Simon & Garfunkel


Simon & Garfunkel was an American folk rock duo consisting of singer-songwriter Paul Simon and singer Art Garfunkel. They were one of the most popular recording artists of the 1960s and became counterculture icons of the decade’s social revolution, alongside artists such as the Beatles, the Beach Boys, and Bob Dylan.

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Simon and Garfunkel album cover 1

English article / En Français plus bas svp / French below

Their biggest hits—including “The Sound of Silence” (1964/1965), “Mrs. Robinson” (1968), “Bridge over Troubled Water” (1969), and “The Boxer” (1969)—reached number one on singles charts worldwide.

Their often rocky relationship led to artistic disagreements, which resulted in their breakup in 1970.

Their final studio record, Bridge over Troubled Water, was their most successful, becoming one of the world’s best-selling albums. Since their split in 1970 they have reunited several times, most famously in 1981 for the “The Concert in Central Park”, which attracted more than 500,000 people, the seventh-largest concert attendance in history.

The duo met as children in Queens, New York in 1953, where they learned to harmonize together and began writing original material. By 1957, under the name Tom & Jerry, the teenagers had their first minor success with “Hey Schoolgirl”, a song imitating their idols the Everly Brothers.

Afterwards, the duo went their separate ways, with Simon making unsuccessful solo records. In 1963, aware of a growing public interest in folk music, they regrouped and were signed to Columbia Records as Simon & Garfunkel. Their début, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., sold poorly, and they once again disbanded;

Simon returned to a solo career, this time in England. A remix of their song “The Sound of Silence” was played widely on U.S. AM radio in 1965, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100. Simon & Garfunkel reunited, releasing their second studio album Sounds of Silence and touring colleges nationwide.

On their third release, Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966), the duo assumed more creative control. Their music was featured in the 1967 film The Graduate, giving them further exposure. Bookends (1968), their next album, topped the Billboard 200 chart and included the #1 single “Mrs. Robinson” from the film.

After their 1970 breakup following the release of Bridge over Troubled Water, they both continued recording, Simon releasing a number of highly acclaimed albums, including 1986’s Graceland.

Garfunkel also briefly pursued an acting career, with leading roles in two Mike Nichols films, Catch-22 and Carnal Knowledge, and in Nicolas Roeg’s 1980 Bad Timing.

Simon & Garfunkel were described by critic Richie Unterberger as “the most successful folk-rock duo of the 1960s” and one of the most popular artists from the decade in general. They won 10 Grammy Awards and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990.

Their Bridge over Troubled Water album was nominated at the 1977 Brit Awards for Best International Album and is ranked at #51 on Rolling Stone’s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.

Early years (1953–1956)

Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel grew up in the 1940s and 1950s in the predominantly Jewish neighborhood of Forest Hills in Queens, New York, just three blocks away from one another, and attended the same schools, Public School 164 in Flushing, Parsons Junior High School, and Forest Hills High School.

Individually, when still young, they developed a fascination with music; both listened to the radio and were taken with rock and roll as it emerged, particularly the Everly Brothers.

Early Simon & Garfunkel F

When Simon first noticed Garfunkel, he was singing in a fourth grade talent show, and Simon thought that was a good way to attract girls;

he hoped for a friendship which eventually started in 1953 when they were in the sixth grade and appeared on stage together in a school play adaptation of Alice in Wonderland. That first stage appearance was followed by the duo forming a street-corner doo-wop group, the Peptones, with three other friends, and learning to harmonize together. They began performing for the first time as a duo at school dances.

They moved to Forest Hills High School in 1955, where, in 1956, they wrote their first song, “The Girl for Me”; Simon’s father sending a handwritten copy to the Library of Congress to register a copyright.

While trying to remember the lyrics to the Everly’s song “Hey Doll Baby“, they created their own song, “Hey Schoolgirl”, which they recorded themselves for $25 at Sanders Recording Studio in Manhattan.

While recording they were overheard by a promoter, Sid Prosen, who – after speaking to their parents – signed them to his independent label Big Records.

From Tom & Jerry to Simon & Garfunkel (1957–1964)

While still aged 15, Simon & Garfunkel now had a recording contract with Sid Prosen’s independent label Big Records.

Using the name Tom & Jerry; Garfunkel naming himself Tom Graph, a reference to his interest in mathematics;

Simon naming himself Jerry Landis, after the surname of Sue Landis, a girl he had dated, the single “Hey Schoolgirl” was released, with the B-side “Dancin’ Wild”, in 1957.

Prosen, using the payola system, bribed Alan Freed $200 to get the single played on his radio show, where it became a nightly staple.

“Hey Schoolgirl” attracted regular rotation on nationwide AM pop stations, leading it to sell over 100,000 copies and to land on Billboard’s charts at number 49.

Prosen promoted the group heavily, getting them a spot on Dick Clark’s American Bandstand (headlining alongside Jerry Lee Lewis).

The duo shared approximately $4,000 from the song – earning two percent each from royalties, the rest staying with Prosen.

They released three more singles on Big Records: “Our Song”, “That’s My Story”, and “Don’t Say Goodbye”, none of them successful.

After graduating from Forest Hills High School in 1959, they were still exploring the possibilities of a music career, though continued their education as a back up; Simon studying English at Queens College, City University of New York, Garfunkel studying first architecture, then switching to art history at Columbia College, Columbia University.

While still with Big Records as a duo, Simon released a solo single, “True or False”, under the name “True Taylor”.

This recording upset Garfunkel, who regarded it as a betrayal; the emotional tension from that incident occasionally surfacing throughout their relationship.

Their last recording with Big Records was a cover of a Jan and Dean single, “Baby Talk”, but the company became bankrupt soon after release; the track was reissued on Bell Records, but failed to sell, so Tom & Jerry was dissolved.

Both, however, continued recording, albeit as solo artists: Garfunkel composing and recording “Private World” for Octavia Records, and – under the name Artie Garr – “Beat Love” for Warwick; Simon recorded with The Mystics, and Tico & The Triumphs, and wrote and recorded under the names Jerry Landis and Paul Kane.

Simon also wrote and performed demos for other artists, working for a while with Carole King and Gerry Goffin.

After graduating in 1963, Simon joined Garfunkel, who was still at Columbia, to perform together again as a duo, this time with a shared interest in folk music.

Simon enrolled part-time in Brooklyn Law School,By late 1963, billing themselves as “Kane & Garr”, they performed at Gerde’s Folk City, a Greenwich club that hosted Monday night open mic performances.

The duo performed three new songs — “Sparrow”, “He Was My Brother”, and “The Sound of Silence” — and got the attention of Columbia producer Tom Wilson, who worked with Bob Dylan.

As a “star producer” for the label, he wanted to record “He Was My Brother” with a new British act named the Pilgrims.

Simon convinced Wilson to let him and his partner have a studio audition, and they performed “The Sound of Silence”. House engineer Roy Halee recorded the audition, and at Wilson’s urging, Columbia signed the duo.

Their debut studio album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., was recorded over three daytime sessions in March 1964 and released in October. The album contains four original Simon compositions, with the remainder consisting of three traditional folk songs and five folk-influenced singer-songwriter numbers.

Simon was adamant that they would no longer use stage names, and they adopted the name Simon & Garfunkel.

Columbia set up a promotional showcase at Folk City on March 31, 1964, the duo’s first public concert as Simon & Garfunkel. The showcase, as well as other scheduled performances, did not go well.

Simon in England (1964–1965)

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. sold only 3,000 copies upon its October release, and its poor sales led Simon to move to England where he had previously visited and played some gigs.

He toured the small folk clubs, appearing on the same bill and befriending British folk artists such as Bert Jansch, Martin Carthy, Al Stewart, and Sandy Denny.

He met Kathy Chitty, who became the object of his affection and is the Kathy in “Kathy’s Song” and “America”.

A small music publishing company, Lorna Music, licensed “Carlos Dominguez”, a single Simon had cut two years prior as “Paul Kane”, for a cover by Val Doonican that sold very well.

Simon visited Lorna to thank them, and the meeting resulted in a publishing and recording contract. He signed to the Oriole label and released “He Was My Brother” as a single.

Simon invited Garfunkel to stay for the summer of 1964.

Near the end of the season, Garfunkel returned to Columbia for class, and Simon surprised his friends by saying that he would be returning to the States as well.

He would resume his studies at Brooklyn Law School for one semester, partially at his parents’ insistence. He returned to England in January 1965, now certain that music was his calling.

In the meantime, his landlord, Judith Piepe, had compiled a tape from his work at Lorna and sent it to the BBC in hopes they would play it.

Simon and Garfunkel (1966)

ART AND GARFUNKEK 60s

The demos aired on the Five to Ten morning show, and were instantly successful. Oriole had folded into CBS by that point, and hoped to record a new Paul Simon album.

The Paul Simon Songbook was recorded in June 1965 and featured multiple future Simon & Garfunkel staples, among them “I Am a Rock” and “April Come She Will”. CBS flew Wilson over to produce the record, and he stayed at Simon’s flat.

The album saw release in August, and although sales were poor, Simon felt content with his future in England.

Meanwhile, in the United States, a late-night disc jockey at WBZ-FM in Boston played “The Sound of Silence”, where it found a college demographic.

It was picked up the next day along the East Coast of the United States, down to Cocoa Beach, Florida. Wilson, inspired by the folk rock sound of the Byrds’ cover of “Turn! Turn! Turn!” and Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone”, created a rock remix of the song with the same musicians who overdubbed the Dylan song. The remix of “The Sound of Silence” was issued in September 1965, where it reached the Billboard Hot 100.

Wilson had not informed the duo of his intention to remix the track; as such, Simon was “horrified” when he first heard it.

Garfunkel graduated in 1965, returning to Columbia University to do a master’s degree in mathematics.

Mainstream breakthrough and success (1965–66)

By January 1966, “The Sound of Silence” topped the Hot 100, selling over one million copies.

Simon reunited with Garfunkel that winter in New York, leaving Chitty and his friends in England behind. CBS demanded a new album from the duo, to be called Sounds of Silence to ride the wave of the hit.

Recorded in three weeks, and mainly consisting of re-recorded songs from The Paul Simon Songbook, plus four new tracks, Sounds of Silence was rush-released onto the market in mid-January 1966, peaking at number 21 Billboard Top LPs chart.

A week later, “Homeward Bound” was released as a single, entering the USA top ten, followed by “I Am a Rock” peaking at number three.

The duo supported the recordings with a nationwide tour of America, while CBS continued their promotion by re-releasing Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., which promptly charted at number 30.

Despite the commercial and popular success, the duo received critical derision, as many considered them a manufactured imitation of folk.

As they considered their previous effort a “rush job” to capitalize on their sudden success, the duo spent more time crafting the follow-up. It was the first time Simon insisted on total control in aspects of recording.

Work began in 1966 and took nine months. Garfunkel considered the recording of “Scarborough Fair” the moment they stepped into the role as producer, because they were constantly beside engineer Roy Halee mixing the track.

Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme was issued in October 1966, following the release of several singles and receiving sold-out college campus shows.

The duo resumed their trek on the college circuit eleven days following the release, crafting an image that was described as “alienated”, “weird”, and “poetic”.

Manager Mort Lewis also was responsible for this public perception, as he withheld them from television appearances (unless they were allowed to play an uninterrupted set or choose the setlist).

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Simon, then 26 , felt he had finally “made it” into an upper echelon of rock and roll, while most importantly retaining artistic integrity (“making him spiritually closer to Bob Dylan than to, say, Bobby Darin”, wrote biographer Marc Eliot).

The duo chose William Morris as their booking agency after a recommendation from Wally Amos, a mutual friend through their producer, Tom Wilson.

During the sessions for Parsley, the duo cut “A Hazy Shade of Winter”; it was released as a single, peaking at number 13 on the national charts.

Similarly, they recorded “At the Zoo” for single release in early 1967 (it charted lower, at number 16).

Simon began work for their next album around this time, noting to a writer at High Fidelity that “I’m not interested in singles anymore”.

He had hit a dry spell in his writing, which led to no Simon & Garfunkel album on the horizon for 1967.

Artists at the time were expected to release two, perhaps three albums each year and the lack of productivity from the duo worried executives at Columbia Records.

Amid concerns for Simon’s idleness, Columbia Records chairman Clive Davis arranged for up-and-coming record producer John Simon to kick-start the recording.

Simon was distrustful of “suits” at the label; on one occasion, he and Garfunkel brought a tape recorder into a meeting with Davis, who was giving a “fatherly talk” on speeding up production, in order to laugh at it later.

The rare television appearances at this time saw the duo performing on such diverse network broadcasts as the Ed Sullivan, Mike Douglas and Andy Williams shows in 1966 and twice on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour in 1967.

Meanwhile, director Mike Nichols, then filming The Graduate, had become fascinated with the duo’s past two efforts, listening to them nonstop before and after filming.

The graduate

THE GRADUATE  /  LE LAUREAT  with DUSTIN HOFFMAN

After two weeks of this obsession, he met with Clive Davis to ask for permission to license Simon & Garfunkel music for his film. Davis viewed it as a perfect fit and envisioned a best-selling soundtrack album.

Simon was not as immediately receptive, viewing movies akin to “selling out”, creating a damper on his artistic integrity. However, after meeting Nichols and becoming impressed by his wit and the script, he agreed to write at least one or two new songs for the film.

Leonard Hirshan, a powerful agent at William Morris, negotiated a deal that paid Simon $25,000 to submit three songs to Nichols and producer Lawrence Turman.

Several weeks later, Simon re-emerged with two new tracks, “Punky’s Dilemma” and “Overs”, neither of which Nichols was particularly taken with. The duo offered another new song, which later became “Mrs. Robinson”, that was not as developed. Nichols loved it.

Studio time and low profile (1967–68)

The duo’s fourth studio album, Bookends, was recorded in fits and starts over various periods from late 1966 to early 1968. The duo were signed under an older contract that specified the label pay for sessions, and Simon & Garfunkel took advantage of this indulgence, hiring viola and brass players, as well as percussionists. The record’s brevity reflects its concise and perfectionist production. The team spent over 50 studio hours recording “Punky’s Dilemma”, for example, and re-recorded vocal parts, sometimes note by note, until they were satisfied.

While Garfunkel’s songs and voice took a lead role on some songs, the harmonies the band were known for gradually disappeared. For Simon, Bookends represented the end of the duo and became an early indicator of his intentions to go solo.

Although the album had been planned long in advance, work did not begin in earnest until the late months of 1967.

Prior to release, the band helped put together and performed at the Monterey Pop Festival, which signaled the beginning of the Summer of Love on the West Coast.

“Fakin’ It” was issued as a single that summer and found only modest success on AM radio; the duo were much more focused on the rising FM format, which played album cuts and treated their music with respect.

In January 1968, the duo appeared on a Kraft Music Hall special, Three for Tonight, performing ten songs largely culled from their third album.

Bookends was released by Columbia Records in April 1968. In a historical context, this was just 24 hours before the assassination of civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr., which spurred nationwide outrage and riots.

The album debuted on the Billboard Top LPs in the issue dated April 27, 1968, climbing to number one and staying at that position for seven non-consecutive weeks; it remained on the chart as a whole for 66 weeks.

Bookends received such heavy orders weeks in advance of its release that Columbia was able to apply for award certification before copies left the warehouse, a fact it touted in magazine ads.The record became the duo’s best-selling album to date: it fed off the buzz created by the release of The Graduate soundtrack album ten weeks earlier, creating an initial combined sales figure of over five million units.

Davis had predicted this fact, and suggested raising the list price of Bookends by one dollar to $5.79, above the then standard retail price, to compensate for including a large poster included in vinyl copies.

Simon instead scoffed and viewed it as charging a premium on “what was sure to be that year’s best-selling Columbia album”. According to biographer Marc Eliot, Davis was “offended by what he perceived as their lack of gratitude for what he believed was his role in turning them into superstars”.

Rather than implement Davis’ price increase plan, Simon & Garfunkel signed a contract extension with Columbia that guaranteed them a higher royalty rate.

Lead single “Mrs. Robinson” became, at the 1969 Grammy Awards the first rock and roll song to receive Record of the Year; it was also awarded Best Contemporary Pop Performance by a Duo or Group.

Growing apart and final years (1969–70)

Bookends, alongside The Graduate soundtrack, propelled Simon & Garfunkel to become the biggest rock duo in the world.

Simon was approached by producers to write music for films or license songs; he turned down Franco Zeffirelli, who was preparing to film Brother Sun, Sister Moon, and John Schlesinger, who likewise was readying to shoot Midnight Cowboy.

In addition to Hollywood proposals, producers from the Broadway show Jimmy Shine (starring Simon’s friend Dustin Hoffman, also the lead in Midnight Cowboy) asked for two original songs and Simon declined.

He collaborated briefly with Leonard Bernstein on a sacred mass before withdrawing from the project due to “finding it perhaps too far afield from his comfort zone”.

Garfunkel took the role of Captain Nately in the Nichols film, Catch-22, based on the Catch-22 novel. Initially Simon was to play the character of Dunbar, but screenwriter Buck Henry felt the film was already crowded with characters and subsequently wrote Simon’s part out.

The filming of Catch-22 began in January 1969 and lasted about eight months.

The unexpectedly long film production endangered the relationship between the duo;

Simon had not completed any new songs at this point, and the duo planned to collaborate when the filming would be finished.

Following the end of filming of Catch-22 in October, the first performance of what was, for a time, their last tour, took place in Ames, Iowa.

The US leg of the tour ended in the sold-out Carnegie Hall on November 27.

After breaking for Christmas, the duo continued working on the album in early 1970 and finished it in late January.

Meanwhile, the duo, working with director Charles Grodin, produced an hourlong CBS special, Songs of America, which is a mixture of scenes featuring notable political events and leaders concerning the USA, such as the Vietnam War, Martin Luther King, John F. Kennedy’s funeral procession, Cesar Chavez and the Poor People’s March. It was broadcast only once, due to internal tension at the network regarding its content.

Bridge over Troubled Water, their final studio album, was released in January 1970 and charted in over 11 countries, topping the charts in 10, including the Billboard Top LP’s chart in the US and the UK Albums Chart.

It was the best-selling album in 1970, 1971 and 1972 and was at that time the best-selling album of all time.

It was also CBS Records’ best-selling album before the release of Michael Jackson’s Thriller in 1982.

The album topped the Billboard charts for 10 weeks and stayed in the charts for 85 weeks.

In the United Kingdom, the album topped the charts for 35 weeks, and spent 285 weeks in the top 100, from 1970 to 1975.[88] It has since sold over 25 million copies worldwide.

“Bridge over Troubled Water”, the album’s lead single, hit number one in five countries and became their biggest seller.

The song has been covered by over 50 artists since then, including Elvis Presley and Johnny Cash. “Cecilia”, the follow-up, hit number four in the US, and “El Condor Pasa” hit number 18

The recording process was tough for both musicians, and their breakup was almost certain considering the deterioration of their relationship. “At that point, I just wanted out,” Simon later said.

Their breakup was not intended to be semi-permanent: Garfunkel hoped for a two-year break from Simon & Garfunkel and did not intend to pursue a film-career. Likewise, Simon did not intend to begin a solo career.

A brief British tour followed the album release, and the duo’s last concert as Simon & Garfunkel occurred at Forest Hills Stadium.

In 1971, the album took home six awards at the 13th Annual Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year. Simon’s wife, Peggy Harper, pushed for him to make the split official, and he placed a call to Davis to confirm the duo’s breakup: “I want you to know I’ve decided to split with Artie. I don’t think we’ll be recording together again.”

For the next several years, the duo would only speak “two or three” times a year.

Breakup, rifts, and reunions (1971–2003)

In the 1970s, the duo reunited several times. Their first reunion was a benefit concert for presidential candidate George McGovern at New York’s Madison Square Garden in June 1972.

In 1975, they reconciled once more when they visited a recording session with John Lennon and Harry Nilsson.

For the rest of the year, they attempted to make the reunion work, but their collaboration only yielded one song, “My Little Town,” that was featured on Simon’s Still Crazy After All These Years and Garfunkel’s Breakaway.

It peaked at number nine on the Hot 100. In 1975, Garfunkel joined Simon for a medley of three songs on the television series Saturday Night Live which Simon was guest hosting.

In 1977, Garfunkel joined Simon for a brief performance of their old songs on Simon’s television special The Paul Simon Special, and later that year they recorded a cover of Sam Cooke’s “(What a) Wonderful World” along with James Taylor.

Old tensions finally appeared to dissipate upon Garfunkel’s return to New York in 1978, when the duo began interacting more often.

On May 1, 1978, Simon joined Garfunkel for a concert held at Carnegie Hall to benefit the hearing disabled.

By 1980, the duo’s respective solo efforts were not doing well. To help alleviate New York’s economic decline, concert promoter Ron Delsener came up with the idea to throw a free concert in Central Park.

Delsener contacted Simon with the idea of a Simon & Garfunkel reunion, and once Garfunkel agreed, plans were made.

The Concert in Central Park, performed September 19, 1981, attracted more than 500,000 people, at that time the largest-ever concert attendance.

Warner Bros. Records released a live album of the show that went double platinum in the US.

A 90-minute recording of the concert was sold to Home Box Office (HBO) for over $1 million.

The concert created a renewed interest in the duo’s work.

They had several “heart-to-heart talks,” attempting to put past issues behind them.

The duo planned a world tour, kicking off in May 1982, but their relationship grew contentious: for the majority of the tour, they did not speak to one another.

Warner Bros. pushed for them to extend the tour and release an all-new Simon & Garfunkel studio album.

After recording several vocal tracks for a possible new Simon & Garfunkel album, Simon decided to adopt it as his own solo album. Garfunkel had refused to learn the songs in the studio, and would not give up cannabis and cigarettes, despite Simon’s requests.

An official spokesperson remarked, “Paul simply felt the material he wrote is so close to his own life that it had to be his own record. Art was hoping to be on the album, but I’m sure there will be other projects that they will work on together. They are still friends.”

The material was later released on Simon’s 1983 effort Hearts and Bones.

Another rift opened between the duo when the lengthy recording of Simon’s 1986 album Graceland prevented Garfunkel from working with Roy Halee on a Christmas album.

In 1990, the duo were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Garfunkel thanked his partner, calling him “the person who most enriched my life by putting those songs through me,” to which Simon responded, “Arthur and I agree about almost nothing. But it’s true, I have enriched his life quite a bit.” After three songs, the duo left without speaking.

We are indescribable. You’ll never capture it. It’s an ingrown, deep friendship. Yes, there is deep love in there. But there’s also shit. =>  Garfunkel describing his six-decade-long friendship with Simon

 

By 1993, their relationship had thawed again, and Simon invited Garfunkel on an international tour with him.

Following a 21-date, sold-out run at the Paramount Theater in New York and an appearance at that year’s Bridge School Benefit in California, the duo toured the Far East.

The duo had a falling out over the course of the rest of the decade, the details of which have never been disclosed.

Simon thanked Garfunkel at his 2001 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a solo artist: “I regret the ending of our friendship. I hope that some day before we die we will make peace with each other,” resuming after a pause, “No rush.”

They were awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 45th Annual Grammy Awards in 2003, for which the promoters convinced them to reconcile and open the show with a performance of “The Sound of Silence.”

The performance was satisfying for both musicians, and they planned out a full-scale reunion tour over the summer.

The Old Friends tour began in October 2003 and played to sold-out audiences across the United States for 30 dates until mid-December.

The tour earned an estimated $123 million.

Following a twelve-city run in Europe in 2004, they ended their nine-month tour with a free concert at the Colosseum in Rome. It attracted 600,000 fans, more than their The Concert in Central Park.

Recent years (2009–present)

In 2009, the duo reunited again for three songs during Simon’s two-night arrangement at New York’s Beacon Theatre. This led to a reunion tour of Asia and Australia in June 2009.

Their headlining set at the 2010 New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival was very difficult for Garfunkel, who was experiencing serious vocal problems. “I was terrible, and crazy nervous. I leaned on Paul Simon and the affection of the crowd,” he told Rolling Stone several years later.

Garfunkel was diagnosed with vocal cord paresis, and the remaining tour dates were postponed indefinitely. His manager, John Scher, informed Simon’s camp that Garfunkel would be ready within a year, which did not happen, leading to poor relations between the two. He regained his vocal strength over the course of the next four years, performing shows in a Harlem theater and to underground audiences.

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ART GARFUNKEL

Despite this, the duo have not staged a full-scale tour or performed shows since 2010. Garfunkel confirmed to Rolling Stone in 2014 that he believes they will tour in the future, although Simon had been too “busy” in recent years. “I know that audiences all over the world like Simon and Garfunkel. I’m with them. But I don’t think Paul Simon’s with them,” he remarked.

Musical style and legacy

Over the course of their career, Simon & Garfunkel’s music gradually moved from a very basic, folk rock sound to incorporate more experimental elements for the time, including Latin and gospel music. Many adolescents of the 1960s found their music relevant, while adults regarded them as intelligent.

Their music, according to Rolling Stone, struck a chord among lonely, alienated young adults near the end of the decade.

Despite its popularity, the group was also criticized sharply, especially in its heyday. Rolling Stone critic Arthur Schmidt, for example, described the duo’s music as “questionable…it exudes a sense of process, and it is slick, and nothing too much happens.”

New York Times critic Robert Shelton said that the group had “a kind of Mickey Mouse, timid, contrived” approach to music.

Their clean sound and muted lyricism “cost them some hipness points during the psychedelic era” according to Richie Unterberger of AllMusic, who also notes that the duo “inhabited the more polished end of the folk-rock spectrum and was sometimes criticized for a certain collegiate sterility.”

Paul_Simon

PAUL SIMON

Unterberger further observes that some critics would later regard Simon’s lyricism in his work with Simon & Garfunkel to pale in comparison to his later solo material.

But Unterberger himself believed that “the best of S&G’s work could stand among Simon’s best material, and the duo did progress musically over the course of their five albums, moving from basic folk-rock productions into Latin rhythms and gospel-influenced arrangements that foreshadowed Simon’s eclecticism on his solo albums.”

Their rocky personal relationship led to their “breaking up and making up about every dozen years.”

Simon and Garfunkel est un duo américain de folk rock, constitué du guitariste et auteur-compositeur-interprète Paul Simon et du chanteur Arthur Garfunkel. Tous deux se rencontrent pour la première fois dans le Queens en 1953.

Simon and Garfunkel album2

Ils apprennent à s’accorder l’un avec l’autre et commencent à écrire leurs propres compositions. Ils connaissent leur premier succès en 1957, sous le nom de Tom & Jerry, avec la chanson Hey Schoolgirl, qui imite le style de leurs idoles The Everly Brothers.

Mais ce succès n’est pas confirmé et ils poursuivent ensuite leurs études universitaires chacun de leur côté. Ils se retrouvent en 1963, avec un intérêt accru pour la musique folk, et signent un contrat avec Columbia Records. Leur premier album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. (1964), est un échec commercial à sa sortie et le duo se sépare, Simon décidant de poursuivre sa carrière en solo en Angleterre.

Cependant, une nouvelle version de leur chanson The Sound of Silence connaît le succès sur les ondes américaines en 1965 et atteint la première place du Billboard Hot 100.

Le duo se reforme alors et enregistre un deuxième album, Sounds of Silence (1966), qui est rapidement suivi par Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966), album sur lequel le duo prend un plus grand contrôle créatif. La popularité du duo s’accroît avec la bande originale du film Le Lauréat (1967), composée en majeure partie par leurs chansons.

Leur album suivant, Bookends (1968), les propulse au rang de stars internationales majeures. Néanmoins, les relations entre les deux hommes se dégradent et le duo se sépare peu après la sortie de leur album suivant, Bridge over Troubled Water (1970), qui est leur plus grand succès commercial.

Simon and Garfunkel comptent parmi les artistes les plus populaires des années 1960 et sont considérés comme des icônes de la contre-culture de cette décennie, au même titre que les Beatles et Bob Dylan.

Leurs chansons les plus célèbres, The Sound of Silence, I Am a Rock, Homeward Bound, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, A Hazy Shade of Winter, Mrs. Robinson, Bridge over Troubled Water, The Boxer, Cecilia et El Cóndor Pasa (If I Could), ont  connu un très grand succès international.

Depuis leur séparation, Simon et Garfunkel ont reformé plusieurs fois le duo, notamment à l’occasion d’un concert à Central Park en 1981 qui réunit plus de 500 000 spectateurs, ce qui constitue à l’époque la plus grande affluence de tous les temps pour un concert.

Rencontre et débuts musicaux (1953-1962)

Paul Frederic Simon et Arthur Ira Garfunkel, nés tous deux en 1941, grandissent à New York dans le quartier du Queens de Kew Gardens Hills à seulement trois pâtés de maisons l’un de l’autre1. Ils se passionnent pour la musique dès leur plus jeune âge, notamment avec l’avènement du rock ‘n’ roll2. Garfunkel commence à chanter dans des radio-crochets dès le CM1 et rencontre Simon deux ans plus tard, en 1953.

Leur amitié s’épanouit quand tous deux sont choisis pour jouer dans une adaptation théâtrale d’Alice au pays des merveilles, Simon dans le rôle du Lapin blanc et Garfunkel dans celui du Chat du Cheshire. Ils commencent à chanter ensemble dans des groupes de doo-wop et apprennent ainsi à s’accorder l’un avec l’autre.

Simon et Garfunkel entrent à la Forest Hills High School en septembre 1955 et entreprennent d’enregistrer leurs arrangements sur des bandes magnétiques. Ils écrivent leur première chanson, The Girl for Me, en 1956 et commencent à se produire en tant que duo dans des écoles de musique. Très influencés par Elvis Presley et The Everly Brothers, ils décident de présenter une maquette d’une de leurs compositions, Hey Schoolgirl, à des éditeurs musicaux de Manhattan.

Ils enregistrent la chanson, avec Dancin’ Wild en face B, au Sanders Recording Studio, un minuscule studio d’enregistrement de Manhattan.

Ils rencontrent ensuite Sid Prosen, qui dirige le label indépendant Big Records, et celui-ci leur fait signer un contrat en proclamant qu’ils sont les nouveaux Everly Brothers. Le duo adopte le nom de Tom and Jerry, d’après le cartoon du même nom.

Garfunkel prend le pseudonyme de Tom Graph, en référence à ses aptitudes en mathématiques et à sa manie de consigner les classements de singles sous forme de graphiques sur du papier millimétré

Simon prend celui de Jerry Landis, d’après le nom de famille d’une fille qu’il a fréquenté.

Sid Prosen verse un pot-de-vin à Alan Freed afin que ce dernier diffuse Hey Schoolgirl dans son émission de radio, et la chanson devient rapidement l’un des morceaux les plus populaires de l’émission.

Hey Schoolgirl est alors diffusée régulièrement sur les ondes à l’échelle nationale.

Le single se vend à plus de 100 000 copies en 1957 et se hisse à la 49e place du Billboard Hot 100. Prosen assure efficacement la promotion du duo, en les faisant notamment passer dans l’émission télévisée American Bandstand aux côtés de Jerry Lee Lewis.

Le producteur s’adjuge toutefois la part du lion dans les royalties dégagées par le duo, prélevant 96% de celles-ci

. Garfunkel, qui n’apprécie pas le milieu de l’industrie musicale, informe Simon qu’il souhaite se consacrer à ses études.

Simon décide alors de continuer sa carrière en solo sous le pseudonyme de True Taylor. À sa sortie du lycée, Simon poursuit des études d’anglais au Queens College alors que Garfunkel étudie les mathématiques à l’université Columbia.

Les ventes des disques de Simon ne décollant pas, celui-ci propose à Garfunkel de reprendre leur collaboration et son ami accepte.

Simon and Garfunkel3

Simon and Garfunkel Cover album3

Cependant, les nouveaux singles sortis par le duo sont des échecs commerciaux, ce qui provoque la fin de leur collaboration avec Sid Prosen.

Simon reprend sa carrière en solo, ce qui entame son amitié avec Garfunkel, qui voit cela comme une trahison.

Cette tension jamais résolue entre les deux hommes influera sur leurs relations durant tout leur parcours commun. Simon achève son premier cycle universitaire et s’inscrit à temps partiel à la Brooklyn Law School.

Un nouveau départ (1963-1964)

Le premier concert de Simon and Garfunkel sous ce nom est à l’origine d’une longue brouille entre Paul Simon et Bob Dylan, ici en 1963.

Simon et Garfunkel s’intéressent chacun de leur côté au mouvement émergeant de la contre-culture et de la musique folk.

Simon devient un habitué de Greenwich Village alors que Garfunkel retourne à l’université Columbia afin de conserver son statut d’étudiant et d’éviter d’être incorporé alors que l’engagement américain au Viêt Nam se précise.

Tous deux se retrouvent pour discuter des nouvelles compositions de Simon et les interpréter au siège de la fraternité étudiante Alpha Epsilon Pi.

Fin 1963, ils se produisent sous le nom de Kane & Garr à la Gerde’s Folk City, une salle de concerts de West Village.

Ils y interprètent trois nouvelles chansons, Sparrow, He Was My Brother et The Sound of Silence, et captent l’attention du producteur Tom Wilson, qui a déjà travaillé avec Bob Dylan.

Wilson souhaite faire enregistrer He Was My Brother à un groupe britannique mais Simon le persuade de les laisser faire une audition. Leur interprétation de The Sound of Silence lors de celle-ci convainc Wilson, qui presse Columbia Records de leur faire signer un contrat.

Le premier album du duo, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., est enregistré sur trois sessions en mars 1964 et sort le 19 octobre.

L’album contient cinq compositions originales de Simon, les sept autres étant des reprises de chansons folk dont The Times They Are a-Changin’ de Bob Dylan.

Simon_&_Garfunkel_932-2092

Simon insiste auprès de Garfunkel pour qu’ils utilisent désormais leurs véritables noms.

Columbia met en place un concert promotionnel à Folk City le 31 mars 1964, qui est le premier concert où le duo se produit sous le nom de Simon and Garfunkel.

Dylan est présent à ce concert et une altercation l’oppose à Simon, ce qui sera à l’origine d’une longue rancune entre les deux hommes. L’origine de cette tension reste peu claire, certains biographes affirmant que Dylan aurait délibérément parlé très fort tout au long du concert alors que d’autres soutiennent qu’il aurait totalement dédaigné celui-ci.

Le concert, tout comme d’autres organisés plus tard, n’est pas un succès.

Simon, anticipant l’échec de l’album, part pour l’Angleterre et rencontre Kathy Chitty dans un club de folk où il se produit.

Ils tombent amoureux et Kathy lui inspirera plusieurs chansons, notamment Kathy’s Song, America et Homeward Bound.

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. ne se vend qu’à 3 000 exemplaires en quelques semaines et cet échec pousse Simon à rester en Angleterre tandis que Garfunkel reprend ses études d’architecture.

Le son du succès (1965-1966)

Les démos que Simon enregistre en Angleterre sont diffusées sur les ondes par la BBC et connaissent le succès.

En juin 1965, Columbia fait alors enregistrer à Simon un album solo, The Paul Simon Songbook, qui sort en Angleterre deux mois plus tard et contient plusieurs chansons qui seront reprises plus tard par le duo.

Les ventes de l’album sont médiocres mais Simon demeure confiant sur son avenir en Angleterre. Pendant ce temps, de l’autre côté de l’Atlantique, un disc-jockey de Boston commence à diffuser The Sound of Silence et la chanson devient populaire dans le milieu étudiant de la côte Est des États-Unis.

Tom Wilson l’apprend et décide de faire réenregistrer la chanson dans une version électrique sans en informer le duo.

Le single sort en septembre et entre dans le Billboard Hot 100. Garfunkel informe Simon, toujours en Europe, de ce qui est en train de se passer. Simon est horrifié lorsqu’il entend la version électrique pour la première fois mais les deux hommes apprécient le succès du single28,29.

Simon revient à New York vers la fin de l’année 1965 afin de reformer son duo avec Garfunkel.

Columbia leur fait enregistrer en décembre un nouvel album et l’intitule « Sounds of Silence » afin de profiter du succès du single.

Ce dernier s’empare de la première place du Billboard Hot 100 en janvier 1966 et dépasse désormais le million d’exemplaires vendus.

En plus d’une réédition de The Sound of Silence, l’album comprend cinq chansons de l’album solo de Simon, dont I Am a Rock, et seulement deux titres sont de nouvelles compositions originales.

L’album sort de façon précipitée le 17 janvier 1966 et est suivi quelques jours plus tard par le single Homeward Bound, qui ne figure pas sur l’album et qui intègre le top 10 des classements musicaux dans plusieurs pays.

Au mois de mars, c’est ensuite I Am a Rock qui sort en single et qui se classe 3e du Billboard Hot 100. Mais en dépit du succès commercial remporté par l’album, 21e au Billboard 200, et les singles, le duo est tourné en dérision par de nombreux critiques musicaux qui estiment qu’il ne produit qu’une imitation manufacturée de la folk.

Alors que le duo part en tournée à travers les États-Unis, Columbia réédite Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. et l’album accède à la 30e place du Billboard 2003.

Simon and Garfunkel en 1966.

Conscients que Sounds of Silence est un travail réalisé dans la précipitation afin de capitaliser sur leur succès soudain, Simon et Garfunkel décident de peaufiner leur prochain album.

Simon insiste d’ailleurs pour avoir le contrôle total pendant la production de celui-ci. Garfunkel considère l’enregistrement de leur version de la chanson traditionnelle « Scarborough Fair » comme le moment où ils sont devenus les véritables producteurs de leurs albums.

Le duo travaille plusieurs mois sur l’album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme et celui-ci sort le 10 octobre. Comprenant notamment Homeward Bound, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin’ Groovy), The Dangling Conversation et For Emily, Whenever I May Find Her, il se caractérise par de vifs contrastes entre les chansons et obtient l’approbation de la critique, qui reconnaît son intégrité artistique, Simon se révélant comme « l’un des auteurs-compositeurs les plus doués de l’époque ».

L’album se hisse par ailleurs à la 4e place du Billboard 200.

Le duo entame dans la foulée une mini-tournée sur les campus universitaires où tous les concerts se jouent à guichets fermés. Mort Lewis, leur agent artistique, entretient l’image décalée et poétique du duo en refusant qu’ils fassent des apparitions à la télévision à moins que des conditions draconiennes ne soient acceptées par l’émission.

A Hazy Shade of Winter, qui n’a pas été retenu par le duo pour figurer sur Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, sort en single deux semaines après la sortie de l’album et se classe 13e du Billboard Hot 100.

Popularité et récompenses : les lauréats (1967-1968)

Simon et Garfunkel enregistrent en janvier 1967 le single At the Zoo et ce dernier est publié le mois suivant, atteignant la 16e place du Billboard Hot 100.

Simon commence alors à travailler sur le prochain album du duo, affirmant qu’il n’est plus intéressé par les singles.

Il est cependant affecté par un blocage de l’écrivain qui a pour conséquence que ce nouvel album ne voit pas le jour en 1967.

À cette époque, il est courant que les artistes sortent deux voire trois albums par an et ce manque de productivité inquiète les dirigeants de Columbia. Clive Davis, le président de Columbia, tente d’accélérer la production de l’album en convoquant Simon et Garfunkel à plusieurs reprises pour leur adresser des discours paternalistes mais les deux amis, déjà méfiants envers l’industrie musicale, tournent cela en dérision en enregistrant un sermon de Davis pour en rire par la suite.

Le 16 juin 1967, Simon and Garfunkel se produisent sur la scène du festival international de musique pop de Monterey qui marque le coup d’envoi du Summer of Love. Fakin’ It sort en single quelques semaines plus tard mais ne remporte qu’un succès modéré.

Pendant ce temps, le réalisateur Mike Nichols tourne Le Lauréat et se prend de passion pour la musique du duo, écoutant leurs chansons en boucle. Deux semaines plus tard, il rencontre Clive Davis pour lui demander l’autorisation d’utiliser certains morceaux du duo pour la musique du film. Davis est enthousiaste, flairant une parfaite occasion de placer une musique de film en tête des ventes de disques.

Simon est beaucoup plus réticent, craignant de compromettre son intégrité artistique. Il change d’avis après avoir rencontré Nichols, qui l’impressionne par son intelligence et la qualité de son scénario, et accepte d’écrire de nouvelles chansons pour le film.

L’agent du duo négocie un contrat qui offre à Simon 25 000 $ pour la composition de trois chansons. Simon propose d’abord à Nichols Punky’s Dilemma et Overs mais aucune des deux ne satisfait le réalisateur. Simon revient alors avec une première version de Mrs. Robinson, qui ne porte pas encore ce titre, qui enthousiasme Nichols.

L’album « The Graduate », composé essentiellement de chansons du duo dont Mrs. Robinson, sort le 21 janvier 1968 et s’empare de la première place du Billboard 200 en avril.

Entretemps, l’enregistrement de Bookends, le quatrième album du duo, est enfin terminé après avoir été échelonné sur plusieurs sessions depuis un an et demi, mais plus particulièrement depuis octobre 1967.

La production de l’album est marquée par son perfectionnisme, l’enregistrement de Punky’s Dilemma étant par exemple étalé sur une cinquantaine d’heures. Mrs. Robinson est réécrite et réenregistrée en février 1968, lors des dernières sessions et constitue l’une des chansons-phares de l’album aux côtés d’autres titres célèbres tels que America, A Hazy Shade of Winter et At the Zoo. Bookends, considéré comme l’album « le plus intellectuel » du duo, est composé sur sa première face d’un cycle de chansons plutôt sombres, évoquant une méditation sur le passage du temps, qui sont suivies dans sa deuxième partie par des titres plus légers et au son plus rock. Il marque par ailleurs le déclin des harmonies du duo, qui disparaissent graduellement au profit d’un chant individuel.

Simon_and_Garfunkel_1968

Bookends sort le 3 avril 1968 et est suivi deux jours plus tard par la sortie en single de Mrs. Robinson dans un contexte très particulier puisque Martin Luther King est assassiné le 4 avril, ce qui provoque une grande émotion et une série d’émeutes à travers les États-Unis.

Bookends prend au mois de mai la première place du Billboard 200, occupée jusqu’alors par The Graduate, tandis que Mrs. Robinson s’installe au sommet du Billboard Hot 100 au mois de juin. Bookends devient à cette date le plus grand succès commercial du duo, ayant profité du phénomène de bouche-à-oreille engendré par la sortie de The Graduate, et les ventes combinées des deux albums dépassent les 5 millions de copies. Lors des Grammy Awards qui se tiennent en mars 1969 et célèbrent les accomplissements des artistes pour l’année 1968, Mrs. Robinson remporte le prix de l’enregistrement de l’année, The Graduate celui de la meilleure musique de film et Simon and Garfunkel celui de la meilleure prestation pop d’un duo ou groupe avec chant.

 BRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATER : dernier album et séparation (1969-1970)

Bookends et The Graduate propulsent Simon and Garfunkel au rang de stars internationales majeures, les deux hommes devenant le duo musical le plus célèbre du monde. Malgré un désaccord avec Clive Davis, qui désirait augmenter d’un dollar le prix de vente de Bookends ce que le duo a refusé et que Davis perçoit comme un manque de gratitude58, Simon et Garfunkel prolongent leur contrat avec Columbia et négocient au passage une augmentation de leur pourcentage de royalties.

Simon est approché par plusieurs producteurs de cinéma qui souhaitent qu’il écrive des musiques de films et refuse notamment une offre pour Macadam Cowboy (1969).

Il décline également une offre d’écriture pour un spectacle de Broadway et collabore brièvement avec Leonard Bernstein sur une messe avant de se retirer du projet. De son côté, Garfunkel est engagé par Mike Nichols pour interpréter l’un des rôles principaux du film de guerre satirique Catch22 , dans lequel Simon devait aussi jouer avant que son rôle ne soit supprimé.

Le tournage de Catch 22 commence en janvier 1969 et dure huit mois car il est entravé par de nombreux problèmes.

Dans l’intervalle, le single The Boxer est publié en avril et se classe dans le top 10 de plusieurs pays. Cette absence prolongée de Garfunkel affecte les relations entre les deux hommes car Simon, qui prépare pendant ce temps le prochain album du duo, se sent abandonné.

Dès le retour de Garfunkel, le duo se met au travail avec ardeur et décline l’invitation qui leur est faite de participer au festival de Woodstock.

En octobre et novembre 1969, Simon and Garfunkel font une mini-tournée aux États-Unis qui se termine par un concert à guichets fermés à Carnegie Hall.

Le duo produit par ailleurs un documentaire musical, Songs of America, qui est diffusé sur CBS le 30 novembre et qui mêle des extraits de leurs chansons à des images d’événements importants des années 1960.

Ce documentaire n’est diffusé qu’une fois en raison des tensions, en rapport avec son contenu politiquement chargé, qu’il provoque sur la chaîne.

L’album « Bridge ove r Troubled » Water sort le 26 janvier 1970, tout comme le single du même nom. Dans cet album, le duo abandonne en partie le son folk rock qui a fait sa gloire pour explorer d’autres sonorités, comme le gospel, la musique sud-américaine, le latin jazz, le rockabilly ou encore le reggae, un mélange d’influences qui contribue à sa « richesse musicale ». L’album contient onze titres dont Bridge over Troubled Water, Cecilia, El Cóndor Pasa (If I Could), The Boxer et The Only Living Boy in New York. L’inclusion d’un douzième titre est longuement discuté sans que les deux hommes n’arrivent à se mettre d’accord sur son choix.

L’album arrive au sommet des classements musicaux dans dix pays dont les États-Unis, le Royaume-Uni et la France. C’est l’album le plus vendu des années 1970, 1971 et 1972 ; il devient à cette époque l’album le plus vendu de tous les temps.

Le single homonyme s’empare lui aussi de la première place des classements musicaux dans plusieurs pays, alors que les autres singles tirés de l’album, Cecilia en avril et El Cóndor Pasa (If I Could) en août, se vendent aussi très bien4.

Malgré cet énorme succès, le processus d’enregistrement s’est révélé très éprouvant pour les deux hommes et les tensions accumulées entre eux rendent leur séparation prochaine presque certaine avant même la sortie de l’album.

Cette séparation n’est cependant pas prévue au départ pour être permanente, Garfunkel souhaitant seulement faire une pause de deux ans et Simon ne prévoyant pas de reprendre sa carrière en solo.

En avril et mai, le duo se produit pour quelques dates en Europe, dont un passage à l’Olympia le 1er mai, avant de jouer son dernier concert le 18 juillet 1970 au Forest Hills Stadium.

Lors de la cérémonie des Grammy Awards 1971, l’album et la chanson Bridge over Troubled Water remportent six récompenses, dont celles de l’album de l’année et de la chanson de l’année. Quelque temps plus tard, Peggy Harper, l’épouse de Simon depuis 1969, pousse celui-ci à rendre la séparation du duo officielle.

Simon appelle alors Clive Davis pour lui annoncer qu’il ne pense pas reprendre sa collaboration avec Garfunkel. Durant les quelques années qui suivent, les deux hommes ne se parlent que deux ou trois fois par an.

Réunions occasionnelles

Le duo se reforme pour la première fois au Madison Square Garden en juin 1972 à l’occasion d’un concert de soutien pour George McGovern en vue de l’élection présidentielle américaine.

En 1975, les deux hommes se réconcilient, dans une atmosphère embarrassée, à l’occasion d’un passage à une session d’enregistrement avec John Lennon et Harry Nilsson.

Ils tentent de produire de nouvelles chansons ensemble mais n’en concrétisent qu’une seule, My Little Town, qui paraît à la fois sur l’album de Paul Simon Still Crazy After All These Years, et sur celui de Art Garfunkel, Breakaway.

En 1977, Garfunkel vient se joindre à Simon pour une brève représentation lors d’une émission télévisée consacrée à ce dernier. L’année suivante, ils enregistrent en compagnie de James Taylor une reprise de Wonderful World.

Les deux hommes passent plus de temps ensemble lorsque Garfunkel revient s’installer à New York en 1978.

En 1981, alors que les carrières respectives des deux hommes battent de l’aile, ils sont contactés par le producteur de spectacles Ron Delsener qui leur propose de se produire pour un concert gratuit à Central Park.

Le concert se déroule le 19 septembre 1981 et attire plus de 500 000 personnes, ce qui constitue pour l’époque la plus grande affluence de tous les temps pour un concert. Un enregistrement du concert est réalisé et donne lieu au premier album live du duo, The Concert in Central Park, qui sort le 16 février 1982 et connaît un grand succès commercial international.

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L’événement renouvelle également l’intérêt du public pour le duo, et les deux hommes ont plusieurs conversations à cœur ouvert afin d’essayer de mettre leurs problèmes derrière eux80. En mai et juin 1982, Simon and Garfunkel font une tournée au Japon et en Europe mais leurs vieilles querelles refont surface85. Néanmoins, Warner Bros. insiste pour qu’ils repartent en tournée, ce qu’ils font en février 1983 en Australie et en Nouvelle-Zélande, puis en juillet et août 1983 en Amérique du Nord, et pour qu’ils préparent un nouvel album en commun.

Malgré plusieurs sessions d’enregistrement, leurs différends se révèlent être trop nombreux et Simon enregistre à la place un nouvel album solo, Hearts and Bones, la raison officielle étant qu’il trouve les textes qu’il a écrits trop personnels pour être interprétés par quelqu’un d’autre.

En 1990, le duo est intronisé au Rock and Roll Hall of Fame et les deux hommes interprètent trois chansons ensemble à cette occasion, sans toutefois s’attarder.

Trois ans plus tard, leurs relations s’étant améliorées, ils se réunissent à nouveau en octobre 1993 pour une série de 21 concerts joués à guichets fermés au Paramount Theatre de New York, qui sont suivis par quelques dates en Asie. Cependant, une nouvelle brouille les tient éloignés pour le reste de la décennie4.

En 2003, ils sont récompensés aux Grammy Awards pour l’ensemble de leur carrière et les organisateurs les persuadent de se réconcilier pour cette occasion. Les deux hommes interprètent ensemble The Sound of Silence en ouverture de la cérémonie et jugent cette expérience satisfaisante. Ils mettent alors en place une nouvelle tournée, nommée Old Friends Tour, pendant laquelle ils sillonnent les États-Unis d’octobre à décembre en jouant 40 concerts.

Ils repartent en tournée, pour 20 dates aux États-Unis et 12 en Europe, en juin et juillet 200488. Cette tournée se termine par un concert gratuit au Colisée de Rome qui réunit environ 600 000 personnes89. Un double CD-DVD intitulé Old Friends: Live on Stage immortalise cette tournée.

Simon and Garfunkel en concert au New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival en 2010.

En 2009, le duo se réunit une nouvelle fois pour interpréter trois chansons au Beacon Theatre de New York. Une tournée en Océanie et au Japon est organisée dans la foulée en juin et juillet90. Cette tournée se passe très bien et de nouveaux concerts en Amérique du Nord sont planifiés pour l’été 2010. Cependant, alors qu’ils se produisent le 24 avril 2010 sur la scène du New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Garfunkel est atteint de sérieux problèmes vocaux. Une paralysie des cordes vocales lui est diagnostiquée et la tournée doit être annulée. Garfunkel ne récupère totalement sa voix qu’après un combat de quatre ans et espère une nouvelle réunion du duo dans le futur91.

Postérité

Simon and Garfunkel sont considérés comme le duo le plus célèbre de l’histoire de la musique populaire. Leurs chansons ont laissé une impression forte et durable sur la génération du baby boom et ils comptent, aux côtés des Beatles et Bob Dylan, parmi les artistes les plus représentatifs du mouvement culturel des années 1960.

En 2004, le magazine Rolling Stone les classe à la 40e place de sa liste des 100 plus grands artistes musicaux de tous les temps, considérant que « l’énorme impact » qu’ils ont laissé sur la décennie est dû principalement à l’alliage entre les talents d’auteur-compositeur de Paul Simon, créateur d’hymnes dans une palette musicale très vaste, et la voix unique d’Art Garfunkel.

Dans le Dictionnaire du Rock, ils sont décrits comme ayant apporté au folk militant un « mélange inégalé de raffinement vocal et de tendresse mélancolique ».

Pour Gilles Verlant et Thomas Caussé, dans la Discothèque parfaite de l’odyssée du rock, « la seconde moitié des sixties est marquée de leur empreinte » grâce à leurs « mélodies fines, légères et reconnaissables entre mille » alors que « le mariage de leurs voix, absolument unique, est au cœur de leur magie, tout comme les textes résolument poétiques et modernes, remplis d’images singulières ».

ART GARFUNKEL : SOLO ALBUM : BRIGHT EYES

SOURCES WIKIPEDIA

They were… They are


They are stars

We know them as we saw them in the movies.

But time has passed and everyone is changing.

Here how we knew them
Here they are now mature and greater than before

 

ABBA

ABBA

ABBA

 

 

ART GARFUNKEL (Simon and Garfunkel 

ART AND GARFUNKEL

ART AND GARFUNKEL

 

 

BARBARA EDEN 

Barbara Eden

Barbara Eden

 

 

BARRY GIBB  (Bee Gees )

barry gibb bee gees

barry gibb bee gees

 

 

BOB DYLAN

Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan

 

 

CAT STEVENS

cat stevens

cat stevens

 

 

DAVID MC CALLUM

David Mc Callum

David Mc Callum

 

 

HARISON FORD

Harison Ford

Harison Ford

 

 

JOAN BAEZ

Joan baez

Joan baez

 

 

JULIE ANDREWS

JULIE ANDREWS

JULIE ANDREWS

 

SOUND OF MUSIC TEAM  ( Von Trapp family in movie)

Sound of music team

Sound of music team

 

 

PAUL ANKA

PAUL ANKA

PAUL ANKA

 

 

LEE  AAKER ( Aka RUSTY in RINTINTIN )

LEE AAKER AKA RUSTY in RINTINTIN

LEE AAKER AKA RUSTY in RINTINTIN

 

 

TOM HANKS

Tom Hanks

Tom Hanks

 

 

TOM JONES

TOM JONES

TOM JONES

 

Sources : Google

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOPHIA LOREN




sofia loren 1

Sofia Villani Scicolone born 20 September 1934), known professionally as Sophia Loren is an Italian film actress and singer. She is one of the last surviving stars from the Golden Age of Hollywood.

Encouraged to enroll in acting lessons after entering a beauty pageant, Loren began her film career at age 16 in 1950. She appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, until her five-picture contract with Paramount in 1956 launched her international career. Notable film appearances around this time include The Pride and the Passion, Houseboat, and It Started in Naples.

Her talents as an actress were not recognized until her performance as Cesira in Vittorio De Sica’s Two Women (1961); Loren’s performance earned her the Academy Award for Best Actress, making her the first thespian to win an Oscar for a foreign-language performance.

She holds the record for having earned six David di Donatello Awards for Best Actress: Two Women; Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (1963); Marriage Italian Style (1964) (for which she was nominated for a second Oscar); Sunflower (1970); The Voyage (1974); and A Special Day (1977).

After starting a family in the early 1970s, Loren chose to make only occasional film appearances. Most recently, she has appeared in American films such as Grumpier Old Men (1995) and Nine (2009).

Aside from the Academy Award, she has won a Grammy Award, five special Golden Globes (including the Cecil B. DeMille Award), a BAFTA Award, a Laurel Award, the Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival, the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival and the Honorary Academy Award in 1991.

In 1995, she received the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievements, one of many such awards. In 1999, Loren was named by the American Film Institute the 21st greatest female star of Classic Hollywood Cinema, and she is currently the only living actress on the list.

Sofia Villani Scicolone was born on 20 September 1934 in the Clinica Regina Margherita in Rome, Italy,  the daughter of Romilda Villani (1910–1991) and Riccardo Scicolone, a construction engineer of noble descent (Loren wrote in her autobiography that she is entitled to call herself the Marquess of Licata Scicolone Murillo).

Loren’s father Riccardo Scicolone refused to marry Villani,  leaving the piano teacher and aspiring actress without financial support. Loren met with her father three times, at age five, age seventeen and in 1976 at his deathbed, citing that she forgave him but had never forgotten the abandonment of her mother.

Loren’s parents had another child together, her sister Maria, in 1938. Loren has two younger paternal half-brothers, Giuliano and Giuseppe. Romilda, Sofia, and Maria lived with Loren’s grandmother in Pozzuoli, near Naples.

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During the Second World War, the harbour and munitions plant in Pozzuoli was a frequent bombing target of the Allies. During one raid, as Loren ran to the shelter, she was struck by shrapnel and wounded in the chin. After that, the family moved to Naples, where they were taken in by distant relatives.

After the war, Loren and her family returned to Pozzuoli. Loren’s grandmother Luisa opened a pub in their living room, selling homemade cherry liquor. Romilda Villani played the piano, Maria sang, and Loren waited on tables and washed dishes. The place was popular with the American GIs stationed nearby.

At age 15, Loren as Sofia Lazzaro entered the Miss Italia 1950 beauty pageant and was assigned as Candidate #2, being one to the four sharing contestants representing the Lazio region.

She was selected as one of the last three finalists and won the title of “Miss Elegance 1950” , while Liliana Cardinale won the title of “Miss Cinema” and Anna Maria Bugliari won the grand title of Miss Italia. She returned in 2001 as president of the jury for the 61st edition of the pageant. In 2010, Loren crowned the 71st Miss Italia pageant winner.

1951–1953 as Sofia Scicolone, and as Sofia Lazzaro

At age 17, as Sofia Lazzaro, she enrolled in acting class and was selected as an uncredited extra in Mervyn LeRoy’s 1951 film Quo Vadis (1951), filmed when she was 17 years old.

That same year, she appeared in Italian film Era lui… sì! sì!, where she played an odalisque, and was credited as Sofia Lazzaro. She appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, including the La Favorita (1952).

Carlo Ponti changed her name and public image to appeal to a wider audience as Sophia Loren, being a twist on the name of the Swedish actress Märta Torén and suggested by Goffredo Lombardo. Her first starring role was in Aida (1953), for which she received critical acclaim.

After playing the lead role in Two Nights with Cleopatra (1953), her breakthrough role was in The Gold of Naples (1954), directed by Vittorio De Sica. Too Bad She’s Bad, also released in 1954, and (La Bella Mugnaia) (1955) became the first of many films in which Loren co-starred with Marcello Mastroianni.

Over the next three years, she acted in many films, including Scandal in Sorrento, Lucky to Be a Woman, Boy on a Dolphin, Legend of the Lost and The Pride and the Passion.

Loren became an international film star following her five-picture contract with Paramount Pictures in 1958.

Among her films at this time were Desire Under the Elms with Anthony Perkins, based upon the Eugene O’Neill play; Houseboat, a romantic comedy co-starring Cary Grant; and George Cukor’s Heller in Pink Tights, in which she appeared as a blonde for the first time.

In 1960, she starred in Vittorio De Sica’s Two Women, a stark, gritty story of a mother who is trying to protect her 12-year-old daughter in war-torn Italy.

The two end up gang-raped inside a church as they travel back to their home city following cessation of bombings there.

Originally cast as the daughter, Loren fought against type and was eventually cast as the mother (actress Eleonora Brown would portray the daughter). Loren’s performance earned her many awards, including the Cannes Film Festival’s best performance prize, and an Academy Award for Best Actress, the first major Academy Award for a non-English-language performance or to an Italian actress.

She won 22 international awards for Two Women. The film was extremely well received by critics and a huge commercial success.

Though proud of this accomplishment, Loren did not show up to this award, citing fear of fainting at the award ceremony.

Nevertheless, Cary Grant telephoned her in Rome the next day to inform her of the Oscar award.[citation needed]

During the 1960s, Loren was one of the most popular actresses in the world, and continued to make films in the United States and Europe, starring with prominent leading men. In 1964, her career reached its pinnacle when she received $1 million to appear in The Fall of the Roman Empire.

In 1965, she received a second Academy Award nomination for her performance in Marriage Italian-Style.

Drawing of Loren by Nicholas Volpe after she won an Oscar for Two Women (1961)

Among Loren’s best-known films of this period are Samuel Bronston’s epic production of El Cid (1961) with Charlton Heston, The Millionairess (1960) with Peter Sellers,

It Started in Naples (1960) with Clark Gable, Vittorio De Sica’s triptych Yesterday,

Today and Tomorrow (1963) with Marcello Mastroianni,

Peter Ustinov’s Lady L (1965) with Paul Newman,

the 1966 classic Arabesque with Gregory Peck, and Charlie Chaplin’s final film

, A Countess from Hong Kong (1967) with Marlon Brando.

Loren received four Golden Globe Awards between 1964 and 1977 as “World Film Favorite – Female”

1970–1988

Loren worked less after becoming a mother. During the next decade, most of her roles were in Italian features.

During the 1970s, she was paired with Richard Burton in the last De Sica-directed film, The Voyage (1974), and a remake of the film Brief Encounter (1974).

The film had its premiere on US television on 12 November 1974 as part of the Hallmark Hall of Fame series on NBC. In 1976, she starred in The Cassandra Crossing.

It fared extremely well internationally, and was a respectable box office success in US market.

She co-starred with Marcello Mastroianni in Ettore Scola’s A Special Day (1977). This movie was nominated for 11 international awards such as two Oscars (best actor in leading role, best foreign picture).

It won a Golden Globe Award and a César Award for best foreign movie. Loren’s performance was awarded with a David di Donatello Award, the seventh in her career. The movie was extremely well received by American reviewers and became a box office hit.

Following this success, Loren starred in an American thriller Brass Target.

This movie received mixed reviews, although it was moderately successful in the United States and internationally.

In 1978, she won her fourth Golden Globe for “world film favorite”.

Other movies of this decade were Academy award nominee Sunflower (1970), which was a critical success, and Arthur Hiller’s Man of La Mancha (1972), which was a critical and commercial failure despite being nominated for several awards, including two Golden Globes. O’Toole and James Coco were nominated for two NBR awards, in addition the NBR listed Man of La Mancha in its best ten pictures of 1972 list.

In 1980, after the international success of the biography Sophia Loren: Living and Loving, Her Own Story by A. Hotchner, Loren portrayed herself and her mother in a made-for-television biopic adaptation of her autobiography, Sophia Loren: Her Own Story. Ritza Brown and Chiara Ferrari each portrayed the younger Loren.

In 1981, she became the first female celebrity to launch her own perfume, ‘Sophia’, and a brand of eyewear soon followed.

In 1982, while in Italy, she made headlines after serving an 18-day prison sentence on tax evasion charges – a fact that failed to hamper her popularity or career.

In fact, Bill Moore, then employed at Pickle Packers International advertising department, sent her a pink pickle-shaped trophy for being “the prettiest lady in the prettiest pickle”. In 2013, the supreme court of Italy cleared her of the charges.

She acted infrequently during the 1980s and in 1981 turned down the role of Alexis Carrington in the television series Dynasty.

Although she was set to star in 13 episodes of CBS’s Falcon Crest in 1984 as Angela Channing’s half-sister Francesca Gioberti, negotiations fell through at the last moment and the role went to Gina Lollobrigida instead. Loren preferred devoting more time to raising her sons.

sophia loren2

Later career

In 1991, Loren received the Academy Honorary Award for her contributions to world cinema and was declared “one of the world cinema’s treasures”. In 1995, she received the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award.

She presented Federico Fellini with his honorary Oscar in April 1993. In 2009, Loren stated on Larry King Live that Fellini had planned to direct her in a film shortly before his death in 1993.

Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Loren was selective about choosing her films and ventured into various areas of business, including cookbooks, eyewear, jewelry, and perfume.

She received a Golden Globe nomination for her performance in Robert Altman’s film Ready to Wear (1994), co-starring Julia Roberts.

In 1994, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, California Walk of Stars was dedicated to her.

In Grumpier Old Men (1995), Loren played a femme fatale opposite Walter Matthau, Jack Lemmon, and Ann-Margret.

The film was a box-office success and became Loren’s biggest US hit in years.

At the 20th Moscow International Film Festival in 1997, she was awarded an Honorable Prize for contribution to cinema. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Loren among the greatest female stars of Golden Age of Hollywood cinema.

In 2001, Loren received a Special Grand Prix of the Americas Award at the Montreal World Film Festival for her body of work.She filmed two projects in Canada during this time: the independent film Between Strangers (2002), directed by her son Edoardo and co-starring Mira Sorvino, and the television miniseries Lives of the Saints (2004).

In 2009, after five years off the set and 14 years since she starred in a prominent US theatrical film, Loren starred in Rob Marshall’s film version of Nine, based on the Broadway musical that tells the story of a director whose midlife crisis causes him to struggle to complete his latest film;

he is forced to balance the influences of numerous formative women in his life, including his deceased mother. Loren was Marshall’s first and only choice for the role.

The film also stars Daniel Day-Lewis, Penélope Cruz, Kate Hudson, Marion Cotillard, and Nicole Kidman. As a part of the cast, she received her first nomination for a Screen Actors Guild Award.

In 2010, Loren played her own mother in a two-part Italian television miniseries about her early life, directed by Vittorio Sindoni with Margareth Madè as Loren, entitled La Mia Casa È Piena di Specchi , based on the memoir by her sister Maria.

In July 2013, Loren made her film comeback in an Italian adaptation of Jean Cocteau’s 1930 play The Human Voice (La Voce Umana), which charts the breakdown of a woman who is left by her lover – with her youngest son, Edoardo Ponti, as director.

Filming took under a month during July in various locations in Italy, including Rome and Naples. It was Loren’s first significant feature film since Nine.

Loren received a star on 16 November 2017, at Almeria Walk of Fame due to his intervention in Bianco, rosso e…. She received the Almería Tierra de Cine award.

In September 1999, Loren filed a lawsuit against 79 adult websites for posting altered nude photos of her on the internet.

Loren is a Roman Catholic. Her primary residence has been in Geneva, Switzerland, since late 2006. She also owns homes in Naples and Rome.

Loren is an ardent fan of the football club S.S.C. Napoli. In May 2007, when the team was third in Serie B, she (then age 72) told the Gazzetta dello Sport that she would do a striptease if the team won.

HOUSEBOAT MOVIE
HOUSEBOAT MOVIE

Affair with Cary Grant

Loren and Cary Grant co-starred in Houseboat (1958). Grant’s wife Betsy Drake wrote the original script, and Grant originally intended that she would star with him.

After he began an affair with Loren while filming The Pride and the Passion (1957), Grant arranged for Loren to take Drake’s place with a rewritten script for which Drake did not receive credit.

The affair ended in bitterness before The Pride and the Passion’s filming ended, causing problems on the Houseboat set.

Grant hoped to resume the relationship, but Loren agreed to marry Carlo Ponti, instead.

Marriage and family

Loren first met Ponti in 1950, when she was 16 and he was 37.

Though Ponti had been long separated from his first wife, Giuliana, he was not legally divorced when Loren married him by proxy (two male lawyers stood in for them) in Mexico on 17 September 1957.

The couple had their marriage annulled in 1962 to escape bigamy charges, but continued to live together.

In 1965, they became French citizens after their application was approved by then French President Georges Pompidou. Ponti then obtained a divorce from Giuliana in France, allowing him to marry Loren on 9 April 1966.

They had two children, Carlo Ponti Jr., born on 29 December 1968, and Edoardo Ponti, born on 6 January 1973.Loren’s daughters-in-law are Sasha Alexander and Andrea Meszaros. Loren has four grandchildren. Loren remained married to Carlo Ponti until his death on 10 January 2007 of pulmonary complications.

sophia loren and Carlo Ponti

In 1962, Loren’s sister Maria married the youngest son of Benito Mussolini, Romano, with whom she had two daughters, Alessandra, a national conservative Italian politician, and Elisabetta.

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STARS WHEN YOUNG (Part1)


Some stars when young and even kids.

Rare photos. ( 23 photos for this part 1 ) (One of them is not a hollywood star…But was a star in a way)

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SOUVENIRS TV


FRIENDS


Rachel Green interprétée par Jennifer AnistonAmie de Monica au lycée, elle est issue d’une famille aisée, qu’elle abandonne dans le premier épisode après avoir quitté son fiancé devant l’autel. Elle a pour colocataires successifs Monica, Phoebe, Joey, Ross et Chandler. Elle entretient une relation compliquée avec Ross, qui est brièvement son époux et dont elle a une fille, Emma. Après avoir longtemps été serveuse au café Central Perk, elle se lance dans le monde de la mode et travaille chez Bloomingdale’s, puis chez Ralph Lauren. Lors de la dernière saison on lui offre un travail à Louis Vuitton mais pour cela elle doit déménager à Paris. Elle finit par refuser pour être avec Ross.

Monica Geller interprétée par Courteney Cox, sœur de Ross et anciennement obèse, toujours maniaque de l’ordre et de la propreté, elle devient chef cuisinier dans différents restaurants, dont l’Alessandro. Après avoir partagé son appartement avec Phoebe, elle devient la colocataire de Rachel. Monica a une relation avec Richard Burke, un ami de longue date de sa famille, de vingt-et-un ans son aîné. Ils ont une forte et longue relation jusqu’à ce que Richard avoue qu’il ne souhaite plus avoir d’enfants, au grand dam de Monica. Elle épouse Chandler, avec qui elle adopte des jumeaux : Jack et Erica, Jack est le prénom du père de Monica et Erica est le prénom de leur mère biologique. Elle emménage en périphérie de New York avec son mari et ses enfants dans l’ultime épisode.

Phoebe Buffay interprétée par Lisa KudrowAncienne colocataire de Monica, elle est brièvement la colocataire de Rachel avant que son appartement ne brûle. Son passé semble agité : elle a vécu dans la rue après le suicide de sa mère et son père s’est enfui. Elle a une sœur jumelle, Ursula, avec qui elle ne s’entend pas et un demi frère, Frank junior. D’un naturel cependant joyeux et anticonformiste, elle est masseuse et chanteuse amatrice au Central Perk. Elle est connue pour sa chanson Smelly Cat. Elle est la mère porteuse des triplés de son frère et d’Alice nommé Frank Jr Jr, Leslie et Chandler. Phoebe a trois relations sérieuses : David, un scientifique, avec qui elle rompt quand il déménage à Minsk pour y faire des recherches ; Gary, un policier dont elle a trouvé l’insigne ; et Mike Hannigan, un pianiste avec qui elle se marie dans la dernière saison.

Joey Tribbiani interprété par Matt LeBlancColocataire de Chandler, son meilleur ami, puis de Rachel, avec laquelle il a une brève liaison. Issu d’une famille italo-américaine nombreuse, il exerce le métier d’acteur sans faire preuve d’un grand talent. Le sommet de sa carrière est le rôle du Dr. Drake Ramoray dans le soap opera Les Jours de notre vie (Days of our lives). Bien qu’il ne soit pas très intelligent, il accumule les conquêtes féminines, auxquelles il ne s’attache d’ailleurs que très rarement. Il a tout de même, brièvement, le béguin pour Rachel.

Chandler Bing interprété par Matthew PerryColocataire de Joey dans les premières saisons, c’est un ami de longue date de Ross, dont il épouse la sœur, Monica. Même après son mariage, il est souvent l’objet de malentendus concernant ses orientations sexuelles, en raison de son attitude jugée peu virile. Il exerce un métier ennuyeux, à l’intitulé imprécis (on sait tout juste qu’il travaille dans la « reconfiguration de données » et la « facturation statistique »), avant de se réorienter dans la publicité. Son père est une femme trans meneuse de revue à Las Vegas et sa mère écrit des best-sellers érotiques. Depuis le divorce de ses parents, il utilise l’humour sarcastique comme arme de défense. Il assiste à la séparation de ses parents jeune. Il semble appartenir à une famille aisée et fréquente un lycée privé pour garçons. Il a pendant longtemps un problème avec le mariage et le fait d’avoir des enfants, mais finit par en avoir envie lors de sa relation avec Monica. Ils adoptent deux enfants : Jack Bing, nommé d’après son grand père maternel et Erica Bing, nommée d’après la mère biologique des jumeaux.

Ross Geller interprété par David SchwimmerFrère de Monica et ami de Chandler depuis l’université. Il est paléontologue, métier qui le passionne mais qui ennuie profondément ses amis. Il est marié et divorcé trois fois : avec Carol, une lesbienne avec qui il a un fils, Ben ; puis avec Emily, une anglaise avec qui il entretient une relation de quelques mois qui débouche sur un mariage lors duquel il prononce le mauvais prénom à l’autel ; enfin avec Rachel, épousée lors d’une cuite à Las Vegas. Après leur divorce, Ross et Rachel ont ensemble une fille, Emma, avant de se remettre ensemble à la fin de la série.

Autres personnages récurrents

D’autres personnages apparaissent fréquemment. Parmi ceux apparaissant le plus souvent11, citons :

GuntherTravaillant au Central Perk (comme gérant), c’est le personnage le plus fréquemment présent de la série en dehors des six acteurs principaux. Amoureux de Rachel, il se montre aigre avec ses prétendants, en particulier Ross, qu’il ne supporte pas.

Amy GreenComme sœur la plus jeune de Rachel Green, elle apparaît dans deux épisodes de Friends. Au cours de ses apparitions, Amy est représentée comme étant une personne désagréable, abrasive, amorale et totalement antipathique.Jack et Judy GellerLes parents de Monica et Ross. Ils adulent Ross et sont souvent odieux avec Monica au point d’oublier parfois son existence. Tandis que Judy rabaisse tout le temps sa fille, Jack le fait beaucoup plus involontairement et cherche maladroitement à se rattraper lorsqu’il s’en aperçoit : en lui offrant sa Porsche par exemple.

Janice Littman Guralnick Ancienne petite amie de Chandler, elle apparaît à chaque saison. Sa voix et surtout son rire sont horripilants. Sa phrase Oh my god ! (Oh mon dieu ! en français) est répétée à maintes reprises lorsqu’elle est étonnée. Joey ne la supporte pas, et elle aura une brève relation avec Ross. Au cours de la série, elle aura trois maris (dont un sourd), et aura deux enfants, un avec son premier mari et un avec le dernier. Avant que Chandler se soit marié avec Monica, ils se remettront fréquemment ensemble, souvent contre la volonté de celui-ci.Julie

Petite amie de Ross durant la fin de la saison 1 et la saison 2. Ross fait sa rencontre lors d’un voyage en Chine et Rachel supporte mal l’arrivée de cette rivale.Estelle LeonardAgent de Joey, elle entretient un look extravagant (maquillage à outrance, vêtements léopards, cigarettes à la chaîne) malgré son âge sans doute bien avancé. C’est grâce à elle que Joey a eu son rôle du célèbre docteur Drake Ramoray dans la série Days of our lives (Les Jours de notre vie en français). Dépendante à la cigarette, elle meurt d’une embolie pulmonaire dans la saison 10.

Elle a décidé de divorcer quand elle a découvert qu’elle était lesbienne et vit désormais en couple avec une femme, Susan Bunch. Dans la première saison, Carol accouche de Ben, le fils de Ross, conçu avant leur divorce, qu’elle élèvera avec Susan. Ross est en bons rapports avec Carol, mais il ne supporte pas Susan.Emma Geller GreenLa fille de Rachel et Ross, née à la fin de la huitième saison. On peut notamment retenir d’elle qu’elle a prononcé son premier mot au téléphone à Rachel et que ce mot est « gleba ». Lorsque Rachel lit la définition de ce mot, Ross devient très content à l’idée de voir en sa petite fille une future scientifique et ce, en laissant Rachel perplexe.

Ben Geller Le fils de Ross et Carole, né à la fin de la 1re saison. Ben est très gaffeur et imaginatif. Lorsque Rachel le garde, elle apprend à Ben des tas de bêtises ce qui laisse Ross perplexe. Le prénom a été trouvé grâce à Phoebe, qui a porté l’uniforme d’un certain Ben alors qu’elle était coincée avec Susan et Ross pendant que Carole accouchait.

Ursula Buffay Sœur jumelle de Phoebe. Serveuse dans un café, elle est, durant une courte période, star de films X sous le nom de sa sœur jumelle. Malgré leur lien de parenté, les deux sœurs sont très distantes l’une de l’autre et ne se ressemblent que physiquement. Ursula apparaît en effet comme un personnage peu sympathique, malhonnête et menteur. Elle sortira momentanément avec Joey.

Paul Rudd, l’acteur interprétant le rôle de Mike Hannigan.Frank Buffay, Jr.Demi-frère de Phoebe et Ursula.

Quand Phoebe le rencontre il est célibataire et a pour passion de brûler des objets, puis il épousera son professeur, Alice, qui a 30 ans de plus que lui et avec qui il élèvera trois enfants : Leslie, Frank Junior Junior et Chandler (le dernier étant une fille, contrairement à ce que son prénom pourrait laisser penser). Alice et Frank ne pouvant avoir d’enfants, c’est Phoebe qui sera la mère porteuse des triplés.

Mike Hannigan Ancien avocat devenu pianiste, Mike apparaît pour la première fois dans la saison 9, en tant que petit ami de Phoebe. C’est par l’intermédiaire de Joey qu’ils se sont rencontrés, par hasard. Échaudé par un divorce, Mike refuse dans un premier temps de se marier avec Phoebe, mais après une brève rupture, change d’avis. Ils se marient dans la saison 10 et annoncent vouloir un enfant.

Richard BurkePetit ami de Monica lors de la saison 2, c’est un vieil ami de son père Jack Geller. Dans la saison 3 elle décide de rompre avec lui car il ne veut pas avoir d’enfants. Mais il se rend compte, trop tard, qu’il est toujours amoureux d’elle. Il a une fille, Michèle, et un fils, Timothy, avec qui Monica va sortir, mais leur liaison ne dure pas, car « il embrasse comme son père ».

Emily WalthamSeconde femme de Ross. Ce dernier ayant prononcé le nom de Rachel à la place du sien lors de leur mariage, ils se séparèrent pour de bon quelques épisodes plus tard. En effet, Emily annonce à Ross qu’elle est prête à faire fonctionner leur mariage à condition qu’il ne voie plus Rachel, ce qu’il refuse.DavidEx petit-ami de Phoebe rencontré dans la saison 1, il apparaît plusieurs fois au fil des saisons. En raison d’un de ses projets scientifiques impliquant son départ pour Minsk, Phoebe et lui durent se séparer. Dans la saison 9, il retourne à New-York pour de bon et se remet avec Phoebe, alors séparée de Mike. Il demande en mariage Phoebe mais est interrompu par Mike, qui annonce à cette dernière qu’il veut se marier avec elle.

Eddie Minowick Interprété par Adam Goldberg apparaissant au cours de la saison 2, épisodes 17, 18 et 19 , il a « remplacé » Joey quand ce dernier partit pour un autre appartement, rapidement on remarque qu’Eddie est bizarre, ce qui poussa Chandler à le faire partir.

Charlie WheelerProfesseur de paléontologie, elle apparaît dans les saisons 9 et 10. Ayant d’abord eu une relation avec Joey, ils décident de rompre pendant leur séjour à la Barbade. Elle se mettra ensuite à avoir une relation avec Ross pendant quelques épisodes avant de retourner avec son ancien petit ami dans l’épisode 6 de la saison 10, « Celui qui a failli avoir la subvention ».

FRIENDS.

Before being stars…Avant d’être une star


Les stars ne sont pas nées stars évidemment

ces artistes ont galéré avant d’accéder à la gloire

Voici un article présentant certaines de ces stars et de leurs activités et job avant d’acquérir le statut de personnage public.

https://radiosatellite.online/lire?id=65

Beauties of Hollywood


Beautiful Hollywood actresses.

Some are alive, others are deceased (RIP) , but for all, it is a tribute to their status as stars and their natural beauties.

A video in photos

Click here please to watch

https://radiosatellite.online/voirvideo?id=30

Sophia Loren sur radiosatellite.online


Nous reprenons notre article sur

https://radiosatellite.online


https://radiosatellite.online/lire?id=38

Marietto and Sophia Loren
ClarK Gable Sophia Loren in “It started in Naples”

JEAN-PAUL BELMONDO


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TABBOUCH & Cie

Jean-Paul Belmondo, né le 9 avril 1933 à Neuilly-sur-Seine est un acteur français. Il a également été producteur de cinéma et directeur de théâtre.

Alternant dans les premières années de sa carrière les films populaires et d’Art et Essai avant de pencher nettement pour la première catégorie, il est rapidement devenu l’une des plus grandes vedettes du cinéma français, champion incontesté du box-office au même titre que Louis de Funès et Alain Delon à la même époque.

En cinquante ans de carrière, il a attiré dans les salles près de 130 millions de spectateurs : entre 1969 et 1982, il a joué à quatre reprises dans le film le plus vu de l’année en France (Le Cerveau, Peur sur la ville, L’Animal, L’As des as), égalant le record de Fernandel et n’étant dépassé sur ce point que par Louis de Funès.

belmondo 5 BEBEL

Il a tourné sous la direction de grands…

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Barry Manilow


 

Barry Manilow

Remember this artist? Those Hits from 70s
It’s time to remember or even to discover

 

Click on video to listen to some of Barry’s Hits

 

 

 

THEY LOOK LIKE…


Anonymous people who look like artists. Here are some amazing photos . Hoping that they will please you.  Some of them are already stars in their own countries because of their “look”

 

Brazilian Dany De Vito

Brazilian Dany De Vito

Brazilian Dany De Vito

 

Turkish George Clooney

Turkish George Clooney

Turkish George Clooney

 

 

Mexican Morgan Freeman

MEXICAN MORGAN FREEMAN

MEXICAN MORGAN FREEMAN

 

 

Russian Hugh Laurie (Dr House)

Russian Hugh Laurie Dr House

Russian Hugh Laurie Dr House

 

 

Asian Brad Pitt

asian brad pitt

asian brad pitt

 

Asian Morgan Freeman

asian brad pitt

asian brad pitt

 

 

Chinese Vladimir Putin ( Poutine)

chinese vladimir Poutine

chinese vladimir Poutine

 

 

Indian Bradley Cooper

indian bradley cooper

indian bradley cooper

 

 

Indian Clark Gable

indian clark gable

indian clark gable

 

 

Indonesian Obama

indonesian Barak Obama

indonesian Barak Obama

 

 

Mexican Obama

mexican obama

mexican obama

 

Japanese Bruce Willis

japanese bruce willis

japanese bruce willis

 

Peruvian Morgan Freeman

peruvian morgan freeman

peruvian morgan freeman

 

Russian Jim Carrey

Russian Jim Carrey

Russian Jim Carrey

 

Vietnamese George W Bush

Vietnamese George W Bush

Vietnamese George W Bush

SOURCES : BORED PANDA   https://boredpanda.com/foreign-celebrity-lookalikes 

 

 

 

Julie Andrews – Jack Lemmon in THAT’S LIFE


That’s Life! is a 1986 American comedy-drama film starring Jack Lemmon and Julie Andrews, directed by Blake Edwards.

 

 

The film was made independently by Edwards using largely his own finances and was distributed by Columbia Pictures. Although Columbia released the film, Artisan Entertainment holds the rights to distribute it on DVD.

That’s Life! was shot in Edwards and his wife Andrews’ own beachside home in Malibu and features their family in small roles, including two daughters. Lemmon’s son Chris Lemmon plays his character’s son Josh, while his wife Felicia Farr puts in a brief cameo appearance as a fortune teller.

Because of the film’s independent status, many of the cast and crew were paid below union-level wages, resulting in the American Society of Cinematographers picketing the film during production and taking an advertisement in Variety in protest. As a result, the original director of photography, Harry Stradling Jr., was forced to quit the film and was subsequently replaced by Anthony Richmond, a British cinematographer.

 

Harvey Fairchild is a wealthy, Malibu-based architect who is turning 60 and suffering from a form of male menopause. He feels aches and pains, real or imaginary, and seems unhappy with his professional and personal life.

Harvey’s patient wife Gillian tries to cheer him with family get-togethers and an elaborately planned birthday party. But she secretly has worries of her own, a throat condition that could result in the loss of her voice.

 

Whining his way through day after day, Harvey snaps at his pregnant daughter Megan and makes rude remarks to his actor son Josh. He tries going to a priest, only to discover that the man to whom he is confessing is an old rival from their college years at Notre Dame. He also consults a local psychic, Madame Carrie, sex with whom leaves Harvey with a venereal disease.

The miserable Harvey is furious with a client named Janice Kern who can’t stop revising her plans for a magnificent house Harvey has been building, but he has meaningless sex with her as well. Gillian bravely hides her cancer fear from the family, but finally, overcome with emotion, she confides in her friend and neighbor, Holly.

Harvey threatens to spoil the birthday party for everybody. He is in such a foul mood that just because a friend named Belmont tells him a depressing story about an illness, he amuses himself by introducing Belmont to the VD-infected psychic.

Gillian warns her husband that he is going to lose everything if he continues to behave this way. During his party, Gillian’s doctor arrives to inform her that the biopsy test results are negative and she is going to be all right. She takes Harvey aside to let him know just how precious life really can be.

Jack Lemmon as Harvey Fairchild

Julie Andrews as Gillian Fairchild

Sally Kellerman as Holly Parrish

Robert Loggia as Father Baragone

Jennifer Edwards as Megan Fairchild Bartlet

Rob Knepper as Steve Larwin

Matt Lattanzi as Larry Bartlet

Chris Lemmon as Josh Fairchild

Cynthia Sikes as Janice Kern

Dana Sparks as Fanny Ward

Emma Walton as Kate Fairchild

Felicia Farr as Madame Carrie

 

VIDEOS OF JULIE ANDREWS

 

 

SOURCES VIDEO: YOUTUBE

SOURCES ARTICLE : WIKIPEDIA

SOURCES PHOTOS : VARIOUS

AMERICAN GRAFFITI


American Graffiti is a 1973 American coming-of-age comedy-drama film directed and co-written by George Lucas starring Richard Dreyfuss, Ron Howard, Paul Le Mat, Harrison Ford, Charles Martin Smith, Cindy Williams, Candy Clark, Mackenzie Phillips, Bo Hopkins, and Wolfman Jack. Suzanne Somers and Joe Spano also appear in the film.

 

Set in Modesto, California in 1962, the film is a study of the cruising and rock and roll cultures popular among the post–World War II baby boom generation. The film is told in a series of vignettes, telling the story of a group of teenagers and their adventures over a single night.

The genesis of American Graffiti was in Lucas‘ own teenage years in early 1960s Modesto. He was unsuccessful in pitching the concept to financiers and distributors but found favor at Universal Pictures after United Artists, 20th Century Fox, Columbia Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Warner Bros., and Paramount Pictures turned him down. Filming was initially set to take place in San Rafael, California, but the production crew was denied permission to shoot beyond a second day.

 

American Graffiti premiered on August 2, 1973 at the Locarno International Film Festival in Switzerland and was released on August 11, 1973 in the United States. The film received widespread critical acclaim and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. Produced on a $777,000 budget, it has become one of the most profitable films of all time. Since its initial release, American Graffiti has garnered an estimated return of well over $200 million in box office gross and home video sales, not including merchandising. In 1995, the United States Library of Congress deemed the film “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant” and selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry.

 

In early September 1962 in Modesto, California, on the last evening of summer vacation, recent high school graduates and longtime friends, Curt Henderson and Steve Bolander, meet John Milner, the drag-racing king of the town, and Terry “The Toad” Fields in the parking lot of the local Mel’s Drive-In diner. Curt and Steve are scheduled to travel the next morning to Northeastern United States to start college. Despite receiving a $2,000 scholarship from the local Moose Lodge, Curt has second thoughts about leaving Modesto. Steve gives Toad his 1958 Chevrolet Impala to watch while he’s away at college until he returns at Christmas. Steve’s girlfriend, Laurie, who is also Curt’s sister, arrives in her car. Steve suggests to Laurie, who is already glum about him going to college, that they see other people while he is away in order to “strengthen” their relationship. Though not openly upset, she is displeased with his proposal which affects their interactions the rest of the evening.

 

Curt accompanies Steve, last year’s high school student class president, and Laurie, the current head cheerleader, to the back-to-high-school sock hop. In one story line, Curt is desperate to find a beautiful blonde girl driving a white 1956 Ford Thunderbird that he sees en route to the dance: at a stoplight, she appears to say “I love you” before disappearing around the corner. After leaving the hop, Curt is coerced by a group of greasers (“The Pharaohs”) to participate in an initiation rite that involves hooking a chain to a police car and ripping out its back axle. The Pharaohs tell Curt that “The Blonde” is a trophy wife or prostitute, but he refuses to believe either.

Determined to get a message to the blonde girl, Curt drives to the local radio station to ask DJ Wolfman Jack, who is omnipresent on the car radios, to announce a message for the blonde girl. Inside the radio station, Curt encounters a bearded man who tells him that the voice of The Wolfman is pre-taped from afar.

The man still accepts the message from Curt to see what he could do. As he is leaving the station, Curt sees the man talking into the microphone and hears the voice of The Wolfman, and realizes the man is the actual DJ himself.

 

Sure enough, The Wolfman eventually reads the message on the radio for “The Blonde” to meet Curt or call him at a number which happens to be a telephone booth. Curt waits by the telephone booth and early the next morning, he is awakened by the phone ringing. It turns out to be “The Blonde” who says she knows him and maybe she would see him cruising the coming night. Curt replies probably not, intimating that he decided to go to college and will be leaving that morning.

The Toad, in Steve’s car, and John, in his yellow 1932 Ford Deuce Coupé hot rod, cruise the strip of Modesto. Toad, who is normally socially inept with girls, successfully picks up a flirtatious, and somewhat rebellious, girl named Debbie. John inadvertently picks up Carol, an annoying 12-year-old who seems fond of him. Another drag racer, the handsome and arrogant Bob Falfa, is searching out John in order to challenge him to a race.

Steve and Laurie have a series of arguments and make-ups through the evening. They finally split and, as the story lines intertwine, Bob Falfa picks up Laurie in his black 1955 Chevrolet One-Fifty Coupé. Bob finally finds John and goads him into racing. A parade of cars follow them to “Paradise Road” to watch the race. Laurie rides shotgun with Bob as Toad starts the race. As Bob begins taking a lead in the race, he loses control of the car when a front tire blows, and the car plunges into a ditch and rolls over. Steve and John leap out of their cars and rush to the wreck as a dazed Bob and Laurie stagger out of the car before it explodes. Distraught, Laurie grips Steve tightly and begs him not to leave her. He assures her that he will stay in Modesto.

At the airfield in the morning, Curt says goodbye to his parents, his sister Laurie, Steve, John and The Toad. As the plane takes off, Curt, gazing out of the window, sees the white Ford Thunderbird belonging to the mysterious blonde driving down a country road.

An on-screen epilogue reveals that

John is killed by a drunk driver in December 1964,

Toad is reported missing in action near An Lộc in December 1965,

Steve is an insurance agent in Modesto, California,

and

Curt is a writer living in Canada.

 

Richard Dreyfuss as Curt Henderson

Ron Howard as Steve Bolander

Paul Le Mat as John Milner

Charles Martin Smith as Terry “The Toad” Fields

Cindy Williams as Laurie Henderson

Candy Clark as Debbie Dunham

Mackenzie Phillips as Carol Morrison

Wolfman Jack as himself

Bo Hopkins as Joe Young

Manuel Padilla, Jr. as Carlos

Harrison Ford as Bob Falfa

Lynne Marie Stewart as Bobbie Tucker

Terry McGovern as Mr. Wolfe

Kathleen Quinlan as Peg

Scott Beach as Mr. Gordon

Susan Richardson as Judy

Kay Lenz as Jane

Joe Spano as Vic

Debralee Scott as Falfa’s Girl

Suzanne Somers as “The Blonde” in T-Bird

American Graffiti

 

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Sources : Wikipedia / YouTube/Pinterest/Google/Tumblr/various

CARY GRANT : On PARAMOUNT CHANNEL


PARAMOUNT CHANNEL : CARY GRANT       Wikipedia sources:  Cary Grant (born Archibald Alexander Leach; January 18, 1904 – November 29, 1986) was an English stage and Hollywood film actor who became an American citizen in 1942. Known for his transatlantic accent, debonair demeanor and “dashing good looks”, Grant is considered one of classic Hollywood’s definitive leading men. Notorious (1946), The…

Sourced through Scoop.it from: radiosatellite.co

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