jean-Louis Trintignant, directed by Jacques Deray, she plays the wife of a mobster. In 1973, she co-starred with Roy Thinnes in the supernatural thriller The Norliss Tapes, a TV movie produced and directed by Dan Curtis.
One of Dickinson’s best known and most sexually provocative movie roles followed, that of the tawdry widow Wilma McClatchie from the Great Depression romp Big Bad Mama (1974) with William Shatner and Tom Skerritt. Although well into her forties at the time, she appeared nude in several scenes, which created interest in the movie and a new generation of male fans for Dickinson.
A 1966 Esquire magazine cover gained Dickinson additional fame and notoriety, her having posed in nothing but a sweater and a pair of panty hose. The photo became so iconic that, while celebrating the magazine’s 70th anniversary in 2003, the Dickinson pose was recreated for the cover by Britney Spears.
Dickinson as Pepper Anderson, 1975 in Police Woman
Dickinson returned to the small screen in March 1974 for an episode of the critically acclaimed hit anthology series Police Story. That one guest appearance proved to be so popular that NBC offered Dickinson her own television show, which became a ground-breaking weekly series called Police Woman; it was the first successful dramatic TV series to feature a woman in the title role. At first, Dickinson was reluctant, but when producers told her she could become a household name, she accepted the role. They were right.
In the series, she played Sgt. Leann “Pepper” Anderson, an officer of the Los Angeles Police Department’s Criminal Conspiracy Unit who often works undercover.
The show became a hit, reaching number one in many countries in which it aired during its first year. It ran for four seasons and Dickinson would win a Golden Globe award, and receive Emmy nominations for three consecutive years.
Co-starring on the show was Earl Holliman as Sergeant Bill Crowley, Anderson’s commanding officer, along with Charles Dierkop as investigator Pete Royster and Ed Bernard as investigator Joe Styles.
The series ran from 1974 to 1978. The same year the show ended, Dickinson reprised her Pepper Anderson character on the television special Ringo, co-starring with Ringo Starr and John Ritter. She also parodied the part in the 1975 and 1979 Bob Hope Christmas specials for NBC. She would do the same years later on the 1987 Christmas episode of NBC’s Saturday Night Live.
Police Woman caused a surge of applications for employment from women to police departments around the United States; journalists who have in recent years examined the inspiration for long-term female law enforcement officials to adopt this vocation as their own have been surprised by how often Dickinson’s Police Woman has been referenced.
Dickinson and Police Woman proved that a female lead could carry an hour-long television series, paving the way for several female-starring, hour-long TV series during the 1970s and 1980s, such as Charlie’s Angels, Wonder Woman, The Bionic Woman and Cagney and Lacey. In 1987, the Los Angeles Police Department awarded Dickinson an honorary doctorate, which led her to quip, “Now you can call me Doctor Pepper.”
On occasion during the 1970s, Dickinson took part in the popular Dean Martin Celebrity Roast on television, and herself was the guest of honor on August 2, 1977, roasted by a dais of celebrities that included James Stewart, Orson Welles and her Police Woman series co-star Earl Holliman.
Having done a television series plus the mini-series Pearl (1978) about the Pearl Harbor bombing of 1941, Dickinson’s career in feature films appeared to be in decline. But she returned to the big screen in Brian De Palma’s erotic thriller Dressed to Kill (1980), for which she gained considerable notice, particularly for a long, silent scene in a museum before the character meets her fate. The role of Kate Miller, a sexually frustrated New York housewife, earned her a 1981 Saturn Award for Best Actress. “The performers are excellent,” wrote Vincent Canby in his July 25, 1980 New York Times review, “especially Miss Dickinson.”
She took a less substantial role in 1981’s Death Hunt, reuniting her with Lee Marvin, and also appeared in Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen. Earlier that year, she had been the first choice to play the character Krystle Carrington on the television series Dynasty but, deciding she wanted to spend more time with her daughter, she turned it down; the role instead went to Linda Evans. In the mid-1980s Dickinson declined the role of Sable Colby on the Dynasty spin-off, The Colbys.
After nixing her own Johnny Carson-produced prospective sitcom, The Angie Dickinson Show, in 1980 after only two episodes had been shot because she did not feel she was funny enough, the private-eye series Cassie & Co. became her unsuccessful attempt at a television comeback. She then starred in several TV movies, such as One Shoe Makes It Murder (1982), Jealousy (1984), A Touch of Scandal (1984), and Stillwatch (1987). She had a pivotal role in the highly rated mini-series Hollywood Wives (1985), based on a novel by Jackie Collins.
In 1982, and again in 1986, Dickinson appeared in two of Perry Como’s Christmas specials for the ABC television network, in both of which she did something she was not known to have done before: singing. The specials in which she appeared, and in which she sang songs, were Perry Como’s Christmas In Paris, produced on location in Paris, France, which was transmitted on Saturday, December 18, 1982, and The Perry Como Christmas Special, produced on location in San Antonio, Texas, and transmitted on Saturday, December 6, 1986. As of early January of 2013, these two specials were not known to be available on home video. Dickinson later denied having sung on camera since then in an interview with Larry King conducted at the approximate time of her appearance in Duets.
In motion pictures, Dickinson reprised her role as Wilma McClatchie for Big Bad Mama II (1987) and completed the television movie Kojak: Fatal Flaw, in which she was reunited with Telly Savalas. She co-starred with Willie Nelson and numerous buddies in the 1988 television western Once Upon a Texas Train.
She was presented one of the Golden Boot Awards in 1989 for her contributions to western cinema.
In the 1993 ABC miniseries Wild Palms, produced by Oliver Stone, she was the sadistic, militant sister of Senator Tony Kruetzer, played by Robert Loggia. That same year, she starred as a ruthless Montana spa owner in Gus Van Sant’s Even Cowgirls Get the Blues with Uma Thurman.
In 1995, Sydney Pollack cast her as the prospective mother-in-law of Greg Kinnear in the romantic comedy Sabrina starring Harrison Ford, a remake of the Billy Wilder classic. She played Burt Reynolds’ wife in the thriller The Maddening and the mother of Rick Aiello and Robert Cicchini in the National Lampoon comedy The Don’s Analyst. In 1997, she seduced old flame Artie (Rip Torn) in an episode of HBO’s The Larry Sanders Show called “Artie and Angie and Hank and Hercules.”
Dickinson acted out the alcoholic, homeless mother of Helen Hunt’s character in Pay It Forward (2000); the grandmother of Gwyneth Paltrow’s character in the drama Duets (2000), and the mother of Arliss Howard’s character in Big Bad Love (2001), co-starring Debra Winger.
Having appeared in the original Ocean’s 11 (1960) with good friends Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin, four decades later she made a brief cameo in the 2001 remake with George Clooney and Brad Pitt.
An avid poker player, during the summer of 2004 she participated in the second season of Bravo’s Celebrity Poker Showdown. After announcing her name, host Dave Foley said, “Sometimes, when we say ‘celebrity,’ we actually mean it.”
Dickinson is a recipient of the state of North Dakota’s Rough Rider Award.
In 1999, Playboy ranked Dickinson No. 42 on their list of the “100 Sexiest Stars of the Century.” In 2002, TV Guide ranked her No. 3 on a list of the “50 Sexiest Television Stars of All Time,” behind Diana Rigg and George Clooney (who tied for No. 1).
In 2009, Dickinson starred in a Hallmark Channel film, Mending Fences. It is her last screen role to date.
With husband-composer Burt Bacharach and new child, 1966
She was married to Gene Dickinson, a former football player, from 1952 to 1960. Close friends with John Kenneth Galbraith and Catherine Galbraith, her extensive visits to them and touring when John was American Ambassador to India is amply recounted in Galbraith memoirs including Ambassador’s Journal and A Life in Our Times. Dickinson kept her married name after her first divorce.
She married Burt Bacharach in 1965. They remained a married couple for 15 years, though late in their marriage, they had a period of separation where each dated other people.
Their daughter, Lea Nikki, known as Nikki, arrived a year after they were married. Born three months prematurely, Nikki suffered from chronic health problems, including visual impairment; she was later diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Burt composed the music of the song Nikki for their fragile young daughter, and Angie rejected many roles to focus on caring for their daughter. Nikki’s parents eventually placed her at the Wilson Center, a psychiatric residential treatment facility for adolescents in Faribault, Minnesota, where she remained for nine years. Later, Nikki studied geology at California Lutheran University, but her poor eyesight prevented her from pursuing a career in that field. On January 4, 2007, Nikki killed herself by suffocation in her apartment in the Ventura County suburb of Thousand Oaks. She was 40.
In a joint statement, Dickinson and Bacharach said, “She quietly and peacefully committed suicide to escape the ravages to her brain brought on by Asperger’s… She loved kitties, earthquakes, glacial calving, meteor showers, science, blue skies and sunsets, and Tahiti. She was one of the most beautiful creatures created on this earth, and she is now in the white light, at peace.”
In a 2006 interview with NPR, Dickinson stated that she was a Democrat. She supported John F. Kennedy’s presidential campaign in 1960.
|1954||Lucky Me||Party Guest||Uncredited|
|1955||Tennessee’s Partner||Abby Dean|
|1955||The Return of Jack Slade||Polly Logan|
|1955||Man with the Gun||Kitty||Uncredited|
|1956||Down Liberty Road||Mary||Short film|
|1956||Hidden Guns||Becky Carter|
|1956||Tension at Table Rock||Cathy|
|1956||Gun the Man Down||Janice|
|1956||The Black Whip||Sally Morrow|
|1957||Shoot-Out at Medicine Bend||Priscilla King|
|1957||China Gate||Lucky Legs|
|1957||Run of the Arrow||Yellow Moccasin||Voice|
|1958||I Married a Woman||Screen Wife|
|1958||Cry Terror!||Eileen Kelly|
|1960||I’ll Give My Life||Alice Greenway Bradford|
|1960||The Bramble Bush||Fran|
|1960||Ocean’s Eleven||Beatrice Ocean|
|1961||A Fever in the Blood||Cathy Simon|
|1961||The Sins of Rachel Cade||Rachel Cade|
|1962||Jessica||Jessica Brown Visconti|
|1962||Rome Adventure||Lyda Kent|
|1963||Captain Newman, M.D.||Lt. Francie Corum|
|1964||The Killers||Sheila Farr|
|1965||The Art of Love||Laurie Gibson|
|1966||The Chase||Ruby Calder|
|1966||Cast a Giant Shadow||Emma Marcus|
|1966||The Poppy Is Also a Flower||Linda Benson|
|1967||The Last Challenge||Lisa Denton|
|1969||Sam Whiskey||Laura Breckenridge|
|1969||Some Kind of a Nut||Rachel Amidon|
|1969||Young Billy Young||Lily Beloit|
|1971||Pretty Maids All in a Row||Miss Betty Smith|
|1971||The Resurrection of Zachary Wheeler||Dr. Layle Johnson|
|1972||The Outside Man||Jackie Kovacs|
|1974||Big Bad Mama||Wilma McClatchie|
|1979||L’homme en colère||Karen|
|1980||Klondike Fever||Belinda McNair|
|1980||Dressed to Kill||Kate Miller|
|1981||Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen||Dragon Queen|
|1981||Death Hunt||Vanessa McBride|
|1987||Big Bad Mama II||Wilma McClatchie|
|1993||Even Cowgirls Get the Blues||Miss Adrian|
|1996||The Maddening||Georgina Scudder|
|1996||The Sun, the Moon and the Stars||Abbie McGee|
|2000||The Last Producer||Poker Player||Cameo|
|2001||Pay It Forward||Grace|
|2001||Big Bad Love||Mrs. Barlow|
|2001||Ocean’s Eleven||Boxing Spectator||Cameo|
|2004||Elvis Has Left the Building||Bobette|
|1954||I Led 3 Lives||Comrade Margaret||Episode: “Asylum”|
|1954||The Mickey Rooney Show||Receptionist||Episode: “The Executive”|
|1954||Death Valley Days||Salina Harris||3 episodes|
|1955||City Detective||Cigarette Girl||Episode: “The Perfect Disguise”|
|1955||Buffalo Bill, Jr.||Anna Louise Beaumont||Episode: “The Death of Johnny Ringo”|
|1955||Matinee Theatre||7 episodes|
|1955||It’s a Great Life||Myra||Episode: “The Raffle Ticket”|
|1956||General Electric Theater||Shaw||Episode: “Try to Remember”|
|1956||It’s a Great Life||Rita Moore||Episode: “The Voice”|
|1956||The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp||Ann Drew||Episode: “One of Jesse’s Gang”|
|1956||Chevron Hall of Stars||Bertha||Episode: “Mr. Thompson”|
|1956||Four Star Playhouse||Episode: “The Rites of Spring”|
|1956||The Millionaire||Jane Carr / Janice Corwin||Episode: “Millionaire Jane Carr”|
|1956||Schlitz Playhouse of Stars||Ann||Episode: “Always the Best Man”|
|1956||Broken Arrow||Terry Weaver||Episode: “The Conspirators”|
|1957||The Gray Ghost||Edie Page||Episode: “Point of Honor”|
|1957||Gunsmoke||Rose Daggit||Episode: “War Party”|
|1957||Alcoa Theatre||Mrs. Garron||Episode: “Circumstantial”|
|1957||Have Gun – Will Travel||Amy Bender||Episode: “A Matter of Ethics”|
|1956-1957||The Lineup||Doris Collins||3 episodes|
|1957||M Squad||Hazel McLean||Episode: “Diamond Hard”|
|1957||Meet McGraw||Mary Gaan||Episode: “Tycoon”|
|1957||Meet McGraw||Lisa Parish||Episode: “McGraw in Reno”|
|1958||The Restless Gun||Evelyn Niemack||Episode: “Imposter for a Day”|
|1958||Perry Mason||Marian Gallagher||Episode: “The Case of the One-Eyed Witness”|
|1958||The Bob Cummings Show||Milly||Episode: “Bob and Automation”|
|1958||Tombstone Territory||Dolores||Episode: “Geronimo”|
|1958||State Trooper||Betty Locke||Episode: “Wild Green Yonder”|
|1958||Colt .45||Laura Meadows||Episode: “The Deserters”|
|1958||Studio 57||Episode: “Gambler’s Luck”|
|1958||The People’s Choice||Geraldine Gibson Hexley||Episodes: “Rollo Makes Good” and “Rollo’s Wedding”|
|1958||Mike Hammer||Lucille Hart||Episode: “Letter Edged in Blackmail”|
|1958||Mike Hammer||Rita Patten||Episode: “Look at the Old Man Go”|
|1958||Target||Betty Nelson||Episode: “Unreasonable Doubt”|
|1958||Northwest Passage||Rose Carver||Episode: “The Bound Women”|
|1958||Man with a Camera||Norma Delgado||Episode: “Closeup on Violence”|
|1959||Wagon Train||Clara Duncan||Episode: “The Clara Duncan Story”|
|1959||Men Into Space||Mary McCauley||Episode: “Moon Probe”|
|1960||Lock Up||Betty Nelson||Episode: “Sentenced to Die”|
|1962||Checkmate||Karen Vale||Episode: “Remembrance of Crimes Past”|
|1962||The Alfred Hitchcock Hour||Janet West||Episode: “Captive Audience”|
|1962||The Dick Powell Show||Judy Maxwell||Episode: “No Strings Attached”|
|1964||The Fisher Family||Helen||Episode: “Bright Shadows”|
|1965||The Fugitive||Norma Sessions||Episode: “Brass Ring”|
|1965||The Man Who Bought Paradise||Ruth Paris||Pilot|
|1965||The Alfred Hitchcock Hour||Ariane Shaw||Episode: “Thanatos Palace Hotel”|
|1965||Dr. Kildare||Carol Tredman||3 episodes|
|1966||The Virginian||Annie Carlson||Episode: “Ride to Delphi”|
|1966||Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre||Christina||Episode: “And Baby Makes Five”|
|1968||A Case of Libel||Anita Corcoran||Television film|
|1970||The Love War||Sandy||Television film|
|1971||Thief||Jean Melville||Television film|
|1971||The Man and the City||Charlene||Episode: “Running Scared”|
|1971||See the Man Run||Joanne Taylor||Television film|
|1972||Ghost Story||Carol Finney||Episode: “Creatures of the Canyon”|
|1973||The Norliss Tapes||Ellen Sterns Cort||Television film|
|1973||Hec Ramsey||Sarah Detweiler||Episode: “The Detroit Connection”|
|1974||Pray for the Wildcats||Nancy McIlvain||Television film|
|1974||Police Story||Lisa||Episode: “The Gamble”|
|1977||A Sensitive, Passionate Man||Marjorie ‘Margie’ Delaney||Television film|
|1974-1978||Police Woman||Sgt. Suzanne ‘Pepper’ Anderson||Series regular, 91 episodes|
|1978||Ringo||Sgt. Suzanne ‘Pepper’ Anderson||Television film|
|1978||Overboard||Lindy Garrison||Television film|
|1979||The Suicide’s Wife||Diana Harrington||Television film|
|1981||Dial M for Murder||Margot Wendice||Television film|
|1982||Cassie & Co.||Cassie Holland||Series regular, 13 episodes|
|1982||One Shoe Makes It Murder||Fay Reid||Television film|
|1984||Jealousy||Georgia / Laura / Ginny||Television film|
|1984||A Touch of Scandal||Katherine Gilvey||Television film|
|1984||Hollywood Wives||Sadie LaSalle||Miniseries|
|1987||Stillwatch||Abigail Winslow||Television film|
|1987||Police Story: The Freeway Killings||Officer Anne Cavanaugh||Television film|
|1988||Once Upon a Texas Train||Maggie Hayes||Television film|
|1989||Fire and Rain||Beth Mancini||Television film|
|1989||Prime Target||Sgt. Kelly Mulcahaney||Television film|
|1991||Empty Nest||Jackie Sheridan||Episode: “Almost Like Being in Love”|
|1991||Kojak: Fatal Flaw||Carolyn Payton||Television film|
|1992||Treacherous Crossing||Beverly Thomas||Television film|
|1993||Wild Palms||Josie Ito||Miniseries|
|1993||Daddy Dearest||Mrs. Winters||Episode: “Mother Love”|
|1996||Remembrance||Margaret Fullerton||Television film|
|1997||Deep Family Secrets||Rénee Chadway||Television film|
|1997||The Don’s Analyst||Victoria Leoni||Television film|
|1997||Diagnosis Murder||Capt. Cynthia Pike||Episode: “Murder Blues”|
|1997||Ellen||Betsy||Episode: “G.I. Ellen”|
|1997||George & Leo||Sheila Smith||Episode: “The Witness”|
|1999||Sealed with a Kiss||Lucille Ethridge||Television film|
|2004||Judging Amy||Evelyn Worth||Episode: “Catching It Early”|
|2009||Mending Fences||Ruth Hanson||Television film|
You can read also : Vous pouvez lire aussi : JOHN WAYNE
The statler Brothers are DAILY played on RADIO SATELLITE2 ( click on Logo RS2, to listen)
between 10h00 PM and Midnight Paris Time
Originally performing gospel music at local churches, the group billed themselves as The Four Star Quartet, and later The Kingsmen.
In 1963, when the song “Louie, Louie” by the garage rock band also called The Kingsmen became famous, the group elected to bill themselves as The Statler Brothers. Despite the name, only two members of the group (Don and Harold Reid) are actual brothers and none have the surname of Statler.
The band, in fact, named themselves after a brand of facial tissue they had noticed in a hotel room (they joked that they could have turned out to be the Kleenex Brothers).
Don Reid sang lead; Harold Reid, Don’s older brother, sang bass; Phil Balsley sang baritone; and Lew DeWitt sang tenor and was the guitarist of the Statlers before being replaced by Jimmy Fortune in 1983 due to DeWitt’s ill health.
DeWitt died on August 15, 1990, of heart and kidney disease, stemming from complications of Crohn’s disease.
The band’s style was closely linked to their gospel roots. “We took gospel harmonies,” said Harold Reid, “and put them over in country music.”
The group remained closely tied to their gospel roots, with a majority of their records containing at least one gospel song. They produced several albums containing only gospel music and recorded a tribute song to the Blackwood Brothers, who influenced their music. The Statler Brothers also wrote a tribute song to Johnny Cash, who discovered them. The song was called “We Got Paid by Cash”, and it reminisces about their time with Cash.
Very early on in the group’s history, before the group named themselves “The Statler Brothers,” Joe McDorman was their original lead singer.
The Statler Brothers started their career at a performance at Lyndhurst Methodist Church near their hometown of Staunton.
In 1964, they started to become Johnny Cash’s backing vocal for an 8 1⁄2-year run as his opening act.
This period of their career was memorialized in their song “We Got Paid by Cash”. They were featured regularly on Cash’s hit show The Johnny Cash Show on ABC. The show ran from 1969-1971. Due to their expanding career the Statlers left Cash’s entourage around the mid 1970s to pursue their own careers. They left Cash on good terms.
Two of their best-known songs are “Flowers on the Wall”, their first major hit that was composed and written by Lew DeWitt, and the socially conscious “Bed of Rose’s”. In the 1980s, the Statlers were a mainstay on The Nashville Network (TNN), where their videos were shown regularly. Also on TNN, between 1991 and 1998, they hosted their own show, The Statler Brothers Show, a weekly variety show which was the channel’s top-rated program for its entire run.
Their songs have been featured on several film soundtracks. These range from “Charlotte’s Web” in Smokey and the Bandit II, to “Flowers on the Wall” in the crime dramedy Pulp Fiction.
Throughout their career, much of their appeal was related to their incorporation of comedy and parody into their musical act, thanks in large part to the humorous talent of group member Harold Reid; they were frequently nominated for awards for their comedy as well as their singing. They recorded two comedy albums as Lester “Roadhog” Moran and the Cadillac Cowboys, and one-half of one side of the album Country Music Then and Now was devoted to satirizing small-town radio stations’ Saturday morning shows.
They earned the number one spot on the Billboard chart four times: for “Do You Know You Are My Sunshine?” in 1978; “Elizabeth” in 1984; and in 1985, “My Only Love” and “Too Much on My Heart”.
Since forming, the Statler Brothers have released over 40 albums.
The Statler Brothers purchased and renovated their former elementary school in Staunton, and occupied the complex for several years.
The complex consisted of offices for the group, a small museum and auditorium, as well as an adjacent building which served as office space for unrelated businesses. A garage was built to store the two tour buses that the group had used for many years. The group has since sold the building which has been converted back into a school.
In 1970, the group began performing at an annual Independence Day festival in Gypsy Hill Park in Staunton. The event, known as “Happy Birthday USA”, lasted for 25 years and included many country music figures including Mel Tillis, Charley Pride and many others. The event drew as many as 100,000 fans each year. The group also honored their hometown with the song “Staunton, Virginia” on their 1973 album Do You Love Me Tonight.
The group disbanded and retired after completing a farewell tour on October 26, 2002. Balsley and the Reid brothers continue to reside in Staunton, while Fortune relocated to Nashville, where he is continuing his music career as a solo artist. He has released three albums as a soloist. The Statlers continue to be one of the most awarded acts in the history of country music.
Since the Statlers’ retirement in 2002, Don Reid has pursued a second career as an author. He authored or co-authored three books: Heroes and Outlaws of the Bible, Sunday Morning Memories, and You’ll Know It’s Christmas When…. He and brother Harold co-wrote a history of the Statler Brothers titled Random Memories released in February 2008.
Wil and Langdon Reid, the sons of Harold and Don respectively, formed a duo in the 1990s, originally performing under the name Grandstaff. In 2007, Grandstaff recorded “The Statler Brothers Song”, a tribute song to the Statler Brothers.
In an interview on Nashville’s WSM (AM) on March 25, 2010, Wil Reid said that they decided to change their name to Wilson Fairchild after many people got the name “Grandstaff” wrong during introductions. The name comes from “Wilson”, Wil’s middle name, and “Fairchild”, Langdon’s middle name.
Les Statler Brothers sont un groupe de musique country américain qui s’est formé en 1955 dans la ville de Staunton en Virginie.
Originellement chanteurs de gospel dans les églises de leur état, les membres du groupe se sont ensuite attribué le surnom de « Four Stars » (Quatre étoiles) puis de Kingsmen.
Mais étant donné que le groupe The Kingsmen portait déjà ce nom, le groupe prit finalement le nom de Statler Brothers.
Le groupe avoua par la suite avoir pris ce nom en référence à une marque de mouchoirs. En plaisantant, ils expliquèrent même qu’ils auraient tout aussi bien pu s’appeler les Kleenex Brothers.
Le groupe se compose bel et bien de deux frères, Don Reid (soliste) et Harold Reid (basse).
Les deux autres membres sont le baryton Phil Balsley et le tenor Jimmy Fortune, qui a remplacé Lew DeWitt, l’un des fondateurs du groupe, lorsqu’il prit sa retraite, en 1982, afin de soigner la Maladie de Crohn, dont il souffrait depuis son adolescence, et dont les complications provoquèrent son décès en 1990.
Le style musical du groupe est resté tout au long de sa carrière très proche de ses racines de gospel. Ainsi, Harold Reid expliqua que le groupe utilisa « les mélodies du gospel pour les transposer dans la musique country ».
Ainsi, la plupart des albums proposent des titres issus du gospel. Certains albums reposaient même intégralement sur du gospel.
Les chansons des Statler Brothers sont apparues dans de nombreuses bandes originales de films ou de jeux vidéo. Ainsi, la chanson Flowers on the wall apparaît dans Pulp Fiction de Quentin Tarantino, et les chansons Bed of Roses et New York City apparaissent dans le jeu vidéo Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, sur la station K-Rose.
La carrière du groupe a duré 47 ans, depuis 1955 jusqu’en 2002, où Don Reid, Harold Reid et Phil Balsley ont annoncé leur retraite au cours d’une tournée d’adieu. Jimmy Fortune (en) continue depuis sa carrière en solo.
La carrière du groupe a débuté dans la Lynhurst Methodist Church située dans leur ville d’origine, Staunton.
En 1963 débuta une série de huit années de premières parties dans les concerts de Johnny Cash. Cette première partie de carrière fut immortalisée dans leur chanson We were paid by cash (littéralement Nous étions payés cash).
Deux de leurs chansons les plus célèbres sont Flowers on the wall, leur premier gros titre, et Bed of Roses qui firent tous deux l’objet d’un album portant le même nom.
Dans les années 1980, les Statlers comptèrent parmi les groupes les plus importants de la chaîne câblée The Nashville Network où leurs vidéos étaient régulièrement diffusées. Entre 1991 et 1998, ils animèrent même leur propre émission, le The Statler Brothers Show, diffusé quotidiennement sur le TTN.
Le programme devint dès lors l’émission la plus regardée de l’émission durant toute la durée de sa diffusion.
Tout au long de leur carrière, leur succès reposa tant sur leurs talents musicaux que sur leur talent pour la comédie et la parodie qu’ils mettaient en œuvres lorsqu’ils chantaient.
Ils étaient ainsi souvent nominés pour des récompenses de comédiens, autant que de chanteurs. Deux de leurs albums, Lester Moran et Cadillac Cowboys se voulaient fondamentalement comiques, et la moitié de l’album Country Music Then and Now était consacré à une satire des émissions dominicales sur les petites radios locales.
Le groupe a atteint à quatre reprises la tête du Classement du Billboard avec leurs chansons Do You Know You Are My Sunshine? en 1978, Elizabeth en 1982, My Only Love en 1984, et Too Much on My Heart en 1985. Au cours de leur carrière, les Statler Brothers ont sorti plus de 40 albums.
La carrière des Statler Brothers a été auréolée de trois Grammy Award : ceux de Best New Country and Western Artist, de Best New Country Music Artist et de Best Contemporary (R&R) Performance en 1965.
Le 29 octobre 2007, cinq années après sa dernière tournée, le groupe a été officiellement intronisé au Gospel Music Hall of Fame de Nashville dans le Tennessee. Le 12 février 2008, l’entrée du groupe dans le Country Music Hall of Fame a été officiellement annoncée.
Episodes typically feature a primary storyline in Storybrooke, as well as a secondary storyline from another point in a character’s life before the curse was enacted.
It borrows elements and characters from Disney films, including Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Pinocchio, Alice in Wonderland, Peter Pan, Sleeping Beauty, 101 Dalmatians, The Sword in the Stone, Robin Hood, The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, Hercules, Mulan, Tangled, Brave, Oz the Great and Powerful, and Frozen.
Once Upon a Time was created by Lost and Tron: Legacy writers Edward Kitsis and Adam Horowitz. The series was renewed for a fifth season in May 2015. A spin-off series, Once Upon a Time in Wonderland, consisting of 13 episodes, premiered on October 10, 2013, and concluded on April 3, 2014.
The series takes place in the fictional seaside town of Storybrooke, Maine, in which the residents are actually characters from various fairy tales and other stories that were transported to the “real world” town and robbed of their original memories by the Evil Queen Regina (Lana Parrilla), using a powerful curse obtained from Rumplestiltskin (Robert Carlyle).
The residents of Storybrooke, where Regina is mayor, have lived an unchanging existence for 28 years, unaware of their own lack of aging.
The town’s only hope lies with a bounty hunter named Emma Swan (Jennifer Morrison), the daughter of Snow White (Ginnifer Goodwin) and Prince Charming (Josh Dallas), who was transported from the Enchanted Forest to our world as an infant before she could be cursed.
As such, she is the only person who can break the curse and restore the characters’ lost memories. She is aided by her son, Henry (Jared S. Gilmore), with whom she has recently reunited after giving him up for adoption upon his birth, and his Once Upon a Time book of fairy tales that holds the key to breaking the curse.
Henry is also the adopted son of Regina, providing a source of both conflict and common interest between the two women.
Episodes usually have one segment that details the characters’ past lives that, when serialized, adds a piece to the puzzle about the characters and their connection to the events that preceded the curse and its consequences.
The other, set in the present day, follows a similar pattern with a different outcome but also offers similar insights.
ARTICLE IN FRENCH
En Belgique, la série est diffusée depuis le 6 août 2012 sur BeTV3 ainsi que depuis le 29 juin 2013 sur RTL-TVI4
En France, depuis le 1er décembre 2012 sur M65 puis à partir du 19 août 2014 sur 6ter6,
En Suisse, depuis le 31 octobre 2013 sur RTS Deux7
Au Québec, depuis le 6 janvier 2014 sur AddikTV8 puis à partir du 1er avril 2015 sur le réseau TVA.
Le jour du mariage de Blanche-Neige et du Prince Charmant, la méchante Reine fait irruption et lance une malédiction.
Tout le monde est inquiet et les jeunes mariés craignent pour leur enfant à venir. Ils décident de consulter Rumplestiltskin / le Ténébreux, un étrange et dangereux personnage.
Ce dernier les informe que l’enfant qu’ils attendent viendra les sauver lors de son 28e anniversaire.
La petite Emma naît et la malédiction se rapproche. Le prince réussit à envoyer sa fille dans un endroit sûr.
Cependant, la Reine arrive et tous sont envoyés dans un monde sans magie, où ils ne se souviennent pas de leur véritable identité.
À Boston, Emma Swan vit une existence solitaire.
Le jour de son 28e anniversaire, Henry, le petit garçon qu’elle a abandonné 10 ans auparavant, lui rend visite.
Elle ne souhaite pas reprendre contact avec son fils, mais accepte de le ramener chez lui. Sur le chemin, Henry lui montre un livre de contes de fées et explique à Emma que toutes les histoires sont réelles et que les personnages qui y figurent habitent en réalité à Storybrooke dans le Maine, la ville où il vit.
Il ajoute aussi qu’elle est la seule à pouvoir vaincre la malédiction qui règne sur la ville, car elle est la fille de Blanche-Neige et du Prince Charmant. Emma découvre qu’Henry a été adopté par Regina Mills, le maire de la ville qui, d’après Henry, est la méchante Reine.
Emma est sceptique, mais décide finalement de rester quelque temps pour s’assurer que son fils va bien. L’horloge de la ville se remet alors en marche, ainsi que le temps jusqu’alors arrêté.
Jennifer Morrison : Emma Swan
Lana Parrilla : Regina Mills / la Méchante Reine
Ginnifer Goodwin : Mary Margaret Blanchard / Blanche-Neige
Josh Dallas : David Nolan / le Prince Charmant
Jared S. Gilmore : Henry Mills
Robert Carlyle : M. Gold / Rumplestiltskin / La Bête / Le Ténébreux / Le Crocodile
Émilie de Ravin : Belle French / Lacey French (invitée saison 1, principale depuis la saison 2)
Colin O’Donoghue : Killian Jones / Capitaine Crochet (principal depuis la saison 2)
Sean Maguire : Robin des Bois (récurrent saisons 3 et 4, principal saison 5)
Rebecca Mader : Zelena, la Méchante Sorcière de l’Ouest (récurrente saisons 3 et 4, principale saison 5)
ALSO ON OUR WEBSITE / AUSSI SUR NOTRE SITE: LANA PARILLA
English article / En Français plus bas svp / French below
Their biggest hits—including “The Sound of Silence” (1964/1965), “Mrs. Robinson” (1968), “Bridge over Troubled Water” (1969), and “The Boxer” (1969)—reached number one on singles charts worldwide.
Their often rocky relationship led to artistic disagreements, which resulted in their breakup in 1970.
Their final studio record, Bridge over Troubled Water, was their most successful, becoming one of the world’s best-selling albums. Since their split in 1970 they have reunited several times, most famously in 1981 for the “The Concert in Central Park”, which attracted more than 500,000 people, the seventh-largest concert attendance in history.
The duo met as children in Queens, New York in 1953, where they learned to harmonize together and began writing original material. By 1957, under the name Tom & Jerry, the teenagers had their first minor success with “Hey Schoolgirl”, a song imitating their idols the Everly Brothers.
Afterwards, the duo went their separate ways, with Simon making unsuccessful solo records. In 1963, aware of a growing public interest in folk music, they regrouped and were signed to Columbia Records as Simon & Garfunkel. Their début, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., sold poorly, and they once again disbanded;
Simon returned to a solo career, this time in England. A remix of their song “The Sound of Silence” was played widely on U.S. AM radio in 1965, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100. Simon & Garfunkel reunited, releasing their second studio album Sounds of Silence and touring colleges nationwide.
On their third release, Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966), the duo assumed more creative control. Their music was featured in the 1967 film The Graduate, giving them further exposure. Bookends (1968), their next album, topped the Billboard 200 chart and included the #1 single “Mrs. Robinson” from the film.
After their 1970 breakup following the release of Bridge over Troubled Water, they both continued recording, Simon releasing a number of highly acclaimed albums, including 1986’s Graceland.
Garfunkel also briefly pursued an acting career, with leading roles in two Mike Nichols films, Catch-22 and Carnal Knowledge, and in Nicolas Roeg’s 1980 Bad Timing.
Simon & Garfunkel were described by critic Richie Unterberger as “the most successful folk-rock duo of the 1960s” and one of the most popular artists from the decade in general. They won 10 Grammy Awards and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990.
Their Bridge over Troubled Water album was nominated at the 1977 Brit Awards for Best International Album and is ranked at #51 on Rolling Stone’s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.
Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel grew up in the 1940s and 1950s in the predominantly Jewish neighborhood of Forest Hills in Queens, New York, just three blocks away from one another, and attended the same schools, Public School 164 in Flushing, Parsons Junior High School, and Forest Hills High School.
Individually, when still young, they developed a fascination with music; both listened to the radio and were taken with rock and roll as it emerged, particularly the Everly Brothers.
When Simon first noticed Garfunkel, he was singing in a fourth grade talent show, and Simon thought that was a good way to attract girls;
he hoped for a friendship which eventually started in 1953 when they were in the sixth grade and appeared on stage together in a school play adaptation of Alice in Wonderland. That first stage appearance was followed by the duo forming a street-corner doo-wop group, the Peptones, with three other friends, and learning to harmonize together. They began performing for the first time as a duo at school dances.
They moved to Forest Hills High School in 1955, where, in 1956, they wrote their first song, “The Girl for Me”; Simon’s father sending a handwritten copy to the Library of Congress to register a copyright.
While trying to remember the lyrics to the Everly’s song “Hey Doll Baby“, they created their own song, “Hey Schoolgirl”, which they recorded themselves for $25 at Sanders Recording Studio in Manhattan.
While recording they were overheard by a promoter, Sid Prosen, who – after speaking to their parents – signed them to his independent label Big Records.
While still aged 15, Simon & Garfunkel now had a recording contract with Sid Prosen’s independent label Big Records.
Using the name Tom & Jerry; Garfunkel naming himself Tom Graph, a reference to his interest in mathematics;
Simon naming himself Jerry Landis, after the surname of Sue Landis, a girl he had dated, the single “Hey Schoolgirl” was released, with the B-side “Dancin’ Wild”, in 1957.
Prosen, using the payola system, bribed Alan Freed $200 to get the single played on his radio show, where it became a nightly staple.
“Hey Schoolgirl” attracted regular rotation on nationwide AM pop stations, leading it to sell over 100,000 copies and to land on Billboard’s charts at number 49.
Prosen promoted the group heavily, getting them a spot on Dick Clark’s American Bandstand (headlining alongside Jerry Lee Lewis).
The duo shared approximately $4,000 from the song – earning two percent each from royalties, the rest staying with Prosen.
They released three more singles on Big Records: “Our Song”, “That’s My Story”, and “Don’t Say Goodbye”, none of them successful.
After graduating from Forest Hills High School in 1959, they were still exploring the possibilities of a music career, though continued their education as a back up; Simon studying English at Queens College, City University of New York, Garfunkel studying first architecture, then switching to art history at Columbia College, Columbia University.
While still with Big Records as a duo, Simon released a solo single, “True or False”, under the name “True Taylor”.
This recording upset Garfunkel, who regarded it as a betrayal; the emotional tension from that incident occasionally surfacing throughout their relationship.
Their last recording with Big Records was a cover of a Jan and Dean single, “Baby Talk”, but the company became bankrupt soon after release; the track was reissued on Bell Records, but failed to sell, so Tom & Jerry was dissolved.
Both, however, continued recording, albeit as solo artists: Garfunkel composing and recording “Private World” for Octavia Records, and – under the name Artie Garr – “Beat Love” for Warwick; Simon recorded with The Mystics, and Tico & The Triumphs, and wrote and recorded under the names Jerry Landis and Paul Kane.
Simon also wrote and performed demos for other artists, working for a while with Carole King and Gerry Goffin.
After graduating in 1963, Simon joined Garfunkel, who was still at Columbia, to perform together again as a duo, this time with a shared interest in folk music.
Simon enrolled part-time in Brooklyn Law School,By late 1963, billing themselves as “Kane & Garr”, they performed at Gerde’s Folk City, a Greenwich club that hosted Monday night open mic performances.
The duo performed three new songs — “Sparrow”, “He Was My Brother”, and “The Sound of Silence” — and got the attention of Columbia producer Tom Wilson, who worked with Bob Dylan.
As a “star producer” for the label, he wanted to record “He Was My Brother” with a new British act named the Pilgrims.
Simon convinced Wilson to let him and his partner have a studio audition, and they performed “The Sound of Silence”. House engineer Roy Halee recorded the audition, and at Wilson’s urging, Columbia signed the duo.
Their debut studio album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., was recorded over three daytime sessions in March 1964 and released in October. The album contains four original Simon compositions, with the remainder consisting of three traditional folk songs and five folk-influenced singer-songwriter numbers.
Simon was adamant that they would no longer use stage names, and they adopted the name Simon & Garfunkel.
Columbia set up a promotional showcase at Folk City on March 31, 1964, the duo’s first public concert as Simon & Garfunkel. The showcase, as well as other scheduled performances, did not go well.
Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. sold only 3,000 copies upon its October release, and its poor sales led Simon to move to England where he had previously visited and played some gigs.
He toured the small folk clubs, appearing on the same bill and befriending British folk artists such as Bert Jansch, Martin Carthy, Al Stewart, and Sandy Denny.
He met Kathy Chitty, who became the object of his affection and is the Kathy in “Kathy’s Song” and “America”.
A small music publishing company, Lorna Music, licensed “Carlos Dominguez”, a single Simon had cut two years prior as “Paul Kane”, for a cover by Val Doonican that sold very well.
Simon visited Lorna to thank them, and the meeting resulted in a publishing and recording contract. He signed to the Oriole label and released “He Was My Brother” as a single.
Simon invited Garfunkel to stay for the summer of 1964.
Near the end of the season, Garfunkel returned to Columbia for class, and Simon surprised his friends by saying that he would be returning to the States as well.
He would resume his studies at Brooklyn Law School for one semester, partially at his parents’ insistence. He returned to England in January 1965, now certain that music was his calling.
In the meantime, his landlord, Judith Piepe, had compiled a tape from his work at Lorna and sent it to the BBC in hopes they would play it.
The demos aired on the Five to Ten morning show, and were instantly successful. Oriole had folded into CBS by that point, and hoped to record a new Paul Simon album.
The Paul Simon Songbook was recorded in June 1965 and featured multiple future Simon & Garfunkel staples, among them “I Am a Rock” and “April Come She Will”. CBS flew Wilson over to produce the record, and he stayed at Simon’s flat.
The album saw release in August, and although sales were poor, Simon felt content with his future in England.
Meanwhile, in the United States, a late-night disc jockey at WBZ-FM in Boston played “The Sound of Silence”, where it found a college demographic.
It was picked up the next day along the East Coast of the United States, down to Cocoa Beach, Florida. Wilson, inspired by the folk rock sound of the Byrds’ cover of “Turn! Turn! Turn!” and Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone”, created a rock remix of the song with the same musicians who overdubbed the Dylan song. The remix of “The Sound of Silence” was issued in September 1965, where it reached the Billboard Hot 100.
Wilson had not informed the duo of his intention to remix the track; as such, Simon was “horrified” when he first heard it.
Garfunkel graduated in 1965, returning to Columbia University to do a master’s degree in mathematics.
By January 1966, “The Sound of Silence” topped the Hot 100, selling over one million copies.
Simon reunited with Garfunkel that winter in New York, leaving Chitty and his friends in England behind. CBS demanded a new album from the duo, to be called Sounds of Silence to ride the wave of the hit.
Recorded in three weeks, and mainly consisting of re-recorded songs from The Paul Simon Songbook, plus four new tracks, Sounds of Silence was rush-released onto the market in mid-January 1966, peaking at number 21 Billboard Top LPs chart.
A week later, “Homeward Bound” was released as a single, entering the USA top ten, followed by “I Am a Rock” peaking at number three.
The duo supported the recordings with a nationwide tour of America, while CBS continued their promotion by re-releasing Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., which promptly charted at number 30.
Despite the commercial and popular success, the duo received critical derision, as many considered them a manufactured imitation of folk.
As they considered their previous effort a “rush job” to capitalize on their sudden success, the duo spent more time crafting the follow-up. It was the first time Simon insisted on total control in aspects of recording.
Work began in 1966 and took nine months. Garfunkel considered the recording of “Scarborough Fair” the moment they stepped into the role as producer, because they were constantly beside engineer Roy Halee mixing the track.
Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme was issued in October 1966, following the release of several singles and receiving sold-out college campus shows.
The duo resumed their trek on the college circuit eleven days following the release, crafting an image that was described as “alienated”, “weird”, and “poetic”.
Manager Mort Lewis also was responsible for this public perception, as he withheld them from television appearances (unless they were allowed to play an uninterrupted set or choose the setlist).
Simon, then 26 , felt he had finally “made it” into an upper echelon of rock and roll, while most importantly retaining artistic integrity (“making him spiritually closer to Bob Dylan than to, say, Bobby Darin”, wrote biographer Marc Eliot).
The duo chose William Morris as their booking agency after a recommendation from Wally Amos, a mutual friend through their producer, Tom Wilson.
During the sessions for Parsley, the duo cut “A Hazy Shade of Winter”; it was released as a single, peaking at number 13 on the national charts.
Similarly, they recorded “At the Zoo” for single release in early 1967 (it charted lower, at number 16).
Simon began work for their next album around this time, noting to a writer at High Fidelity that “I’m not interested in singles anymore”.
He had hit a dry spell in his writing, which led to no Simon & Garfunkel album on the horizon for 1967.
Artists at the time were expected to release two, perhaps three albums each year and the lack of productivity from the duo worried executives at Columbia Records.
Amid concerns for Simon’s idleness, Columbia Records chairman Clive Davis arranged for up-and-coming record producer John Simon to kick-start the recording.
Simon was distrustful of “suits” at the label; on one occasion, he and Garfunkel brought a tape recorder into a meeting with Davis, who was giving a “fatherly talk” on speeding up production, in order to laugh at it later.
The rare television appearances at this time saw the duo performing on such diverse network broadcasts as the Ed Sullivan, Mike Douglas and Andy Williams shows in 1966 and twice on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour in 1967.
Meanwhile, director Mike Nichols, then filming The Graduate, had become fascinated with the duo’s past two efforts, listening to them nonstop before and after filming.
After two weeks of this obsession, he met with Clive Davis to ask for permission to license Simon & Garfunkel music for his film. Davis viewed it as a perfect fit and envisioned a best-selling soundtrack album.
Simon was not as immediately receptive, viewing movies akin to “selling out”, creating a damper on his artistic integrity. However, after meeting Nichols and becoming impressed by his wit and the script, he agreed to write at least one or two new songs for the film.
Leonard Hirshan, a powerful agent at William Morris, negotiated a deal that paid Simon $25,000 to submit three songs to Nichols and producer Lawrence Turman.
Several weeks later, Simon re-emerged with two new tracks, “Punky’s Dilemma” and “Overs”, neither of which Nichols was particularly taken with. The duo offered another new song, which later became “Mrs. Robinson”, that was not as developed. Nichols loved it.
The duo’s fourth studio album, Bookends, was recorded in fits and starts over various periods from late 1966 to early 1968. The duo were signed under an older contract that specified the label pay for sessions, and Simon & Garfunkel took advantage of this indulgence, hiring viola and brass players, as well as percussionists. The record’s brevity reflects its concise and perfectionist production. The team spent over 50 studio hours recording “Punky’s Dilemma”, for example, and re-recorded vocal parts, sometimes note by note, until they were satisfied.
While Garfunkel’s songs and voice took a lead role on some songs, the harmonies the band were known for gradually disappeared. For Simon, Bookends represented the end of the duo and became an early indicator of his intentions to go solo.
Although the album had been planned long in advance, work did not begin in earnest until the late months of 1967.
Prior to release, the band helped put together and performed at the Monterey Pop Festival, which signaled the beginning of the Summer of Love on the West Coast.
“Fakin’ It” was issued as a single that summer and found only modest success on AM radio; the duo were much more focused on the rising FM format, which played album cuts and treated their music with respect.
In January 1968, the duo appeared on a Kraft Music Hall special, Three for Tonight, performing ten songs largely culled from their third album.
Bookends was released by Columbia Records in April 1968. In a historical context, this was just 24 hours before the assassination of civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr., which spurred nationwide outrage and riots.
The album debuted on the Billboard Top LPs in the issue dated April 27, 1968, climbing to number one and staying at that position for seven non-consecutive weeks; it remained on the chart as a whole for 66 weeks.
Bookends received such heavy orders weeks in advance of its release that Columbia was able to apply for award certification before copies left the warehouse, a fact it touted in magazine ads.The record became the duo’s best-selling album to date: it fed off the buzz created by the release of The Graduate soundtrack album ten weeks earlier, creating an initial combined sales figure of over five million units.
Davis had predicted this fact, and suggested raising the list price of Bookends by one dollar to $5.79, above the then standard retail price, to compensate for including a large poster included in vinyl copies.
Simon instead scoffed and viewed it as charging a premium on “what was sure to be that year’s best-selling Columbia album”. According to biographer Marc Eliot, Davis was “offended by what he perceived as their lack of gratitude for what he believed was his role in turning them into superstars”.
Rather than implement Davis’ price increase plan, Simon & Garfunkel signed a contract extension with Columbia that guaranteed them a higher royalty rate.
Lead single “Mrs. Robinson” became, at the 1969 Grammy Awards the first rock and roll song to receive Record of the Year; it was also awarded Best Contemporary Pop Performance by a Duo or Group.
Bookends, alongside The Graduate soundtrack, propelled Simon & Garfunkel to become the biggest rock duo in the world.
Simon was approached by producers to write music for films or license songs; he turned down Franco Zeffirelli, who was preparing to film Brother Sun, Sister Moon, and John Schlesinger, who likewise was readying to shoot Midnight Cowboy.
In addition to Hollywood proposals, producers from the Broadway show Jimmy Shine (starring Simon’s friend Dustin Hoffman, also the lead in Midnight Cowboy) asked for two original songs and Simon declined.
He collaborated briefly with Leonard Bernstein on a sacred mass before withdrawing from the project due to “finding it perhaps too far afield from his comfort zone”.
Garfunkel took the role of Captain Nately in the Nichols film, Catch-22, based on the Catch-22 novel. Initially Simon was to play the character of Dunbar, but screenwriter Buck Henry felt the film was already crowded with characters and subsequently wrote Simon’s part out.
The filming of Catch-22 began in January 1969 and lasted about eight months.
The unexpectedly long film production endangered the relationship between the duo;
Simon had not completed any new songs at this point, and the duo planned to collaborate when the filming would be finished.
Following the end of filming of Catch-22 in October, the first performance of what was, for a time, their last tour, took place in Ames, Iowa.
The US leg of the tour ended in the sold-out Carnegie Hall on November 27.
After breaking for Christmas, the duo continued working on the album in early 1970 and finished it in late January.
Meanwhile, the duo, working with director Charles Grodin, produced an hourlong CBS special, Songs of America, which is a mixture of scenes featuring notable political events and leaders concerning the USA, such as the Vietnam War, Martin Luther King, John F. Kennedy’s funeral procession, Cesar Chavez and the Poor People’s March. It was broadcast only once, due to internal tension at the network regarding its content.
Bridge over Troubled Water, their final studio album, was released in January 1970 and charted in over 11 countries, topping the charts in 10, including the Billboard Top LP’s chart in the US and the UK Albums Chart.
It was the best-selling album in 1970, 1971 and 1972 and was at that time the best-selling album of all time.
It was also CBS Records’ best-selling album before the release of Michael Jackson’s Thriller in 1982.
The album topped the Billboard charts for 10 weeks and stayed in the charts for 85 weeks.
In the United Kingdom, the album topped the charts for 35 weeks, and spent 285 weeks in the top 100, from 1970 to 1975. It has since sold over 25 million copies worldwide.
“Bridge over Troubled Water”, the album’s lead single, hit number one in five countries and became their biggest seller.
The song has been covered by over 50 artists since then, including Elvis Presley and Johnny Cash. “Cecilia”, the follow-up, hit number four in the US, and “El Condor Pasa” hit number 18
The recording process was tough for both musicians, and their breakup was almost certain considering the deterioration of their relationship. “At that point, I just wanted out,” Simon later said.
Their breakup was not intended to be semi-permanent: Garfunkel hoped for a two-year break from Simon & Garfunkel and did not intend to pursue a film-career. Likewise, Simon did not intend to begin a solo career.
A brief British tour followed the album release, and the duo’s last concert as Simon & Garfunkel occurred at Forest Hills Stadium.
In 1971, the album took home six awards at the 13th Annual Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year. Simon’s wife, Peggy Harper, pushed for him to make the split official, and he placed a call to Davis to confirm the duo’s breakup: “I want you to know I’ve decided to split with Artie. I don’t think we’ll be recording together again.”
For the next several years, the duo would only speak “two or three” times a year.
In the 1970s, the duo reunited several times. Their first reunion was a benefit concert for presidential candidate George McGovern at New York’s Madison Square Garden in June 1972.
In 1975, they reconciled once more when they visited a recording session with John Lennon and Harry Nilsson.
For the rest of the year, they attempted to make the reunion work, but their collaboration only yielded one song, “My Little Town,” that was featured on Simon’s Still Crazy After All These Years and Garfunkel’s Breakaway.
It peaked at number nine on the Hot 100. In 1975, Garfunkel joined Simon for a medley of three songs on the television series Saturday Night Live which Simon was guest hosting.
In 1977, Garfunkel joined Simon for a brief performance of their old songs on Simon’s television special The Paul Simon Special, and later that year they recorded a cover of Sam Cooke’s “(What a) Wonderful World” along with James Taylor.
Old tensions finally appeared to dissipate upon Garfunkel’s return to New York in 1978, when the duo began interacting more often.
On May 1, 1978, Simon joined Garfunkel for a concert held at Carnegie Hall to benefit the hearing disabled.
By 1980, the duo’s respective solo efforts were not doing well. To help alleviate New York’s economic decline, concert promoter Ron Delsener came up with the idea to throw a free concert in Central Park.
Delsener contacted Simon with the idea of a Simon & Garfunkel reunion, and once Garfunkel agreed, plans were made.
The Concert in Central Park, performed September 19, 1981, attracted more than 500,000 people, at that time the largest-ever concert attendance.
Warner Bros. Records released a live album of the show that went double platinum in the US.
A 90-minute recording of the concert was sold to Home Box Office (HBO) for over $1 million.
The concert created a renewed interest in the duo’s work.
They had several “heart-to-heart talks,” attempting to put past issues behind them.
The duo planned a world tour, kicking off in May 1982, but their relationship grew contentious: for the majority of the tour, they did not speak to one another.
Warner Bros. pushed for them to extend the tour and release an all-new Simon & Garfunkel studio album.
After recording several vocal tracks for a possible new Simon & Garfunkel album, Simon decided to adopt it as his own solo album. Garfunkel had refused to learn the songs in the studio, and would not give up cannabis and cigarettes, despite Simon’s requests.
An official spokesperson remarked, “Paul simply felt the material he wrote is so close to his own life that it had to be his own record. Art was hoping to be on the album, but I’m sure there will be other projects that they will work on together. They are still friends.”
The material was later released on Simon’s 1983 effort Hearts and Bones.
Another rift opened between the duo when the lengthy recording of Simon’s 1986 album Graceland prevented Garfunkel from working with Roy Halee on a Christmas album.
In 1990, the duo were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Garfunkel thanked his partner, calling him “the person who most enriched my life by putting those songs through me,” to which Simon responded, “Arthur and I agree about almost nothing. But it’s true, I have enriched his life quite a bit.” After three songs, the duo left without speaking.
We are indescribable. You’ll never capture it. It’s an ingrown, deep friendship. Yes, there is deep love in there. But there’s also shit. => Garfunkel describing his six-decade-long friendship with Simon
By 1993, their relationship had thawed again, and Simon invited Garfunkel on an international tour with him.
Following a 21-date, sold-out run at the Paramount Theater in New York and an appearance at that year’s Bridge School Benefit in California, the duo toured the Far East.
The duo had a falling out over the course of the rest of the decade, the details of which have never been disclosed.
Simon thanked Garfunkel at his 2001 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a solo artist: “I regret the ending of our friendship. I hope that some day before we die we will make peace with each other,” resuming after a pause, “No rush.”
They were awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 45th Annual Grammy Awards in 2003, for which the promoters convinced them to reconcile and open the show with a performance of “The Sound of Silence.”
The performance was satisfying for both musicians, and they planned out a full-scale reunion tour over the summer.
The Old Friends tour began in October 2003 and played to sold-out audiences across the United States for 30 dates until mid-December.
The tour earned an estimated $123 million.
Following a twelve-city run in Europe in 2004, they ended their nine-month tour with a free concert at the Colosseum in Rome. It attracted 600,000 fans, more than their The Concert in Central Park.
In 2009, the duo reunited again for three songs during Simon’s two-night arrangement at New York’s Beacon Theatre. This led to a reunion tour of Asia and Australia in June 2009.
Their headlining set at the 2010 New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival was very difficult for Garfunkel, who was experiencing serious vocal problems. “I was terrible, and crazy nervous. I leaned on Paul Simon and the affection of the crowd,” he told Rolling Stone several years later.
Garfunkel was diagnosed with vocal cord paresis, and the remaining tour dates were postponed indefinitely. His manager, John Scher, informed Simon’s camp that Garfunkel would be ready within a year, which did not happen, leading to poor relations between the two. He regained his vocal strength over the course of the next four years, performing shows in a Harlem theater and to underground audiences.
Despite this, the duo have not staged a full-scale tour or performed shows since 2010. Garfunkel confirmed to Rolling Stone in 2014 that he believes they will tour in the future, although Simon had been too “busy” in recent years. “I know that audiences all over the world like Simon and Garfunkel. I’m with them. But I don’t think Paul Simon’s with them,” he remarked.
Over the course of their career, Simon & Garfunkel’s music gradually moved from a very basic, folk rock sound to incorporate more experimental elements for the time, including Latin and gospel music. Many adolescents of the 1960s found their music relevant, while adults regarded them as intelligent.
Their music, according to Rolling Stone, struck a chord among lonely, alienated young adults near the end of the decade.
Despite its popularity, the group was also criticized sharply, especially in its heyday. Rolling Stone critic Arthur Schmidt, for example, described the duo’s music as “questionable…it exudes a sense of process, and it is slick, and nothing too much happens.”
New York Times critic Robert Shelton said that the group had “a kind of Mickey Mouse, timid, contrived” approach to music.
Their clean sound and muted lyricism “cost them some hipness points during the psychedelic era” according to Richie Unterberger of AllMusic, who also notes that the duo “inhabited the more polished end of the folk-rock spectrum and was sometimes criticized for a certain collegiate sterility.”
Unterberger further observes that some critics would later regard Simon’s lyricism in his work with Simon & Garfunkel to pale in comparison to his later solo material.
But Unterberger himself believed that “the best of S&G’s work could stand among Simon’s best material, and the duo did progress musically over the course of their five albums, moving from basic folk-rock productions into Latin rhythms and gospel-influenced arrangements that foreshadowed Simon’s eclecticism on his solo albums.”
Their rocky personal relationship led to their “breaking up and making up about every dozen years.”
Ils apprennent à s’accorder l’un avec l’autre et commencent à écrire leurs propres compositions. Ils connaissent leur premier succès en 1957, sous le nom de Tom & Jerry, avec la chanson Hey Schoolgirl, qui imite le style de leurs idoles The Everly Brothers.
Mais ce succès n’est pas confirmé et ils poursuivent ensuite leurs études universitaires chacun de leur côté. Ils se retrouvent en 1963, avec un intérêt accru pour la musique folk, et signent un contrat avec Columbia Records. Leur premier album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. (1964), est un échec commercial à sa sortie et le duo se sépare, Simon décidant de poursuivre sa carrière en solo en Angleterre.
Cependant, une nouvelle version de leur chanson The Sound of Silence connaît le succès sur les ondes américaines en 1965 et atteint la première place du Billboard Hot 100.
Le duo se reforme alors et enregistre un deuxième album, Sounds of Silence (1966), qui est rapidement suivi par Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966), album sur lequel le duo prend un plus grand contrôle créatif. La popularité du duo s’accroît avec la bande originale du film Le Lauréat (1967), composée en majeure partie par leurs chansons.
Leur album suivant, Bookends (1968), les propulse au rang de stars internationales majeures. Néanmoins, les relations entre les deux hommes se dégradent et le duo se sépare peu après la sortie de leur album suivant, Bridge over Troubled Water (1970), qui est leur plus grand succès commercial.
Simon and Garfunkel comptent parmi les artistes les plus populaires des années 1960 et sont considérés comme des icônes de la contre-culture de cette décennie, au même titre que les Beatles et Bob Dylan.
Leurs chansons les plus célèbres, The Sound of Silence, I Am a Rock, Homeward Bound, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, A Hazy Shade of Winter, Mrs. Robinson, Bridge over Troubled Water, The Boxer, Cecilia et El Cóndor Pasa (If I Could), ont connu un très grand succès international.
Depuis leur séparation, Simon et Garfunkel ont reformé plusieurs fois le duo, notamment à l’occasion d’un concert à Central Park en 1981 qui réunit plus de 500 000 spectateurs, ce qui constitue à l’époque la plus grande affluence de tous les temps pour un concert.
Paul Frederic Simon et Arthur Ira Garfunkel, nés tous deux en 1941, grandissent à New York dans le quartier du Queens de Kew Gardens Hills à seulement trois pâtés de maisons l’un de l’autre1. Ils se passionnent pour la musique dès leur plus jeune âge, notamment avec l’avènement du rock ‘n’ roll2. Garfunkel commence à chanter dans des radio-crochets dès le CM1 et rencontre Simon deux ans plus tard, en 1953.
Leur amitié s’épanouit quand tous deux sont choisis pour jouer dans une adaptation théâtrale d’Alice au pays des merveilles, Simon dans le rôle du Lapin blanc et Garfunkel dans celui du Chat du Cheshire. Ils commencent à chanter ensemble dans des groupes de doo-wop et apprennent ainsi à s’accorder l’un avec l’autre.
Simon et Garfunkel entrent à la Forest Hills High School en septembre 1955 et entreprennent d’enregistrer leurs arrangements sur des bandes magnétiques. Ils écrivent leur première chanson, The Girl for Me, en 1956 et commencent à se produire en tant que duo dans des écoles de musique. Très influencés par Elvis Presley et The Everly Brothers, ils décident de présenter une maquette d’une de leurs compositions, Hey Schoolgirl, à des éditeurs musicaux de Manhattan.
Ils enregistrent la chanson, avec Dancin’ Wild en face B, au Sanders Recording Studio, un minuscule studio d’enregistrement de Manhattan.
Ils rencontrent ensuite Sid Prosen, qui dirige le label indépendant Big Records, et celui-ci leur fait signer un contrat en proclamant qu’ils sont les nouveaux Everly Brothers. Le duo adopte le nom de Tom and Jerry, d’après le cartoon du même nom.
Garfunkel prend le pseudonyme de Tom Graph, en référence à ses aptitudes en mathématiques et à sa manie de consigner les classements de singles sous forme de graphiques sur du papier millimétré
Simon prend celui de Jerry Landis, d’après le nom de famille d’une fille qu’il a fréquenté.
Sid Prosen verse un pot-de-vin à Alan Freed afin que ce dernier diffuse Hey Schoolgirl dans son émission de radio, et la chanson devient rapidement l’un des morceaux les plus populaires de l’émission.
Hey Schoolgirl est alors diffusée régulièrement sur les ondes à l’échelle nationale.
Le single se vend à plus de 100 000 copies en 1957 et se hisse à la 49e place du Billboard Hot 100. Prosen assure efficacement la promotion du duo, en les faisant notamment passer dans l’émission télévisée American Bandstand aux côtés de Jerry Lee Lewis.
Le producteur s’adjuge toutefois la part du lion dans les royalties dégagées par le duo, prélevant 96% de celles-ci
. Garfunkel, qui n’apprécie pas le milieu de l’industrie musicale, informe Simon qu’il souhaite se consacrer à ses études.
Simon décide alors de continuer sa carrière en solo sous le pseudonyme de True Taylor. À sa sortie du lycée, Simon poursuit des études d’anglais au Queens College alors que Garfunkel étudie les mathématiques à l’université Columbia.
Les ventes des disques de Simon ne décollant pas, celui-ci propose à Garfunkel de reprendre leur collaboration et son ami accepte.
Cependant, les nouveaux singles sortis par le duo sont des échecs commerciaux, ce qui provoque la fin de leur collaboration avec Sid Prosen.
Simon reprend sa carrière en solo, ce qui entame son amitié avec Garfunkel, qui voit cela comme une trahison.
Cette tension jamais résolue entre les deux hommes influera sur leurs relations durant tout leur parcours commun. Simon achève son premier cycle universitaire et s’inscrit à temps partiel à la Brooklyn Law School.
Le premier concert de Simon and Garfunkel sous ce nom est à l’origine d’une longue brouille entre Paul Simon et Bob Dylan, ici en 1963.
Simon et Garfunkel s’intéressent chacun de leur côté au mouvement émergeant de la contre-culture et de la musique folk.
Simon devient un habitué de Greenwich Village alors que Garfunkel retourne à l’université Columbia afin de conserver son statut d’étudiant et d’éviter d’être incorporé alors que l’engagement américain au Viêt Nam se précise.
Tous deux se retrouvent pour discuter des nouvelles compositions de Simon et les interpréter au siège de la fraternité étudiante Alpha Epsilon Pi.
Fin 1963, ils se produisent sous le nom de Kane & Garr à la Gerde’s Folk City, une salle de concerts de West Village.
Ils y interprètent trois nouvelles chansons, Sparrow, He Was My Brother et The Sound of Silence, et captent l’attention du producteur Tom Wilson, qui a déjà travaillé avec Bob Dylan.
Wilson souhaite faire enregistrer He Was My Brother à un groupe britannique mais Simon le persuade de les laisser faire une audition. Leur interprétation de The Sound of Silence lors de celle-ci convainc Wilson, qui presse Columbia Records de leur faire signer un contrat.
Le premier album du duo, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., est enregistré sur trois sessions en mars 1964 et sort le 19 octobre.
L’album contient cinq compositions originales de Simon, les sept autres étant des reprises de chansons folk dont The Times They Are a-Changin’ de Bob Dylan.
Simon insiste auprès de Garfunkel pour qu’ils utilisent désormais leurs véritables noms.
Columbia met en place un concert promotionnel à Folk City le 31 mars 1964, qui est le premier concert où le duo se produit sous le nom de Simon and Garfunkel.
Dylan est présent à ce concert et une altercation l’oppose à Simon, ce qui sera à l’origine d’une longue rancune entre les deux hommes. L’origine de cette tension reste peu claire, certains biographes affirmant que Dylan aurait délibérément parlé très fort tout au long du concert alors que d’autres soutiennent qu’il aurait totalement dédaigné celui-ci.
Le concert, tout comme d’autres organisés plus tard, n’est pas un succès.
Simon, anticipant l’échec de l’album, part pour l’Angleterre et rencontre Kathy Chitty dans un club de folk où il se produit.
Ils tombent amoureux et Kathy lui inspirera plusieurs chansons, notamment Kathy’s Song, America et Homeward Bound.
Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. ne se vend qu’à 3 000 exemplaires en quelques semaines et cet échec pousse Simon à rester en Angleterre tandis que Garfunkel reprend ses études d’architecture.
Les démos que Simon enregistre en Angleterre sont diffusées sur les ondes par la BBC et connaissent le succès.
En juin 1965, Columbia fait alors enregistrer à Simon un album solo, The Paul Simon Songbook, qui sort en Angleterre deux mois plus tard et contient plusieurs chansons qui seront reprises plus tard par le duo.
Les ventes de l’album sont médiocres mais Simon demeure confiant sur son avenir en Angleterre. Pendant ce temps, de l’autre côté de l’Atlantique, un disc-jockey de Boston commence à diffuser The Sound of Silence et la chanson devient populaire dans le milieu étudiant de la côte Est des États-Unis.
Tom Wilson l’apprend et décide de faire réenregistrer la chanson dans une version électrique sans en informer le duo.
Le single sort en septembre et entre dans le Billboard Hot 100. Garfunkel informe Simon, toujours en Europe, de ce qui est en train de se passer. Simon est horrifié lorsqu’il entend la version électrique pour la première fois mais les deux hommes apprécient le succès du single28,29.
Simon revient à New York vers la fin de l’année 1965 afin de reformer son duo avec Garfunkel.
Columbia leur fait enregistrer en décembre un nouvel album et l’intitule « Sounds of Silence » afin de profiter du succès du single.
Ce dernier s’empare de la première place du Billboard Hot 100 en janvier 1966 et dépasse désormais le million d’exemplaires vendus.
En plus d’une réédition de The Sound of Silence, l’album comprend cinq chansons de l’album solo de Simon, dont I Am a Rock, et seulement deux titres sont de nouvelles compositions originales.
L’album sort de façon précipitée le 17 janvier 1966 et est suivi quelques jours plus tard par le single Homeward Bound, qui ne figure pas sur l’album et qui intègre le top 10 des classements musicaux dans plusieurs pays.
Au mois de mars, c’est ensuite I Am a Rock qui sort en single et qui se classe 3e du Billboard Hot 100. Mais en dépit du succès commercial remporté par l’album, 21e au Billboard 200, et les singles, le duo est tourné en dérision par de nombreux critiques musicaux qui estiment qu’il ne produit qu’une imitation manufacturée de la folk.
Alors que le duo part en tournée à travers les États-Unis, Columbia réédite Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. et l’album accède à la 30e place du Billboard 2003.
Conscients que Sounds of Silence est un travail réalisé dans la précipitation afin de capitaliser sur leur succès soudain, Simon et Garfunkel décident de peaufiner leur prochain album.
Simon insiste d’ailleurs pour avoir le contrôle total pendant la production de celui-ci. Garfunkel considère l’enregistrement de leur version de la chanson traditionnelle « Scarborough Fair » comme le moment où ils sont devenus les véritables producteurs de leurs albums.
Le duo travaille plusieurs mois sur l’album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme et celui-ci sort le 10 octobre. Comprenant notamment Homeward Bound, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin’ Groovy), The Dangling Conversation et For Emily, Whenever I May Find Her, il se caractérise par de vifs contrastes entre les chansons et obtient l’approbation de la critique, qui reconnaît son intégrité artistique, Simon se révélant comme « l’un des auteurs-compositeurs les plus doués de l’époque ».
L’album se hisse par ailleurs à la 4e place du Billboard 200.
Le duo entame dans la foulée une mini-tournée sur les campus universitaires où tous les concerts se jouent à guichets fermés. Mort Lewis, leur agent artistique, entretient l’image décalée et poétique du duo en refusant qu’ils fassent des apparitions à la télévision à moins que des conditions draconiennes ne soient acceptées par l’émission.
A Hazy Shade of Winter, qui n’a pas été retenu par le duo pour figurer sur Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, sort en single deux semaines après la sortie de l’album et se classe 13e du Billboard Hot 100.
Simon et Garfunkel enregistrent en janvier 1967 le single At the Zoo et ce dernier est publié le mois suivant, atteignant la 16e place du Billboard Hot 100.
Simon commence alors à travailler sur le prochain album du duo, affirmant qu’il n’est plus intéressé par les singles.
Il est cependant affecté par un blocage de l’écrivain qui a pour conséquence que ce nouvel album ne voit pas le jour en 1967.
À cette époque, il est courant que les artistes sortent deux voire trois albums par an et ce manque de productivité inquiète les dirigeants de Columbia. Clive Davis, le président de Columbia, tente d’accélérer la production de l’album en convoquant Simon et Garfunkel à plusieurs reprises pour leur adresser des discours paternalistes mais les deux amis, déjà méfiants envers l’industrie musicale, tournent cela en dérision en enregistrant un sermon de Davis pour en rire par la suite.
Le 16 juin 1967, Simon and Garfunkel se produisent sur la scène du festival international de musique pop de Monterey qui marque le coup d’envoi du Summer of Love. Fakin’ It sort en single quelques semaines plus tard mais ne remporte qu’un succès modéré.
Pendant ce temps, le réalisateur Mike Nichols tourne Le Lauréat et se prend de passion pour la musique du duo, écoutant leurs chansons en boucle. Deux semaines plus tard, il rencontre Clive Davis pour lui demander l’autorisation d’utiliser certains morceaux du duo pour la musique du film. Davis est enthousiaste, flairant une parfaite occasion de placer une musique de film en tête des ventes de disques.
Simon est beaucoup plus réticent, craignant de compromettre son intégrité artistique. Il change d’avis après avoir rencontré Nichols, qui l’impressionne par son intelligence et la qualité de son scénario, et accepte d’écrire de nouvelles chansons pour le film.
L’agent du duo négocie un contrat qui offre à Simon 25 000 $ pour la composition de trois chansons. Simon propose d’abord à Nichols Punky’s Dilemma et Overs mais aucune des deux ne satisfait le réalisateur. Simon revient alors avec une première version de Mrs. Robinson, qui ne porte pas encore ce titre, qui enthousiasme Nichols.
L’album « The Graduate », composé essentiellement de chansons du duo dont Mrs. Robinson, sort le 21 janvier 1968 et s’empare de la première place du Billboard 200 en avril.
Entretemps, l’enregistrement de Bookends, le quatrième album du duo, est enfin terminé après avoir été échelonné sur plusieurs sessions depuis un an et demi, mais plus particulièrement depuis octobre 1967.
La production de l’album est marquée par son perfectionnisme, l’enregistrement de Punky’s Dilemma étant par exemple étalé sur une cinquantaine d’heures. Mrs. Robinson est réécrite et réenregistrée en février 1968, lors des dernières sessions et constitue l’une des chansons-phares de l’album aux côtés d’autres titres célèbres tels que America, A Hazy Shade of Winter et At the Zoo. Bookends, considéré comme l’album « le plus intellectuel » du duo, est composé sur sa première face d’un cycle de chansons plutôt sombres, évoquant une méditation sur le passage du temps, qui sont suivies dans sa deuxième partie par des titres plus légers et au son plus rock. Il marque par ailleurs le déclin des harmonies du duo, qui disparaissent graduellement au profit d’un chant individuel.
Bookends sort le 3 avril 1968 et est suivi deux jours plus tard par la sortie en single de Mrs. Robinson dans un contexte très particulier puisque Martin Luther King est assassiné le 4 avril, ce qui provoque une grande émotion et une série d’émeutes à travers les États-Unis.
Bookends prend au mois de mai la première place du Billboard 200, occupée jusqu’alors par The Graduate, tandis que Mrs. Robinson s’installe au sommet du Billboard Hot 100 au mois de juin. Bookends devient à cette date le plus grand succès commercial du duo, ayant profité du phénomène de bouche-à-oreille engendré par la sortie de The Graduate, et les ventes combinées des deux albums dépassent les 5 millions de copies. Lors des Grammy Awards qui se tiennent en mars 1969 et célèbrent les accomplissements des artistes pour l’année 1968, Mrs. Robinson remporte le prix de l’enregistrement de l’année, The Graduate celui de la meilleure musique de film et Simon and Garfunkel celui de la meilleure prestation pop d’un duo ou groupe avec chant.
Bookends et The Graduate propulsent Simon and Garfunkel au rang de stars internationales majeures, les deux hommes devenant le duo musical le plus célèbre du monde. Malgré un désaccord avec Clive Davis, qui désirait augmenter d’un dollar le prix de vente de Bookends ce que le duo a refusé et que Davis perçoit comme un manque de gratitude58, Simon et Garfunkel prolongent leur contrat avec Columbia et négocient au passage une augmentation de leur pourcentage de royalties.
Simon est approché par plusieurs producteurs de cinéma qui souhaitent qu’il écrive des musiques de films et refuse notamment une offre pour Macadam Cowboy (1969).
Il décline également une offre d’écriture pour un spectacle de Broadway et collabore brièvement avec Leonard Bernstein sur une messe avant de se retirer du projet. De son côté, Garfunkel est engagé par Mike Nichols pour interpréter l’un des rôles principaux du film de guerre satirique Catch22 , dans lequel Simon devait aussi jouer avant que son rôle ne soit supprimé.
Le tournage de Catch 22 commence en janvier 1969 et dure huit mois car il est entravé par de nombreux problèmes.
Dans l’intervalle, le single The Boxer est publié en avril et se classe dans le top 10 de plusieurs pays. Cette absence prolongée de Garfunkel affecte les relations entre les deux hommes car Simon, qui prépare pendant ce temps le prochain album du duo, se sent abandonné.
Dès le retour de Garfunkel, le duo se met au travail avec ardeur et décline l’invitation qui leur est faite de participer au festival de Woodstock.
En octobre et novembre 1969, Simon and Garfunkel font une mini-tournée aux États-Unis qui se termine par un concert à guichets fermés à Carnegie Hall.
Le duo produit par ailleurs un documentaire musical, Songs of America, qui est diffusé sur CBS le 30 novembre et qui mêle des extraits de leurs chansons à des images d’événements importants des années 1960.
Ce documentaire n’est diffusé qu’une fois en raison des tensions, en rapport avec son contenu politiquement chargé, qu’il provoque sur la chaîne.
L’album « Bridge ove r Troubled » Water sort le 26 janvier 1970, tout comme le single du même nom. Dans cet album, le duo abandonne en partie le son folk rock qui a fait sa gloire pour explorer d’autres sonorités, comme le gospel, la musique sud-américaine, le latin jazz, le rockabilly ou encore le reggae, un mélange d’influences qui contribue à sa « richesse musicale ». L’album contient onze titres dont Bridge over Troubled Water, Cecilia, El Cóndor Pasa (If I Could), The Boxer et The Only Living Boy in New York. L’inclusion d’un douzième titre est longuement discuté sans que les deux hommes n’arrivent à se mettre d’accord sur son choix.
L’album arrive au sommet des classements musicaux dans dix pays dont les États-Unis, le Royaume-Uni et la France. C’est l’album le plus vendu des années 1970, 1971 et 1972 ; il devient à cette époque l’album le plus vendu de tous les temps.
Le single homonyme s’empare lui aussi de la première place des classements musicaux dans plusieurs pays, alors que les autres singles tirés de l’album, Cecilia en avril et El Cóndor Pasa (If I Could) en août, se vendent aussi très bien4.
Malgré cet énorme succès, le processus d’enregistrement s’est révélé très éprouvant pour les deux hommes et les tensions accumulées entre eux rendent leur séparation prochaine presque certaine avant même la sortie de l’album.
Cette séparation n’est cependant pas prévue au départ pour être permanente, Garfunkel souhaitant seulement faire une pause de deux ans et Simon ne prévoyant pas de reprendre sa carrière en solo.
En avril et mai, le duo se produit pour quelques dates en Europe, dont un passage à l’Olympia le 1er mai, avant de jouer son dernier concert le 18 juillet 1970 au Forest Hills Stadium.
Lors de la cérémonie des Grammy Awards 1971, l’album et la chanson Bridge over Troubled Water remportent six récompenses, dont celles de l’album de l’année et de la chanson de l’année. Quelque temps plus tard, Peggy Harper, l’épouse de Simon depuis 1969, pousse celui-ci à rendre la séparation du duo officielle.
Simon appelle alors Clive Davis pour lui annoncer qu’il ne pense pas reprendre sa collaboration avec Garfunkel. Durant les quelques années qui suivent, les deux hommes ne se parlent que deux ou trois fois par an.
Le duo se reforme pour la première fois au Madison Square Garden en juin 1972 à l’occasion d’un concert de soutien pour George McGovern en vue de l’élection présidentielle américaine.
En 1975, les deux hommes se réconcilient, dans une atmosphère embarrassée, à l’occasion d’un passage à une session d’enregistrement avec John Lennon et Harry Nilsson.
Ils tentent de produire de nouvelles chansons ensemble mais n’en concrétisent qu’une seule, My Little Town, qui paraît à la fois sur l’album de Paul Simon Still Crazy After All These Years, et sur celui de Art Garfunkel, Breakaway.
En 1977, Garfunkel vient se joindre à Simon pour une brève représentation lors d’une émission télévisée consacrée à ce dernier. L’année suivante, ils enregistrent en compagnie de James Taylor une reprise de Wonderful World.
Les deux hommes passent plus de temps ensemble lorsque Garfunkel revient s’installer à New York en 1978.
En 1981, alors que les carrières respectives des deux hommes battent de l’aile, ils sont contactés par le producteur de spectacles Ron Delsener qui leur propose de se produire pour un concert gratuit à Central Park.
Le concert se déroule le 19 septembre 1981 et attire plus de 500 000 personnes, ce qui constitue pour l’époque la plus grande affluence de tous les temps pour un concert. Un enregistrement du concert est réalisé et donne lieu au premier album live du duo, The Concert in Central Park, qui sort le 16 février 1982 et connaît un grand succès commercial international.
L’événement renouvelle également l’intérêt du public pour le duo, et les deux hommes ont plusieurs conversations à cœur ouvert afin d’essayer de mettre leurs problèmes derrière eux80. En mai et juin 1982, Simon and Garfunkel font une tournée au Japon et en Europe mais leurs vieilles querelles refont surface85. Néanmoins, Warner Bros. insiste pour qu’ils repartent en tournée, ce qu’ils font en février 1983 en Australie et en Nouvelle-Zélande, puis en juillet et août 1983 en Amérique du Nord, et pour qu’ils préparent un nouvel album en commun.
Malgré plusieurs sessions d’enregistrement, leurs différends se révèlent être trop nombreux et Simon enregistre à la place un nouvel album solo, Hearts and Bones, la raison officielle étant qu’il trouve les textes qu’il a écrits trop personnels pour être interprétés par quelqu’un d’autre.
En 1990, le duo est intronisé au Rock and Roll Hall of Fame et les deux hommes interprètent trois chansons ensemble à cette occasion, sans toutefois s’attarder.
Trois ans plus tard, leurs relations s’étant améliorées, ils se réunissent à nouveau en octobre 1993 pour une série de 21 concerts joués à guichets fermés au Paramount Theatre de New York, qui sont suivis par quelques dates en Asie. Cependant, une nouvelle brouille les tient éloignés pour le reste de la décennie4.
En 2003, ils sont récompensés aux Grammy Awards pour l’ensemble de leur carrière et les organisateurs les persuadent de se réconcilier pour cette occasion. Les deux hommes interprètent ensemble The Sound of Silence en ouverture de la cérémonie et jugent cette expérience satisfaisante. Ils mettent alors en place une nouvelle tournée, nommée Old Friends Tour, pendant laquelle ils sillonnent les États-Unis d’octobre à décembre en jouant 40 concerts.
Ils repartent en tournée, pour 20 dates aux États-Unis et 12 en Europe, en juin et juillet 200488. Cette tournée se termine par un concert gratuit au Colisée de Rome qui réunit environ 600 000 personnes89. Un double CD-DVD intitulé Old Friends: Live on Stage immortalise cette tournée.
En 2009, le duo se réunit une nouvelle fois pour interpréter trois chansons au Beacon Theatre de New York. Une tournée en Océanie et au Japon est organisée dans la foulée en juin et juillet90. Cette tournée se passe très bien et de nouveaux concerts en Amérique du Nord sont planifiés pour l’été 2010. Cependant, alors qu’ils se produisent le 24 avril 2010 sur la scène du New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Garfunkel est atteint de sérieux problèmes vocaux. Une paralysie des cordes vocales lui est diagnostiquée et la tournée doit être annulée. Garfunkel ne récupère totalement sa voix qu’après un combat de quatre ans et espère une nouvelle réunion du duo dans le futur91.
Simon and Garfunkel sont considérés comme le duo le plus célèbre de l’histoire de la musique populaire. Leurs chansons ont laissé une impression forte et durable sur la génération du baby boom et ils comptent, aux côtés des Beatles et Bob Dylan, parmi les artistes les plus représentatifs du mouvement culturel des années 1960.
En 2004, le magazine Rolling Stone les classe à la 40e place de sa liste des 100 plus grands artistes musicaux de tous les temps, considérant que « l’énorme impact » qu’ils ont laissé sur la décennie est dû principalement à l’alliage entre les talents d’auteur-compositeur de Paul Simon, créateur d’hymnes dans une palette musicale très vaste, et la voix unique d’Art Garfunkel.
Dans le Dictionnaire du Rock, ils sont décrits comme ayant apporté au folk militant un « mélange inégalé de raffinement vocal et de tendresse mélancolique ».
Pour Gilles Verlant et Thomas Caussé, dans la Discothèque parfaite de l’odyssée du rock, « la seconde moitié des sixties est marquée de leur empreinte » grâce à leurs « mélodies fines, légères et reconnaissables entre mille » alors que « le mariage de leurs voix, absolument unique, est au cœur de leur magie, tout comme les textes résolument poétiques et modernes, remplis d’images singulières ».
IN ENGLISH (EN FRANCAIS PLUS BAS / IN FRENCH BELOW )
She was a regular cast member in the fifth season of the ABC sitcom Spin City from 2000 to 2001.
She ( later )guest-starred in Boomtown (2002-2003), Windfall (2006), Swingtown (2008) and as Doctor Eva Zambrano in the short-lived medical drama Miami Medical (2010). She also played the role of Sarah Gavin on the season four of Fox series 24 in 2005. In 2011, Parrilla began starring as The Evil Queen/Regina Mills in the ABC fantasy drama series, Once Upon a Time.
Parrilla was born in Brooklyn. Her father, Sam Parrilla (1943–94), was a Puerto Rican-born baseball player who played professionally for 11 seasons (1963–73), including one season with the Major League Philadelphia Phillies in 1970 as an outfielder.
Her mother is an American painter of Sicilian descent who works in banking. Parrilla has one older sister, Deena, and a nephew named Sammy.
She is also the niece of character actress Candice Azzara. Parrilla’s parents legally divorced when she was four years old. She spent her first ten years living with her mother, and then lived with her father. During the time she lived with her father, he was too protective to allow her to attend a performing arts school, which delayed her acting career.
Parrilla lived with her father until his murder in 1994, when she was 16 and he was 50. Her father was shot once in the chest by a 15-year-old female assailant at point blank range and later died from the wound.
After the death of her father, Parrilla moved in with her mother in Burbank, California. Parrilla visited Granada in 2007 to learn Spanish. After high school she moved to Los Angeles and attended Beverly Hills Playhouse to study acting. She also studied voice for ten years. Parrilla then began to be cast in small parts and later on, larger ones.
In her early career, Parrilla appeared in several movies, including Very Mean Men (2000), Spiders (2000), Replicant (2001) and Frozen Stars (2003). She made her television debut in 1999, on the UON sitcom Grown Ups.
In 2000, she joined the cast of the ABC comedy series Spin City, playing Angie Ordonez for one season. She left the show in 2001.
After that she joined Donnie Wahlberg and Neal McDonough in the 2002 critically acclaimed but short-lived crime drama Boomtown, for which she received the Imagen Award for Best Supporting Actress, for her portrayal of Teresa, a paramedic. Initially a success, Boomtown began to struggle, and Parrilla’s character became a police academy rookie, to tie her more closely to the rest of the show. “Boomtown” was cancelled just two episodes into its second season.
Parrilla guest-starred in a number of television dramas, including JAG, Six Feet Under, Covert Affairs, Medium, The Defenders and Chase. She had a recurring role in 2004 as Officer Janet Grafton in NYPD Blue.
In 2005, Parrilla took a recurring guest role on the fourth season of the Fox series 24 as Sarah Gavin, a Counter Terrorist Unit agent. After just six episodes, Lana was made a regular cast member; but in the thirteenth episode, her character was written out after she tried to thwart another character’s promotion from temporary to permanent CTU head Michelle Dessler (Reiko Aylesworth).
In 2006, Parrilla starred in the NBC summer series Windfall alongside Luke Perry, fellow former 24 cast member Sarah Wynter, and Parilla’s former Boomtown castmate Jason Gedrick. In 2007, she guest starred as Greta during the third season of ABC’s Lost in the episodes “Greatest Hits” and “Through the Looking Glass” In 2008, she had a leading role on the Lifetime movie The Double Life of Eleanor Kendall, in which she played Nellie, a divorcee whose identity has been stolen.
Also in 2008, she starred in the CBS summer series Swingtown as Trina Decker, a woman who is part of a Swinging couple. In 2010, Parrilla had a female lead role in the Jerry Bruckheimer-produced Miami Medical on CBS, which had a short run towards the end of the 2009–10 television season before it was canceled in July 2010.
Windfall, Swingtown and Miami Medical were all canceled after 13 episodes.
In February 2011, she was cast as Mayor Regina Mills/The Evil Queen, the main antagonist in the ABC adventure fantasy drama pilot, Once Upon a Time created by Edward Kitsis and Adam Horowitz.
The series debuted in October 2011.
The pilot episode was watched by 12.93 million viewers and achieved an adult 18–49 rating/share of 4.0/10 during the first season, receiving generally favorable reviews from critics.
Parrilla’s performance also received positive reviews from critics. In 2012 and 2013, she was regarded as a promising contender for an Emmy Award in the Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series category, though she did not receive a nomination.
She won the TV Guide Award for Favorite Villain and the ALMA Award for Outstanding Actress in a Drama Series in 2012.
Parrilla also received a nomination for Best Supporting Actress on Television from the 38th Saturn Awards.
Parrilla became engaged to boyfriend Fred Di Blasio on April 28, 2013, while in Israel.
The two were married June 5, 2014, shortly before Parrilla began filming the fourth season of Once Upon a Time.”
Parrilla confirmed the news on her Twitter account on August 1. Parrilla is the stepmother to Di Blasio’s three sons: Jack, age 18, Patrick, age 15, and Matthew, age 13.
Lana Parrilla est née d’une mère italienne artiste-peintre et d’un père porto-ricain, Sam Parrilla. Ce dernier fut un joueur professionnel de baseball américain évoluant dans l’équipe des Phillies de Philadelphie dans les années 1970. Il est assassiné en 1994 à la suite d’une altercation qui a mal tourné. Elle a une sœur aînée prénommée Deena et est la nièce de l’actrice Candice Azzara, qui l’a inspirée dans sa carrière d’actrice.
Après le lycée, Lana Parrilla a déménagé à Los Angeles pour commencer sa carrière où elle a étudié à la Beverly Hills Playhouse.
Elle réside à Vancouver avec son mari Alfredo “Fred” DiBlasio. Elle n’a pas d’enfant mais vit avec les trois adolescents de son compagnon ainsi que leurs animaux de compagnie. Elle s’est fiancée en Israël le 29 avril 2013 et s’est mariée le 5 juillet 2014.
Elle développe très jeune un goût pour la comédie, inspirée par sa tante, l’actrice américaine Candice Azzara. Elle suit des cours à Los Angeles avant de débuter dans une série en 1999, Grown Ups durant deux épisodes. Elle enchaîne les séries avec le rôle régulier d’Angie Ordonez dans Spin City en 2000, puis Boomtown en 2002.
Elle joue dans des séries d’action et policier avec JAG en 2000, New York Police Blues en 2004 ainsi que dans une saison de 24 heures chrono dans le rôle de Sarah Gavin.
En 2008, elle incarne Trina Decker dans la série Swingtown. Elle incarne une voisine d’un couple qui va découvrir, grâce à elle, la libération sexuelle.
En 2011, dans la nouvelle série télévisée fantastique américaine Once Upon a Time, elle joue l’un des rôles principaux féminins en incarnant le Maire de Storybrooke, Regina Mills, ainsi que le personnage de la Méchante Reine, belle-mère de Blanche-Neige.
Lana Parrilla a été attaquée à dix ans par un chien, ce qui lui a laissé une cicatrice visible sur le côté droit de sa lèvre supérieure
Elle est également une chanteuse à certaines occasions, prêtant sa voix en fond sonore pour un tube de musique composé par deux des trois fils de son compagnon. Ces derniers forment un groupe de musique appelé 45 Spacer et Lana a contribué à leur tube appelé Naughty Boys, en 2012 ainsi qu’à You and Me en 2013.
Elle a obtenu le rôle régulier d’Angie Ordonez dans la série Spin City en 2000 après avoir dû passer six auditions au total.
Lana Parrilla connaissait toute l’histoire de la Reine Regina dès le pilote de la saison 1 de Once Upon a Time. Les scénaristes Edward Kitsis et Adam Horowitz lui ont révélé le passé du personnage avec Blanche-Neige afin qu’elle incarne au mieux son rôle.
Lana et l’acteur Jorge Garcia se connaissent depuis près de vingt ans. En effet, ils ont débuté ensemble leurs cours de théâtre à Los Angeles et sont devenus très amis. Ils se sont retrouvés lors du tournage de la saison 3 de Lost, en 2006, où Garcia incarnait un survivant alors qu’ils étaient logés dans la même hutte. Ils se sont ensuite retrouvés ensemble dans la saison 2 de Once Upon a Time.
Jack DiBlasio, le fils aîné de son compagnon, a fait une apparition dans le dernier épisode de la saison 2 de Once Upon a Time, dans le rôle d’un des Enfants Perdus du Pays Imaginaire.
Elle a une petite plume tatouée au poignet droit, symbole d’espoir.
2000 : Spiders de Gary Jones : Marci
2000 : Very Mean Men de Tony Vitale : Teresa
2001 : Replicant de Ringo Lam : Marci
2003 : One Last Ride de Tony Vitale : Antoinette
1999 : Grown Ups de Brian K. Roberts & Richard Correll (Série TV) : Une serveuse
2000 – 2001 : Spin City de Ted Wass (Série TV) : Angie Ordonez
2001 : Semper fi de Michael W. Watkins (Téléfilm)
2002 – 2003 : Boomtown de Frederick King Keller, Jon Avnet (Série TV) : Teresa Ortiz
2002 : The Shield de Scott Brazil (Série TV) : Sedona Tellez
2002 : JAG de Terrence O’Hara (Série TV) : Lt. Stephanie Donato
2004 : Six Feet Under (Six Feet Under) de Peter Webber et Miguel Arteta (Série TV) : Maile
2004 : New York Police Blues (NYPD Blue) de Robert J. Doherty, Mark Tinker & Dennis Dugan (Série TV) : Officier Janet Grafton
2005 : 24 heures chrono de Ken Girotti, Jon Cassar (Série TV) : Sarah Gavin
2006 : Windfall : Des dollars tombés du ciel d’Ellen S. Pressman, Matt Shakman (Série TV) : Nina Schaefer
2007 : Lost : Les Disparus de Stephen Williams & Jack Bender (Série TV) : Greta
2008 : Swingtown d’Alex Zakrzewski, Alan Poul (Série TV) : Trina Decker
2008 : Mon identité volée (The Double Life of Eleanor Kendall) de Richard Roy (Téléfilm) : Nellie
2010 : Médium (série télévisée) (Série TV) : Lydia
2010 : Miami Medical (Série TV) : Dr Eva Zambrano
2010 : Chase (Série TV) : Isabella
2011 : Covert Affairs (Série TV) : Julia Suarez
2011 – en cours : Once Upon a Time (Série TV) : La Méchante Reine / Regina Mills
Elle est la fille d’Elsie Doying, professeur de piano, et de Raymond Davy Hunter, vice-président d’une compagnie pétrolière de Long Island, la Harper Fuel Oil. Elle a une sœur, Marcia.
Linda Hunt a étudié à l’université Interlochen Arts Academy. Elle a obtenu l’Oscar de la meilleure actrice dans un second rôle en 1984 pour son rôle dans L’Année de tous les dangers de Peter Weir.
Elle est atteinte de nanisme hypophysaire (et non du syndrome de Turner comme écrit dans certains blogs), ce qui fait qu’elle a une taille (1,45 m) bien en dessous de la moyenne.
After making her film debut playing Mrs. Oxheart in Popeye (1980), Hunt portrayed the male character Billy Kwan, her breakthrough performance, in The Year of Living Dangerously (1982). Her role as Billy Kwan earned her an Academy Award, an Australian Film Institute Award, a Golden Globe nomination and various other awards.
She has had great success in films such as The Bostonians (1984), Dune (1984), Silverado (1985), Eleni (1985), Waiting for the Moon (1987), She-Devil (1989), Kindergarten Cop (1990), If Looks Could Kill (1991), Rain Without Thunder (1992), Twenty Bucks (1993), Younger and Younger (1993), Prêt-à-Porter (1994), Pocahontas (1995), The Relic (1997), Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World (1998), Dragonfly (2002), Yours Mine and Ours (2005) and Stranger Than Fiction (2006).
Hunt has also had a successful television career. She played Rose in the television movie Basements (1987) and narrated in the television movie The New Chimpanzees. She guest starred on Hallmark Hall of Fame in both 1978 and 1987, Space Rangers in 1993, Carnivale in both 2003 and 2005, Without a Trace in 2008, The Unit in 2008 and Nip Tuck in 2009. From 1997 to 2002, Hunt played the recurring role of Judge Zoey Hiller on The Practice. She currently portrays Henrietta ‘Hetty’ Lange on the CBS television series NCIS Los Angeles, a role she has held since the 2009 debut, for which she has received two Teen Choice Awards. She is also the narrator in the God of War video game franchise.
Hunt was born in Morristown, New Jersey, and raised in Westport, Connecticut. She is one of the two daughters of Raymond Davy Hunter, vice president of Harper Fuel Oil on Long Island, and Elsie Doying Hunter, a piano teacher who taught at the Westport School of Music and accompanied the Saugatuck Congregational Church choir. Hunt attended the Interlochen Arts Academy and the Goodman School of Drama in Chicago (now part of DePaul University)
Hunt’s film debut in 1980 was in Robert Altman’s musical comedy Popeye. Two years later, she co-starred as Billy Kwan in The Year of Living Dangerously, Peter Weir’s film adaptation of the novel of the same name.
For her role as the male Chinese-Australian photographer Billy Kwan, Hunt won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 1983, becoming the first person to win an Oscar for playing a character of the opposite sex.
In addition, the character was Asian and had the condition of dwarfism. In her screen test, Hunt wore a hairpiece, a fake moustache, and “paste-on pieces above her eyes to appear Oriental”.
To accomplish the role during production, Hunt shortened “her hair and dyed it black, wore padding around her waist, shaved her eyebrows, and carried something in her shirt pocket.” In her 1986 interview with the Bomb magazine, Hunt remarked that Billy Kwan “is supra-personal with layers of sexual ambiguity.”
Hunt also played a nurse in She-Devil (1989) and the austere school principal opposite Arnold Schwarzenegger in Kindergarten Cop in 1990.
Also a well known stage actress, Hunt has received two Obie awards and a Tony Award nomination for her theatre work.
She created the role of Aunt Dan in Wallace Shawn’s play Aunt Dan and Lemon. She portrayed Sister Aloysius in the Pasadena Playhouse production of John Patrick Shanley’s play Doubt.
She was praised for her performance as the title character in Bertolt Brecht’s Mother Courage and Her Children.
Hunt also appeared as Pope Joan in Caryl Churchill’s “Top Girls” when London’s Royal Court Theatre’s production was staged at the Public Theater in New York. In an interview with writer Craig Gholson and actor Vincent Caristi, Hunt discusses her experience acting in theatre, “Acting onstage is like an explosion each night.
And what comes in at you all the time as you are trying to create something which is a tremendous act of organization and concentration.”.
Her television appearances include recurring roles as Judge Zoey Hiller on David E. Kelley’s series The Practice and as Dr. Claire Bryson on Without a Trace. She has narrated several installments of The American Experience on PBS.
She now plays the role of an operations manager and supervisor on the CBS fall show NCIS: Los Angeles with Chris O’Donnell, LL Cool J, Daniela Ruah, Eric Christian Olsen and Barrett Foa.
Hunt has a rich, resonant voice, which she has used in numerous documentaries, cartoons, and commercials. She is the on-air host for City Arts & Lectures, a radio program recorded by KQED public radio at the Nourse Theater in San Francisco.
Hunt interviews celebrated writers, artists and thinkers addressing contemporary ideas and values, often discussing the creative process.
Hunt was chosen by Walt Disney Feature Animation to lend her enigmatic speaking and singing voice to Grandmother Willow in the animated musical film Pocahontas and its direct-to-video sequel Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World.
Her voice work includes also the character of “Management” in Carnivàle, and the titan Gaia, who serves as the Narrator in the God of War series of video games.
She narrated the introductory film at the International Spy Museum in Washington, D.C., and has also been heard in various commercials of the late 1990s for Tylenol.
Hunt narrated the PBS Nature special entitled “Christmas in Yellowstone”. She also narrated the National Geographic documentary The Great Indian Railway.
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