They were… They are


They are stars

We know them as we saw them in the movies.

But time has passed and everyone is changing.

Here how we knew them
Here they are now mature and greater than before

 

ABBA

ABBA

ABBA

 

 

ART GARFUNKEL (Simon and Garfunkel聽

ART AND GARFUNKEL

ART AND GARFUNKEL

 

 

BARBARA EDEN聽

Barbara Eden

Barbara Eden

 

 

BARRY GIBB聽 (Bee Gees )

barry gibb bee gees

barry gibb bee gees

 

 

BOB DYLAN

Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan

 

 

CAT STEVENS

cat stevens

cat stevens

 

 

DAVID MC CALLUM

David Mc Callum

David Mc Callum

 

 

HARISON FORD

Harison Ford

Harison Ford

 

 

JOAN BAEZ

Joan baez

Joan baez

 

 

JULIE ANDREWS

JULIE ANDREWS

JULIE ANDREWS

 

SOUND OF MUSIC TEAM聽 ( Von Trapp family in movie)

Sound of music team

Sound of music team

 

 

PAUL ANKA

PAUL ANKA

PAUL ANKA

 

 

LEE聽 AAKER ( Aka RUSTY in RINTINTIN )

LEE AAKER AKA RUSTY in RINTINTIN

LEE AAKER AKA RUSTY in RINTINTIN

 

 

TOM HANKS

Tom Hanks

Tom Hanks

 

 

TOM JONES

TOM JONES

TOM JONES

 

Sources : Google

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Simon & Garfunkel


 

Simon & Garfunkel was an American folk rock duo consisting of singer-songwriter Paul Simon and singer Art Garfunkel. They were one of the most popular recording artists of the 1960s and became counterculture icons of the decade’s social revolution, alongside artists such as the Beatles, the Beach Boys, and Bob Dylan.

Simon and Garfunkel3

Simon and Garfunkel album cover 1

English article / En Fran莽ais plus bas svp / French below

Their biggest hits鈥攊ncluding “The Sound of Silence” (1964/1965), “Mrs. Robinson” (1968), “Bridge over Troubled Water” (1969), and “The Boxer” (1969)鈥攔eached number one on singles charts worldwide.

Their often rocky relationship led to artistic disagreements, which resulted in their breakup in 1970.

Their final studio record, Bridge over Troubled Water, was their most successful, becoming one of the world’s best-selling albums. Since their split in 1970 they have reunited several times, most famously in 1981 for the “The Concert in Central Park”, which attracted more than 500,000 people, the seventh-largest concert attendance in history.

The duo met as children in Queens, New York in 1953, where they learned to harmonize together and began writing original material. By 1957, under the name Tom & Jerry, the teenagers had their first minor success with “Hey Schoolgirl”, a song imitating their idols the Everly Brothers.

Afterwards, the duo went their separate ways, with Simon making unsuccessful solo records. In 1963, aware of a growing public interest in folk music, they regrouped and were signed to Columbia Records as Simon & Garfunkel. Their d茅but, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., sold poorly, and they once again disbanded;

Simon returned to a solo career, this time in England. A remix of their song “The Sound of Silence” was played widely on U.S. AM radio in 1965, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100. Simon & Garfunkel reunited, releasing their second studio album Sounds of Silence and touring colleges nationwide.

On their third release, Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966), the duo assumed more creative control. Their music was featured in the 1967 film The Graduate, giving them further exposure. Bookends (1968), their next album, topped the Billboard 200 chart and included the #1 single “Mrs. Robinson” from the film.

After their 1970 breakup following the release of Bridge over Troubled Water, they both continued recording, Simon releasing a number of highly acclaimed albums, including 1986’s Graceland.

Garfunkel also briefly pursued an acting career, with leading roles in two Mike Nichols films, Catch-22 and Carnal Knowledge, and in Nicolas Roeg’s 1980 Bad Timing.

Simon & Garfunkel were described by critic Richie Unterberger as “the most successful folk-rock duo of the 1960s” and one of the most popular artists from the decade in general. They won 10 Grammy Awards and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990.

Their Bridge over Troubled Water album was nominated at the 1977 Brit Awards for Best International Album and is ranked at #51 on Rolling Stone’s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.

Early years (1953鈥1956)

Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel grew up in the 1940s and 1950s in the predominantly Jewish neighborhood of Forest Hills in Queens, New York, just three blocks away from one another, and attended the same schools, Public School 164 in Flushing, Parsons Junior High School, and Forest Hills High School.

Individually, when still young, they developed a fascination with music; both listened to the radio and were taken with rock and roll as it emerged, particularly the Everly Brothers.

Early Simon & Garfunkel F

When Simon first noticed Garfunkel, he was singing in a fourth grade talent show, and Simon thought that was a good way to attract girls;

he hoped for a friendship which eventually started in 1953 when they were in the sixth grade and appeared on stage together in a school play adaptation of Alice in Wonderland. That first stage appearance was followed by the duo forming a street-corner doo-wop group, the Peptones, with three other friends, and learning to harmonize together. They began performing for the first time as a duo at school dances.

They moved to Forest Hills High School in 1955, where, in 1956, they wrote their first song, “The Girl for Me”; Simon’s father sending a handwritten copy to the Library of Congress to register a copyright.

While trying to remember the lyrics to the Everly’s song “Hey Doll Baby“, they created their own song, “Hey Schoolgirl”, which they recorded themselves for $25 at Sanders Recording Studio in Manhattan.

While recording they were overheard by a promoter, Sid Prosen, who 鈥 after speaking to their parents 鈥 signed them to his independent label Big Records.

From Tom & Jerry to Simon & Garfunkel (1957鈥1964)

While still aged 15, Simon & Garfunkel now had a recording contract with Sid Prosen’s independent label Big Records.

Using the name Tom & Jerry; Garfunkel naming himself Tom Graph, a reference to his interest in mathematics;

Simon naming himself Jerry Landis, after the surname of Sue Landis, a girl he had dated, the single “Hey Schoolgirl” was released, with the B-side “Dancin’ Wild”, in 1957.

Prosen, using the payola system, bribed Alan Freed $200 to get the single played on his radio show, where it became a nightly staple.

“Hey Schoolgirl” attracted regular rotation on nationwide AM pop stations, leading it to sell over 100,000 copies and to land on Billboard’s charts at number 49.

Prosen promoted the group heavily, getting them a spot on Dick Clark’s American Bandstand (headlining alongside Jerry Lee Lewis).

The duo shared approximately $4,000 from the song 鈥 earning two percent each from royalties, the rest staying with Prosen.

They released three more singles on Big Records: “Our Song”, “That’s My Story”, and “Don’t Say Goodbye”, none of them successful.

After graduating from Forest Hills High School in 1959, they were still exploring the possibilities of a music career, though continued their education as a back up; Simon studying English at Queens College, City University of New York, Garfunkel studying first architecture, then switching to art history at Columbia College, Columbia University.

While still with Big Records as a duo, Simon released a solo single, “True or False”, under the name “True Taylor”.

This recording upset Garfunkel, who regarded it as a betrayal; the emotional tension from that incident occasionally surfacing throughout their relationship.

Their last recording with Big Records was a cover of a Jan and Dean single, “Baby Talk”, but the company became bankrupt soon after release; the track was reissued on Bell Records, but failed to sell, so Tom & Jerry was dissolved.

Both, however, continued recording, albeit as solo artists: Garfunkel composing and recording “Private World” for Octavia Records, and – under the name Artie Garr – “Beat Love” for Warwick; Simon recorded with The Mystics, and Tico & The Triumphs, and wrote and recorded under the names Jerry Landis and Paul Kane.

Simon also wrote and performed demos for other artists, working for a while with Carole King and Gerry Goffin.

After graduating in 1963, Simon joined Garfunkel, who was still at Columbia, to perform together again as a duo, this time with a shared interest in folk music.

Simon enrolled part-time in Brooklyn Law School,By late 1963, billing themselves as “Kane & Garr”, they performed at Gerde’s Folk City, a Greenwich club that hosted Monday night open mic performances.

The duo performed three new songs 鈥 “Sparrow”, “He Was My Brother”, and “The Sound of Silence” 鈥 and got the attention of Columbia producer Tom Wilson, who worked with Bob Dylan.

As a “star producer” for the label, he wanted to record “He Was My Brother” with a new British act named the Pilgrims.

Simon convinced Wilson to let him and his partner have a studio audition, and they performed “The Sound of Silence”. House engineer Roy Halee recorded the audition, and at Wilson’s urging, Columbia signed the duo.

Their debut studio album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., was recorded over three daytime sessions in March 1964 and released in October. The album contains four original Simon compositions, with the remainder consisting of three traditional folk songs and five folk-influenced singer-songwriter numbers.

Simon was adamant that they would no longer use stage names, and they adopted the name Simon & Garfunkel.

Columbia set up a promotional showcase at Folk City on March 31, 1964, the duo’s first public concert as Simon & Garfunkel. The showcase, as well as other scheduled performances, did not go well.

Simon in England (1964鈥1965)

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. sold only 3,000 copies upon its October release, and its poor sales led Simon to move to England where he had previously visited and played some gigs.

He toured the small folk clubs, appearing on the same bill and befriending British folk artists such as Bert Jansch, Martin Carthy, Al Stewart, and Sandy Denny.

He met Kathy Chitty, who became the object of his affection and is the Kathy in “Kathy’s Song” and “America”.

A small music publishing company, Lorna Music, licensed “Carlos Dominguez”, a single Simon had cut two years prior as “Paul Kane”, for a cover by Val Doonican that sold very well.

Simon visited Lorna to thank them, and the meeting resulted in a publishing and recording contract. He signed to the Oriole label and released “He Was My Brother” as a single.

Simon invited Garfunkel to stay for the summer of 1964.

Near the end of the season, Garfunkel returned to Columbia for class, and Simon surprised his friends by saying that he would be returning to the States as well.

He would resume his studies at Brooklyn Law School for one semester, partially at his parents’ insistence. He returned to England in January 1965, now certain that music was his calling.

In the meantime, his landlord, Judith Piepe, had compiled a tape from his work at Lorna and sent it to the BBC in hopes they would play it.

Simon and Garfunkel (1966)

ART AND GARFUNKEK 60s

The demos aired on the Five to Ten morning show, and were instantly successful. Oriole had folded into CBS by that point, and hoped to record a new Paul Simon album.

The Paul Simon Songbook was recorded in June 1965 and featured multiple future Simon & Garfunkel staples, among them “I Am a Rock” and “April Come She Will”. CBS flew Wilson over to produce the record, and he stayed at Simon’s flat.

The album saw release in August, and although sales were poor, Simon felt content with his future in England.

Meanwhile, in the United States, a late-night disc jockey at WBZ-FM in Boston played “The Sound of Silence”, where it found a college demographic.

It was picked up the next day along the East Coast of the United States, down to Cocoa Beach, Florida. Wilson, inspired by the folk rock sound of the Byrds’ cover of “Turn! Turn! Turn!” and Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone”, created a rock remix of the song with the same musicians who overdubbed the Dylan song. The remix of “The Sound of Silence” was issued in September 1965, where it reached the Billboard Hot 100.

Wilson had not informed the duo of his intention to remix the track; as such, Simon was “horrified” when he first heard it.

Garfunkel graduated in 1965, returning to Columbia University to do a master’s degree in mathematics.

Mainstream breakthrough and success (1965鈥66)

By January 1966, “The Sound of Silence” topped the Hot 100, selling over one million copies.

Simon reunited with Garfunkel that winter in New York, leaving Chitty and his friends in England behind. CBS demanded a new album from the duo, to be called Sounds of Silence to ride the wave of the hit.

Recorded in three weeks, and mainly consisting of re-recorded songs from The Paul Simon Songbook, plus four new tracks, Sounds of Silence was rush-released onto the market in mid-January 1966, peaking at number 21 Billboard Top LPs chart.

A week later, “Homeward Bound” was released as a single, entering the USA top ten, followed by “I Am a Rock” peaking at number three.

The duo supported the recordings with a nationwide tour of America, while CBS continued their promotion by re-releasing Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., which promptly charted at number 30.

Despite the commercial and popular success, the duo received critical derision, as many considered them a manufactured imitation of folk.

As they considered their previous effort a “rush job” to capitalize on their sudden success, the duo spent more time crafting the follow-up. It was the first time Simon insisted on total control in aspects of recording.

Work began in 1966 and took nine months. Garfunkel considered the recording of “Scarborough Fair” the moment they stepped into the role as producer, because they were constantly beside engineer Roy Halee mixing the track.

Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme was issued in October 1966, following the release of several singles and receiving sold-out college campus shows.

The duo resumed their trek on the college circuit eleven days following the release, crafting an image that was described as “alienated”, “weird”, and “poetic”.

Manager Mort Lewis also was responsible for this public perception, as he withheld them from television appearances (unless they were allowed to play an uninterrupted set or choose the setlist).

Simon and Garfunkel album1

Simon, then 26 , felt he had finally “made it” into an upper echelon of rock and roll, while most importantly retaining artistic integrity (“making him spiritually closer to Bob Dylan than to, say, Bobby Darin”, wrote biographer Marc Eliot).

The duo chose William Morris as their booking agency after a recommendation from Wally Amos, a mutual friend through their producer, Tom Wilson.

During the sessions for Parsley, the duo cut “A Hazy Shade of Winter”; it was released as a single, peaking at number 13 on the national charts.

Similarly, they recorded “At the Zoo” for single release in early 1967 (it charted lower, at number 16).

Simon began work for their next album around this time, noting to a writer at High Fidelity that “I’m not interested in singles anymore”.

He had hit a dry spell in his writing, which led to no Simon & Garfunkel album on the horizon for 1967.

Artists at the time were expected to release two, perhaps three albums each year and the lack of productivity from the duo worried executives at Columbia Records.

Amid concerns for Simon’s idleness, Columbia Records chairman Clive Davis arranged for up-and-coming record producer John Simon to kick-start the recording.

Simon was distrustful of “suits” at the label; on one occasion, he and Garfunkel brought a tape recorder into a meeting with Davis, who was giving a “fatherly talk” on speeding up production, in order to laugh at it later.

The rare television appearances at this time saw the duo performing on such diverse network broadcasts as the Ed Sullivan, Mike Douglas and Andy Williams shows in 1966 and twice on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour in 1967.

Meanwhile, director Mike Nichols, then filming The Graduate, had become fascinated with the duo’s past two efforts, listening to them nonstop before and after filming.

The graduate

THE GRADUATE 聽/ 聽LE LAUREAT 聽with DUSTIN HOFFMAN

After two weeks of this obsession, he met with Clive Davis to ask for permission to license Simon & Garfunkel music for his film. Davis viewed it as a perfect fit and envisioned a best-selling soundtrack album.

Simon was not as immediately receptive, viewing movies akin to “selling out”, creating a damper on his artistic integrity. However, after meeting Nichols and becoming impressed by his wit and the script, he agreed to write at least one or two new songs for the film.

Leonard Hirshan, a powerful agent at William Morris, negotiated a deal that paid Simon $25,000 to submit three songs to Nichols and producer Lawrence Turman.

Several weeks later, Simon re-emerged with two new tracks, “Punky’s Dilemma” and “Overs”, neither of which Nichols was particularly taken with. The duo offered another new song, which later became “Mrs. Robinson”, that was not as developed. Nichols loved it.

Studio time and low profile (1967鈥68)

The duo’s fourth studio album, Bookends, was recorded in fits and starts over various periods from late 1966 to early 1968. The duo were signed under an older contract that specified the label pay for sessions, and Simon & Garfunkel took advantage of this indulgence, hiring viola and brass players, as well as percussionists. The record’s brevity reflects its concise and perfectionist production. The team spent over 50 studio hours recording “Punky’s Dilemma”, for example, and re-recorded vocal parts, sometimes note by note, until they were satisfied.

While Garfunkel’s songs and voice took a lead role on some songs, the harmonies the band were known for gradually disappeared. For Simon, Bookends represented the end of the duo and became an early indicator of his intentions to go solo.

Although the album had been planned long in advance, work did not begin in earnest until the late months of 1967.

Prior to release, the band helped put together and performed at the Monterey Pop Festival, which signaled the beginning of the Summer of Love on the West Coast.

“Fakin’ It” was issued as a single that summer and found only modest success on AM radio; the duo were much more focused on the rising FM format, which played album cuts and treated their music with respect.

In January 1968, the duo appeared on a Kraft Music Hall special, Three for Tonight, performing ten songs largely culled from their third album.

Bookends was released by Columbia Records in April 1968. In a historical context, this was just 24 hours before the assassination of civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr., which spurred nationwide outrage and riots.

The album debuted on the Billboard Top LPs in the issue dated April 27, 1968, climbing to number one and staying at that position for seven non-consecutive weeks; it remained on the chart as a whole for 66 weeks.

Bookends received such heavy orders weeks in advance of its release that Columbia was able to apply for award certification before copies left the warehouse, a fact it touted in magazine ads.The record became the duo’s best-selling album to date: it fed off the buzz created by the release of The Graduate soundtrack album ten weeks earlier, creating an initial combined sales figure of over five million units.

Davis had predicted this fact, and suggested raising the list price of Bookends by one dollar to $5.79, above the then standard retail price, to compensate for including a large poster included in vinyl copies.

Simon instead scoffed and viewed it as charging a premium on “what was sure to be that year’s best-selling Columbia album”. According to biographer Marc Eliot, Davis was “offended by what he perceived as their lack of gratitude for what he believed was his role in turning them into superstars”.

Rather than implement Davis’ price increase plan, Simon & Garfunkel signed a contract extension with Columbia that guaranteed them a higher royalty rate.

Lead single “Mrs. Robinson” became, at the 1969 Grammy Awards the first rock and roll song to receive Record of the Year; it was also awarded Best Contemporary Pop Performance by a Duo or Group.

Growing apart and final years (1969鈥70)

Bookends, alongside The Graduate soundtrack, propelled Simon & Garfunkel to become the biggest rock duo in the world.

Simon was approached by producers to write music for films or license songs; he turned down Franco Zeffirelli, who was preparing to film Brother Sun, Sister Moon, and John Schlesinger, who likewise was readying to shoot Midnight Cowboy.

In addition to Hollywood proposals, producers from the Broadway show Jimmy Shine (starring Simon’s friend Dustin Hoffman, also the lead in Midnight Cowboy) asked for two original songs and Simon declined.

He collaborated briefly with Leonard Bernstein on a sacred mass before withdrawing from the project due to “finding it perhaps too far afield from his comfort zone”.

Garfunkel took the role of Captain Nately in the Nichols film, Catch-22, based on the Catch-22 novel. Initially Simon was to play the character of Dunbar, but screenwriter Buck Henry felt the film was already crowded with characters and subsequently wrote Simon’s part out.

The filming of Catch-22 began in January 1969 and lasted about eight months.

The unexpectedly long film production endangered the relationship between the duo;

Simon had not completed any new songs at this point, and the duo planned to collaborate when the filming would be finished.

Following the end of filming of Catch-22 in October, the first performance of what was, for a time, their last tour, took place in Ames, Iowa.

The US leg of the tour ended in the sold-out Carnegie Hall on November 27.

After breaking for Christmas, the duo continued working on the album in early 1970 and finished it in late January.

Meanwhile, the duo, working with director Charles Grodin, produced an hourlong CBS special, Songs of America, which is a mixture of scenes featuring notable political events and leaders concerning the USA, such as the Vietnam War, Martin Luther King, John F. Kennedy’s funeral procession, Cesar Chavez and the Poor People’s March. It was broadcast only once, due to internal tension at the network regarding its content.

Bridge over Troubled Water, their final studio album, was released in January 1970 and charted in over 11 countries, topping the charts in 10, including the Billboard Top LP’s chart in the US and the UK Albums Chart.

It was the best-selling album in 1970, 1971 and 1972 and was at that time the best-selling album of all time.

It was also CBS Records’ best-selling album before the release of Michael Jackson’s Thriller in 1982.

The album topped the Billboard charts for 10 weeks and stayed in the charts for 85 weeks.

In the United Kingdom, the album topped the charts for 35 weeks, and spent 285 weeks in the top 100, from 1970 to 1975.[88] It has since sold over 25 million copies worldwide.

“Bridge over Troubled Water”, the album’s lead single, hit number one in five countries and became their biggest seller.

The song has been covered by over 50 artists since then, including Elvis Presley and Johnny Cash. “Cecilia”, the follow-up, hit number four in the US, and “El Condor Pasa” hit number 18

The recording process was tough for both musicians, and their breakup was almost certain considering the deterioration of their relationship. “At that point, I just wanted out,” Simon later said.

Their breakup was not intended to be semi-permanent: Garfunkel hoped for a two-year break from Simon & Garfunkel and did not intend to pursue a film-career. Likewise, Simon did not intend to begin a solo career.

A brief British tour followed the album release, and the duo’s last concert as Simon & Garfunkel occurred at Forest Hills Stadium.

In 1971, the album took home six awards at the 13th Annual Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year. Simon’s wife, Peggy Harper, pushed for him to make the split official, and he placed a call to Davis to confirm the duo’s breakup: “I want you to know I鈥檝e decided to split with Artie. I don鈥檛 think we鈥檒l be recording together again.”

For the next several years, the duo would only speak “two or three” times a year.

Breakup, rifts, and reunions (1971鈥2003)

In the 1970s, the duo reunited several times. Their first reunion was a benefit concert for presidential candidate George McGovern at New York’s Madison Square Garden in June 1972.

In 1975, they reconciled once more when they visited a recording session with John Lennon and Harry Nilsson.

For the rest of the year, they attempted to make the reunion work, but their collaboration only yielded one song, “My Little Town,” that was featured on Simon’s Still Crazy After All These Years and Garfunkel’s Breakaway.

It peaked at number nine on the Hot 100. In 1975, Garfunkel joined Simon for a medley of three songs on the television series Saturday Night Live which Simon was guest hosting.

In 1977, Garfunkel joined Simon for a brief performance of their old songs on Simon’s television special The Paul Simon Special, and later that year they recorded a cover of Sam Cooke’s “(What a) Wonderful World” along with James Taylor.

Old tensions finally appeared to dissipate upon Garfunkel’s return to New York in 1978, when the duo began interacting more often.

On May 1, 1978, Simon joined Garfunkel for a concert held at Carnegie Hall to benefit the hearing disabled.

By 1980, the duo’s respective solo efforts were not doing well. To help alleviate New York’s economic decline, concert promoter Ron Delsener came up with the idea to throw a free concert in Central Park.

Delsener contacted Simon with the idea of a Simon & Garfunkel reunion, and once Garfunkel agreed, plans were made.

The Concert in Central Park, performed September 19, 1981, attracted more than 500,000 people, at that time the largest-ever concert attendance.

Warner Bros. Records released a live album of the show that went double platinum in the US.

A 90-minute recording of the concert was sold to Home Box Office (HBO) for over $1 million.

The concert created a renewed interest in the duo’s work.

They had several “heart-to-heart talks,” attempting to put past issues behind them.

The duo planned a world tour, kicking off in May 1982, but their relationship grew contentious: for the majority of the tour, they did not speak to one another.

Warner Bros. pushed for them to extend the tour and release an all-new Simon & Garfunkel studio album.

After recording several vocal tracks for a possible new Simon & Garfunkel album, Simon decided to adopt it as his own solo album. Garfunkel had refused to learn the songs in the studio, and would not give up cannabis and cigarettes, despite Simon’s requests.

An official spokesperson remarked, “Paul simply felt the material he wrote is so close to his own life that it had to be his own record. Art was hoping to be on the album, but I’m sure there will be other projects that they will work on together. They are still friends.”

The material was later released on Simon’s 1983 effort Hearts and Bones.

Another rift opened between the duo when the lengthy recording of Simon’s 1986 album Graceland prevented Garfunkel from working with Roy Halee on a Christmas album.

In 1990, the duo were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Garfunkel thanked his partner, calling him “the person who most enriched my life by putting those songs through me,” to which Simon responded, “Arthur and I agree about almost nothing. But it’s true, I have enriched his life quite a bit.” After three songs, the duo left without speaking.

We are indescribable. You’ll never capture it. It’s an ingrown, deep friendship. Yes, there is deep love in there. But there’s also shit. =>聽 Garfunkel describing his six-decade-long friendship with Simon

By 1993, their relationship had thawed again, and Simon invited Garfunkel on an international tour with him.

Following a 21-date, sold-out run at the Paramount Theater in New York and an appearance at that year’s Bridge School Benefit in California, the duo toured the Far East.

The duo had a falling out over the course of the rest of the decade, the details of which have never been disclosed.

Simon thanked Garfunkel at his 2001 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a solo artist: “I regret the ending of our friendship. I hope that some day before we die we will make peace with each other,” resuming after a pause, “No rush.”

They were awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 45th Annual Grammy Awards in 2003, for which the promoters convinced them to reconcile and open the show with a performance of “The Sound of Silence.”

The performance was satisfying for both musicians, and they planned out a full-scale reunion tour over the summer.

The Old Friends tour began in October 2003 and played to sold-out audiences across the United States for 30 dates until mid-December.

The tour earned an estimated $123 million.

Following a twelve-city run in Europe in 2004, they ended their nine-month tour with a free concert at the Colosseum in Rome. It attracted 600,000 fans, more than their The Concert in Central Park.

Recent years (2009鈥損resent)

In 2009, the duo reunited again for three songs during Simon’s two-night arrangement at New York’s Beacon Theatre. This led to a reunion tour of Asia and Australia in June 2009.

Their headlining set at the 2010 New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival was very difficult for Garfunkel, who was experiencing serious vocal problems. “I was terrible, and crazy nervous. I leaned on Paul Simon and the affection of the crowd,” he told Rolling Stone several years later.

Garfunkel was diagnosed with vocal cord paresis, and the remaining tour dates were postponed indefinitely. His manager, John Scher, informed Simon’s camp that Garfunkel would be ready within a year, which did not happen, leading to poor relations between the two. He regained his vocal strength over the course of the next four years, performing shows in a Harlem theater and to underground audiences.

Art_Garfunkel_2013

ART GARFUNKEL

Despite this, the duo have not staged a full-scale tour or performed shows since 2010. Garfunkel confirmed to Rolling Stone in 2014 that he believes they will tour in the future, although Simon had been too “busy” in recent years. “I know that audiences all over the world like Simon and Garfunkel. I’m with them. But I don’t think Paul Simon’s with them,” he remarked.

Musical style and legacy

Over the course of their career, Simon & Garfunkel’s music gradually moved from a very basic, folk rock sound to incorporate more experimental elements for the time, including Latin and gospel music. Many adolescents of the 1960s found their music relevant, while adults regarded them as intelligent.

Their music, according to Rolling Stone, struck a chord among lonely, alienated young adults near the end of the decade.

Despite its popularity, the group was also criticized sharply, especially in its heyday. Rolling Stone critic Arthur Schmidt, for example, described the duo’s music as “questionable…it exudes a sense of process, and it is slick, and nothing too much happens.”

New York Times critic Robert Shelton said that the group had “a kind of Mickey Mouse, timid, contrived” approach to music.

Their clean sound and muted lyricism “cost them some hipness points during the psychedelic era” according to Richie Unterberger of AllMusic, who also notes that the duo “inhabited the more polished end of the folk-rock spectrum and was sometimes criticized for a certain collegiate sterility.”

Paul_Simon

PAUL SIMON

Unterberger further observes that some critics would later regard Simon’s lyricism in his work with Simon & Garfunkel to pale in comparison to his later solo material.

But Unterberger himself believed that “the best of S&G’s work could stand among Simon’s best material, and the duo did progress musically over the course of their five albums, moving from basic folk-rock productions into Latin rhythms and gospel-influenced arrangements that foreshadowed Simon’s eclecticism on his solo albums.”

Their rocky personal relationship led to their “breaking up and making up about every dozen years.”

Simon and Garfunkel est un duo am茅ricain de folk rock, constitu茅 du guitariste et auteur-compositeur-interpr猫te Paul Simon et du chanteur Arthur Garfunkel. Tous deux se rencontrent pour la premi猫re fois dans le Queens en 1953.

Simon and Garfunkel album2

Ils apprennent 脿 s’accorder l’un avec l’autre et commencent 脿 茅crire leurs propres compositions. Ils connaissent leur premier succ猫s en 1957, sous le nom de Tom & Jerry, avec la chanson Hey Schoolgirl, qui imite le style de leurs idoles The Everly Brothers.

Mais ce succ猫s n’est pas confirm茅 et ils poursuivent ensuite leurs 茅tudes universitaires chacun de leur c么t茅. Ils se retrouvent en 1963, avec un int茅r锚t accru pour la musique folk, et signent un contrat avec Columbia Records. Leur premier album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. (1964), est un 茅chec commercial 脿 sa sortie et le duo se s茅pare, Simon d茅cidant de poursuivre sa carri猫re en solo en Angleterre.

Cependant, une nouvelle version de leur chanson The Sound of Silence conna卯t le succ猫s sur les ondes am茅ricaines en 1965 et atteint la premi猫re place du Billboard Hot 100.

Le duo se reforme alors et enregistre un deuxi猫me album, Sounds of Silence (1966), qui est rapidement suivi par Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966), album sur lequel le duo prend un plus grand contr么le cr茅atif. La popularit茅 du duo s’accro卯t avec la bande originale du film Le Laur茅at (1967), compos茅e en majeure partie par leurs chansons.

Leur album suivant, Bookends (1968), les propulse au rang de stars internationales majeures. N茅anmoins, les relations entre les deux hommes se d茅gradent et le duo se s茅pare peu apr猫s la sortie de leur album suivant, Bridge over Troubled Water (1970), qui est leur plus grand succ猫s commercial.

Simon and Garfunkel comptent parmi les artistes les plus populaires des ann茅es 1960 et sont consid茅r茅s comme des ic么nes de la contre-culture de cette d茅cennie, au m锚me titre que les Beatles et Bob Dylan.

Leurs chansons les plus c茅l猫bres, The Sound of Silence, I Am a Rock, Homeward Bound, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, A Hazy Shade of Winter, Mrs. Robinson, Bridge over Troubled Water, The Boxer, Cecilia et El C贸ndor Pasa (If I Could), ont 聽connu un tr猫s grand succ猫s international.

Depuis leur s茅paration, Simon et Garfunkel ont reform茅 plusieurs fois le duo, notamment 脿 l’occasion d’un concert 脿 Central Park en 1981 qui r茅unit plus de 500 000 spectateurs, ce qui constitue 脿 l’茅poque la plus grande affluence de tous les temps pour un concert.

Rencontre et d茅buts musicaux (1953-1962)

Paul Frederic Simon et Arthur Ira Garfunkel, n茅s tous deux en 1941, grandissent 脿 New York dans le quartier du Queens de Kew Gardens Hills 脿 seulement trois p芒t茅s de maisons l’un de l’autre1. Ils se passionnent pour la musique d猫s leur plus jeune 芒ge, notamment avec l’av猫nement du rock ‘n’ roll2. Garfunkel commence 脿 chanter dans des radio-crochets d猫s le CM1 et rencontre Simon deux ans plus tard, en 1953.

Leur amiti茅 s’茅panouit quand tous deux sont choisis pour jouer dans une adaptation th茅芒trale d’Alice au pays des merveilles, Simon dans le r么le du Lapin blanc et Garfunkel dans celui du Chat du Cheshire. Ils commencent 脿 chanter ensemble dans des groupes de doo-wop et apprennent ainsi 脿 s’accorder l’un avec l’autre.

Simon et Garfunkel entrent 脿 la Forest Hills High School en septembre 1955 et entreprennent d’enregistrer leurs arrangements sur des bandes magn茅tiques. Ils 茅crivent leur premi猫re chanson, The Girl for Me, en 1956 et commencent 脿 se produire en tant que duo dans des 茅coles de musique. Tr猫s influenc茅s par Elvis Presley et The Everly Brothers, ils d茅cident de pr茅senter une maquette d’une de leurs compositions, Hey Schoolgirl, 脿 des 茅diteurs musicaux de Manhattan.

Ils enregistrent la chanson, avec Dancin’ Wild en face B, au Sanders Recording Studio, un minuscule studio d’enregistrement de Manhattan.

Ils rencontrent ensuite Sid Prosen, qui dirige le label ind茅pendant Big Records, et celui-ci leur fait signer un contrat en proclamant qu’ils sont les nouveaux Everly Brothers. Le duo adopte le nom de Tom and Jerry, d’apr猫s le cartoon du m锚me nom.

Garfunkel prend le pseudonyme de Tom Graph, en r茅f茅rence 脿 ses aptitudes en math茅matiques et 脿 sa manie de consigner les classements de singles sous forme de graphiques sur du papier millim茅tr茅

Simon prend celui de Jerry Landis, d’apr猫s le nom de famille d’une fille qu’il a fr茅quent茅.

Sid Prosen verse un pot-de-vin 脿 Alan Freed afin que ce dernier diffuse Hey Schoolgirl dans son 茅mission de radio, et la chanson devient rapidement l’un des morceaux les plus populaires de l’茅mission.

Hey Schoolgirl est alors diffus茅e r茅guli猫rement sur les ondes 脿 l’茅chelle nationale.

Le single se vend 脿 plus de 100 000 copies en 1957 et se hisse 脿 la 49e place du Billboard Hot 100. Prosen assure efficacement la promotion du duo, en les faisant notamment passer dans l’茅mission t茅l茅vis茅e American Bandstand aux c么t茅s de Jerry Lee Lewis.

Le producteur s’adjuge toutefois la part du lion dans les royalties d茅gag茅es par le duo, pr茅levant 96% de celles-ci

. Garfunkel, qui n’appr茅cie pas le milieu de l’industrie musicale, informe Simon qu’il souhaite se consacrer 脿 ses 茅tudes.

Simon d茅cide alors de continuer sa carri猫re en solo sous le pseudonyme de True Taylor. 脌 sa sortie du lyc茅e, Simon poursuit des 茅tudes d’anglais au Queens College alors que Garfunkel 茅tudie les math茅matiques 脿 l’universit茅 Columbia.

Les ventes des disques de Simon ne d茅collant pas, celui-ci propose 脿 Garfunkel de reprendre leur collaboration et son ami accepte.

Simon and Garfunkel3

Simon and Garfunkel Cover album3

Cependant, les nouveaux singles sortis par le duo sont des 茅checs commerciaux, ce qui provoque la fin de leur collaboration avec Sid Prosen.

Simon reprend sa carri猫re en solo, ce qui entame son amiti茅 avec Garfunkel, qui voit cela comme une trahison.

Cette tension jamais r茅solue entre les deux hommes influera sur leurs relations durant tout leur parcours commun. Simon ach猫ve son premier cycle universitaire et s’inscrit 脿 temps partiel 脿 la Brooklyn Law School.

Un nouveau d茅part (1963-1964)

Le premier concert de Simon and Garfunkel sous ce nom est 脿 l’origine d’une longue brouille entre Paul Simon et Bob Dylan, ici en 1963.

Simon et Garfunkel s’int茅ressent chacun de leur c么t茅 au mouvement 茅mergeant de la contre-culture et de la musique folk.

Simon devient un habitu茅 de Greenwich Village alors que Garfunkel retourne 脿 l’universit茅 Columbia afin de conserver son statut d’茅tudiant et d’茅viter d’锚tre incorpor茅 alors que l’engagement am茅ricain au Vi锚t Nam se pr茅cise.

Tous deux se retrouvent pour discuter des nouvelles compositions de Simon et les interpr茅ter au si猫ge de la fraternit茅 茅tudiante Alpha Epsilon Pi.

Fin 1963, ils se produisent sous le nom de Kane & Garr 脿 la Gerde’s Folk City, une salle de concerts de West Village.

Ils y interpr猫tent trois nouvelles chansons, Sparrow, He Was My Brother et The Sound of Silence, et captent l’attention du producteur Tom Wilson, qui a d茅j脿 travaill茅 avec Bob Dylan.

Wilson souhaite faire enregistrer He Was My Brother 脿 un groupe britannique mais Simon le persuade de les laisser faire une audition. Leur interpr茅tation de The Sound of Silence lors de celle-ci convainc Wilson, qui presse Columbia Records de leur faire signer un contrat.

Le premier album du duo, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., est enregistr茅 sur trois sessions en mars 1964 et sort le 19 octobre.

L’album contient cinq compositions originales de Simon, les sept autres 茅tant des reprises de chansons folk dont The Times They Are a-Changin’ de Bob Dylan.

Simon_&_Garfunkel_932-2092

Simon insiste aupr猫s de Garfunkel pour qu’ils utilisent d茅sormais leurs v茅ritables noms.

Columbia met en place un concert promotionnel 脿 Folk City le 31 mars 1964, qui est le premier concert o霉 le duo se produit sous le nom de Simon and Garfunkel.

Dylan est pr茅sent 脿 ce concert et une altercation l’oppose 脿 Simon, ce qui sera 脿 l’origine d’une longue rancune entre les deux hommes. L’origine de cette tension reste peu claire, certains biographes affirmant que Dylan aurait d茅lib茅r茅ment parl茅 tr猫s fort tout au long du concert alors que d’autres soutiennent qu’il aurait totalement d茅daign茅 celui-ci.

Le concert, tout comme d’autres organis茅s plus tard, n’est pas un succ猫s.

Simon, anticipant l’茅chec de l’album, part pour l’Angleterre et rencontre Kathy Chitty dans un club de folk o霉 il se produit.

Ils tombent amoureux et Kathy lui inspirera plusieurs chansons, notamment Kathy’s Song, America et Homeward Bound.

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. ne se vend qu’脿 3 000 exemplaires en quelques semaines et cet 茅chec pousse Simon 脿 rester en Angleterre tandis que Garfunkel reprend ses 茅tudes d’architecture.

Le son du succ猫s (1965-1966)

Les d茅mos que Simon enregistre en Angleterre sont diffus茅es sur les ondes par la BBC et connaissent le succ猫s.

En juin 1965, Columbia fait alors enregistrer 脿 Simon un album solo, The Paul Simon Songbook, qui sort en Angleterre deux mois plus tard et contient plusieurs chansons qui seront reprises plus tard par le duo.

Les ventes de l’album sont m茅diocres mais Simon demeure confiant sur son avenir en Angleterre. Pendant ce temps, de l’autre c么t茅 de l’Atlantique, un disc-jockey de Boston commence 脿 diffuser The Sound of Silence et la chanson devient populaire dans le milieu 茅tudiant de la c么te Est des 脡tats-Unis.

Tom Wilson l’apprend et d茅cide de faire r茅enregistrer la chanson dans une version 茅lectrique sans en informer le duo.

Le single sort en septembre et entre dans le Billboard Hot 100. Garfunkel informe Simon, toujours en Europe, de ce qui est en train de se passer. Simon est horrifi茅 lorsqu’il entend la version 茅lectrique pour la premi猫re fois mais les deux hommes appr茅cient le succ猫s du single28,29.

Simon revient 脿 New York vers la fin de l’ann茅e 1965 afin de reformer son duo avec Garfunkel.

Columbia leur fait enregistrer en d茅cembre un nouvel album et l’intitule 芦聽Sounds of Silence聽禄 afin de profiter du succ猫s du single.

Ce dernier s’empare de la premi猫re place du Billboard Hot 100 en janvier 1966 et d茅passe d茅sormais le million d’exemplaires vendus.

En plus d’une r茅茅dition de The Sound of Silence, l’album comprend cinq chansons de l’album solo de Simon, dont I Am a Rock, et seulement deux titres sont de nouvelles compositions originales.

L’album sort de fa莽on pr茅cipit茅e le 17 janvier 1966 et est suivi quelques jours plus tard par le single Homeward Bound, qui ne figure pas sur l’album et qui int猫gre le top 10 des classements musicaux dans plusieurs pays.

Au mois de mars, c’est ensuite I Am a Rock qui sort en single et qui se classe 3e du Billboard Hot 100. Mais en d茅pit du succ猫s commercial remport茅 par l’album, 21e au Billboard 200, et les singles, le duo est tourn茅 en d茅rision par de nombreux critiques musicaux qui estiment qu’il ne produit qu’une imitation manufactur茅e de la folk.

Alors que le duo part en tourn茅e 脿 travers les 脡tats-Unis, Columbia r茅茅dite Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. et l’album acc猫de 脿 la 30e place du Billboard 2003.

Simon and Garfunkel en 1966.

Conscients que Sounds of Silence est un travail r茅alis茅 dans la pr茅cipitation afin de capitaliser sur leur succ猫s soudain, Simon et Garfunkel d茅cident de peaufiner leur prochain album.

Simon insiste d’ailleurs pour avoir le contr么le total pendant la production de celui-ci. Garfunkel consid猫re l’enregistrement de leur version de la chanson traditionnelle 芦聽Scarborough Fair聽禄 comme le moment o霉 ils sont devenus les v茅ritables producteurs de leurs albums.

Le duo travaille plusieurs mois sur l’album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme et celui-ci sort le 10 octobre. Comprenant notamment Homeward Bound, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin’ Groovy), The Dangling Conversation et For Emily, Whenever I May Find Her, il se caract茅rise par de vifs contrastes entre les chansons et obtient l’approbation de la critique, qui reconna卯t son int茅grit茅 artistique, Simon se r茅v茅lant comme 芦 l’un des auteurs-compositeurs les plus dou茅s de l’茅poque 禄.

L’album se hisse par ailleurs 脿 la 4e place du Billboard 200.

Le duo entame dans la foul茅e une mini-tourn茅e sur les campus universitaires o霉 tous les concerts se jouent 脿 guichets ferm茅s. Mort Lewis, leur agent artistique, entretient l’image d茅cal茅e et po茅tique du duo en refusant qu’ils fassent des apparitions 脿 la t茅l茅vision 脿 moins que des conditions draconiennes ne soient accept茅es par l’茅mission.

A Hazy Shade of Winter, qui n’a pas 茅t茅 retenu par le duo pour figurer sur Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, sort en single deux semaines apr猫s la sortie de l’album et se classe 13e du Billboard Hot 100.

Popularit茅 et r茅compenses : les laur茅ats (1967-1968)

Simon et Garfunkel enregistrent en janvier 1967 le single At the Zoo et ce dernier est publi茅 le mois suivant, atteignant la 16e place du Billboard Hot 100.

Simon commence alors 脿 travailler sur le prochain album du duo, affirmant qu’il n’est plus int茅ress茅 par les singles.

Il est cependant affect茅 par un blocage de l’茅crivain qui a pour cons茅quence que ce nouvel album ne voit pas le jour en 1967.

脌 cette 茅poque, il est courant que les artistes sortent deux voire trois albums par an et ce manque de productivit茅 inqui猫te les dirigeants de Columbia. Clive Davis, le pr茅sident de Columbia, tente d’acc茅l茅rer la production de l’album en convoquant Simon et Garfunkel 脿 plusieurs reprises pour leur adresser des discours paternalistes mais les deux amis, d茅j脿 m茅fiants envers l’industrie musicale, tournent cela en d茅rision en enregistrant un sermon de Davis pour en rire par la suite.

 

Le 16 juin 1967, Simon and Garfunkel se produisent sur la sc猫ne du festival international de musique pop de Monterey qui marque le coup d’envoi du Summer of Love. Fakin’ It sort en single quelques semaines plus tard mais ne remporte qu’un succ猫s mod茅r茅.

Pendant ce temps, le r茅alisateur Mike Nichols tourne Le Laur茅at et se prend de passion pour la musique du duo, 茅coutant leurs chansons en boucle. Deux semaines plus tard, il rencontre Clive Davis pour lui demander l’autorisation d’utiliser certains morceaux du duo pour la musique du film. Davis est enthousiaste, flairant une parfaite occasion de placer une musique de film en t锚te des ventes de disques.

Simon est beaucoup plus r茅ticent, craignant de compromettre son int茅grit茅 artistique. Il change d’avis apr猫s avoir rencontr茅 Nichols, qui l’impressionne par son intelligence et la qualit茅 de son sc茅nario, et accepte d’茅crire de nouvelles chansons pour le film.

L’agent du duo n茅gocie un contrat qui offre 脿 Simon 25 000 $ pour la composition de trois chansons. Simon propose d’abord 脿 Nichols Punky’s Dilemma et Overs mais aucune des deux ne satisfait le r茅alisateur. Simon revient alors avec une premi猫re version de Mrs. Robinson, qui ne porte pas encore ce titre, qui enthousiasme Nichols.

L’album 芦聽The Graduate聽禄, compos茅 essentiellement de chansons du duo dont Mrs. Robinson, sort le 21 janvier 1968 et s’empare de la premi猫re place du Billboard 200 en avril.

Entretemps, l’enregistrement de Bookends, le quatri猫me album du duo, est enfin termin茅 apr猫s avoir 茅t茅 茅chelonn茅 sur plusieurs sessions depuis un an et demi, mais plus particuli猫rement depuis octobre 1967.

La production de l’album est marqu茅e par son perfectionnisme, l’enregistrement de Punky’s Dilemma 茅tant par exemple 茅tal茅 sur une cinquantaine d’heures. Mrs. Robinson est r茅茅crite et r茅enregistr茅e en f茅vrier 1968, lors des derni猫res sessions et constitue l’une des chansons-phares de l’album aux c么t茅s d’autres titres c茅l猫bres tels que America, A Hazy Shade of Winter et At the Zoo. Bookends, consid茅r茅 comme l’album 芦 le plus intellectuel 禄 du duo, est compos茅 sur sa premi猫re face d’un cycle de chansons plut么t sombres, 茅voquant une m茅ditation sur le passage du temps, qui sont suivies dans sa deuxi猫me partie par des titres plus l茅gers et au son plus rock. Il marque par ailleurs le d茅clin des harmonies du duo, qui disparaissent graduellement au profit d’un chant individuel.

Simon_and_Garfunkel_1968

Bookends sort le 3 avril 1968 et est suivi deux jours plus tard par la sortie en single de Mrs. Robinson dans un contexte tr猫s particulier puisque Martin Luther King est assassin茅 le 4 avril, ce qui provoque une grande 茅motion et une s茅rie d’茅meutes 脿 travers les 脡tats-Unis.

Bookends prend au mois de mai la premi猫re place du Billboard 200, occup茅e jusqu’alors par The Graduate, tandis que Mrs. Robinson s’installe au sommet du Billboard Hot 100 au mois de juin. Bookends devient 脿 cette date le plus grand succ猫s commercial du duo, ayant profit茅 du ph茅nom猫ne de bouche-脿-oreille engendr茅 par la sortie de The Graduate, et les ventes combin茅es des deux albums d茅passent les 5 millions de copies. Lors des Grammy Awards qui se tiennent en mars 1969 et c茅l猫brent les accomplissements des artistes pour l’ann茅e 1968, Mrs. Robinson remporte le prix de l’enregistrement de l’ann茅e, The Graduate celui de la meilleure musique de film et Simon and Garfunkel celui de la meilleure prestation pop d’un duo ou groupe avec chant.

聽BRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATER : dernier album et s茅paration (1969-1970)

Bookends et The Graduate propulsent Simon and Garfunkel au rang de stars internationales majeures, les deux hommes devenant le duo musical le plus c茅l猫bre du monde. Malgr茅 un d茅saccord avec Clive Davis, qui d茅sirait augmenter d’un dollar le prix de vente de Bookends ce que le duo a refus茅 et que Davis per莽oit comme un manque de gratitude58, Simon et Garfunkel prolongent leur contrat avec Columbia et n茅gocient au passage une augmentation de leur pourcentage de royalties.

Simon est approch茅 par plusieurs producteurs de cin茅ma qui souhaitent qu’il 茅crive des musiques de films et refuse notamment une offre pour Macadam Cowboy (1969).

Il d茅cline 茅galement une offre d’茅criture pour un spectacle de Broadway et collabore bri猫vement avec Leonard Bernstein sur une messe avant de se retirer du projet. De son c么t茅, Garfunkel est engag茅 par Mike Nichols pour interpr茅ter l’un des r么les principaux du film de guerre satirique Catch22 , dans lequel Simon devait aussi jouer avant que son r么le ne soit supprim茅.

Le tournage de Catch 22 commence en janvier 1969 et dure huit mois car il est entrav茅 par de nombreux probl猫mes.

Dans l’intervalle, le single The Boxer est publi茅 en avril et se classe dans le top 10 de plusieurs pays. Cette absence prolong茅e de Garfunkel affecte les relations entre les deux hommes car Simon, qui pr茅pare pendant ce temps le prochain album du duo, se sent abandonn茅.

D猫s le retour de Garfunkel, le duo se met au travail avec ardeur et d茅cline l’invitation qui leur est faite de participer au festival de Woodstock.

En octobre et novembre 1969, Simon and Garfunkel font une mini-tourn茅e aux 脡tats-Unis qui se termine par un concert 脿 guichets ferm茅s 脿 Carnegie Hall.

Le duo produit par ailleurs un documentaire musical, Songs of America, qui est diffus茅 sur CBS le 30 novembre et qui m锚le des extraits de leurs chansons 脿 des images d’茅v茅nements importants des ann茅es 1960.

Ce documentaire n’est diffus茅 qu’une fois en raison des tensions, en rapport avec son contenu politiquement charg茅, qu’il provoque sur la cha卯ne.

L’album 芦聽Bridge ove r Troubled聽禄 Water sort le 26 janvier 1970, tout comme le single du m锚me nom. Dans cet album, le duo abandonne en partie le son folk rock qui a fait sa gloire pour explorer d’autres sonorit茅s, comme le gospel, la musique sud-am茅ricaine, le latin jazz, le rockabilly ou encore le reggae, un m茅lange d’influences qui contribue 脿 sa 芦 richesse musicale 禄. L’album contient onze titres dont Bridge over Troubled Water, Cecilia, El C贸ndor Pasa (If I Could), The Boxer et The Only Living Boy in New York. L’inclusion d’un douzi猫me titre est longuement discut茅 sans que les deux hommes n’arrivent 脿 se mettre d’accord sur son choix.

L’album arrive au sommet des classements musicaux dans dix pays dont les 脡tats-Unis, le Royaume-Uni et la France. C’est l’album le plus vendu des ann茅es 1970, 1971 et 1972 ; il devient 脿 cette 茅poque l’album le plus vendu de tous les temps.

Le single homonyme s’empare lui aussi de la premi猫re place des classements musicaux dans plusieurs pays, alors que les autres singles tir茅s de l’album, Cecilia en avril et El C贸ndor Pasa (If I Could) en ao没t, se vendent aussi tr猫s bien4.

Malgr茅 cet 茅norme succ猫s, le processus d’enregistrement s’est r茅v茅l茅 tr猫s 茅prouvant pour les deux hommes et les tensions accumul茅es entre eux rendent leur s茅paration prochaine presque certaine avant m锚me la sortie de l’album.

Cette s茅paration n’est cependant pas pr茅vue au d茅part pour 锚tre permanente, Garfunkel souhaitant seulement faire une pause de deux ans et Simon ne pr茅voyant pas de reprendre sa carri猫re en solo.

En avril et mai, le duo se produit pour quelques dates en Europe, dont un passage 脿 l’Olympia le 1er mai, avant de jouer son dernier concert le 18 juillet 1970 au Forest Hills Stadium.

Lors de la c茅r茅monie des Grammy Awards 1971, l’album et la chanson Bridge over Troubled Water remportent six r茅compenses, dont celles de l’album de l’ann茅e et de la chanson de l’ann茅e. Quelque temps plus tard, Peggy Harper, l’茅pouse de Simon depuis 1969, pousse celui-ci 脿 rendre la s茅paration du duo officielle.

Simon appelle alors Clive Davis pour lui annoncer qu’il ne pense pas reprendre sa collaboration avec Garfunkel. Durant les quelques ann茅es qui suivent, les deux hommes ne se parlent que deux ou trois fois par an.

R茅unions occasionnelles

Le duo se reforme pour la premi猫re fois au Madison Square Garden en juin 1972 脿 l’occasion d’un concert de soutien pour George McGovern en vue de l’茅lection pr茅sidentielle am茅ricaine.

En 1975, les deux hommes se r茅concilient, dans une atmosph猫re embarrass茅e, 脿 l’occasion d’un passage 脿 une session d’enregistrement avec John Lennon et Harry Nilsson.

Ils tentent de produire de nouvelles chansons ensemble mais n’en concr茅tisent qu’une seule, My Little Town, qui para卯t 脿 la fois sur l’album de Paul Simon Still Crazy After All These Years, et sur celui de Art Garfunkel, Breakaway.

En 1977, Garfunkel vient se joindre 脿 Simon pour une br猫ve repr茅sentation lors d’une 茅mission t茅l茅vis茅e consacr茅e 脿 ce dernier. L’ann茅e suivante, ils enregistrent en compagnie de James Taylor une reprise de Wonderful World.

Les deux hommes passent plus de temps ensemble lorsque Garfunkel revient s’installer 脿 New York en 1978.

En 1981, alors que les carri猫res respectives des deux hommes battent de l’aile, ils sont contact茅s par le producteur de spectacles Ron Delsener qui leur propose de se produire pour un concert gratuit 脿 Central Park.

Le concert se d茅roule le 19 septembre 1981 et attire plus de 500 000 personnes, ce qui constitue pour l’茅poque la plus grande affluence de tous les temps pour un concert. Un enregistrement du concert est r茅alis茅 et donne lieu au premier album live du duo, The Concert in Central Park, qui sort le 16 f茅vrier 1982 et conna卯t un grand succ猫s commercial international.

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L’茅v茅nement renouvelle 茅galement l’int茅r锚t du public pour le duo, et les deux hommes ont plusieurs conversations 脿 c艙ur ouvert afin d鈥檈ssayer de mettre leurs probl猫mes derri猫re eux80. En mai et juin 1982, Simon and Garfunkel font une tourn茅e au Japon et en Europe mais leurs vieilles querelles refont surface85. N茅anmoins, Warner Bros. insiste pour qu’ils repartent en tourn茅e, ce qu’ils font en f茅vrier 1983 en Australie et en Nouvelle-Z茅lande, puis en juillet et ao没t 1983 en Am茅rique du Nord, et pour qu’ils pr茅parent un nouvel album en commun.

Malgr茅 plusieurs sessions d’enregistrement, leurs diff茅rends se r茅v猫lent 锚tre trop nombreux et Simon enregistre 脿 la place un nouvel album solo, Hearts and Bones, la raison officielle 茅tant qu’il trouve les textes qu’il a 茅crits trop personnels pour 锚tre interpr茅t茅s par quelqu’un d’autre.

En 1990, le duo est intronis茅 au Rock and Roll Hall of Fame et les deux hommes interpr猫tent trois chansons ensemble 脿 cette occasion, sans toutefois s’attarder.

Trois ans plus tard, leurs relations s’茅tant am茅lior茅es, ils se r茅unissent 脿 nouveau en octobre 1993 pour une s茅rie de 21 concerts jou茅s 脿 guichets ferm茅s au Paramount Theatre de New York, qui sont suivis par quelques dates en Asie. Cependant, une nouvelle brouille les tient 茅loign茅s pour le reste de la d茅cennie4.

En 2003, ils sont r茅compens茅s aux Grammy Awards pour l’ensemble de leur carri猫re et les organisateurs les persuadent de se r茅concilier pour cette occasion. Les deux hommes interpr猫tent ensemble The Sound of Silence en ouverture de la c茅r茅monie et jugent cette exp茅rience satisfaisante. Ils mettent alors en place une nouvelle tourn茅e, nomm茅e Old Friends Tour, pendant laquelle ils sillonnent les 脡tats-Unis d’octobre 脿 d茅cembre en jouant 40 concerts.

Ils repartent en tourn茅e, pour 20 dates aux 脡tats-Unis et 12 en Europe, en juin et juillet 200488. Cette tourn茅e se termine par un concert gratuit au Colis茅e de Rome qui r茅unit environ 600 000 personnes89. Un double CD-DVD intitul茅 Old Friends: Live on Stage immortalise cette tourn茅e.

Simon and Garfunkel en concert au New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival en 2010.

En 2009, le duo se r茅unit une nouvelle fois pour interpr茅ter trois chansons au Beacon Theatre de New York. Une tourn茅e en Oc茅anie et au Japon est organis茅e dans la foul茅e en juin et juillet90. Cette tourn茅e se passe tr猫s bien et de nouveaux concerts en Am茅rique du Nord sont planifi茅s pour l’茅t茅 2010. Cependant, alors qu’ils se produisent le 24 avril 2010 sur la sc猫ne du New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Garfunkel est atteint de s茅rieux probl猫mes vocaux. Une paralysie des cordes vocales lui est diagnostiqu茅e et la tourn茅e doit 锚tre annul茅e. Garfunkel ne r茅cup猫re totalement sa voix qu’apr猫s un combat de quatre ans et esp猫re une nouvelle r茅union du duo dans le futur91.

Post茅rit茅

Simon and Garfunkel sont consid茅r茅s comme le duo le plus c茅l猫bre de l’histoire de la musique populaire. Leurs chansons ont laiss茅 une impression forte et durable sur la g茅n茅ration du baby boom et ils comptent, aux c么t茅s des Beatles et Bob Dylan, parmi les artistes les plus repr茅sentatifs du mouvement culturel des ann茅es 1960.

En 2004, le magazine Rolling Stone les classe 脿 la 40e place de sa liste des 100 plus grands artistes musicaux de tous les temps, consid茅rant que 芦 l’茅norme impact 禄 qu’ils ont laiss茅 sur la d茅cennie est d没 principalement 脿 l’alliage entre les talents d’auteur-compositeur de Paul Simon, cr茅ateur d’hymnes dans une palette musicale tr猫s vaste, et la voix unique d’Art Garfunkel.

Dans le Dictionnaire du Rock, ils sont d茅crits comme ayant apport茅 au folk militant un 芦 m茅lange in茅gal茅 de raffinement vocal et de tendresse m茅lancolique 禄.

Pour Gilles Verlant et Thomas Causs茅, dans la Discoth猫que parfaite de l’odyss茅e du rock, 芦 la seconde moiti茅 des sixties est marqu茅e de leur empreinte 禄 gr芒ce 脿 leurs 芦 m茅lodies fines, l茅g猫res et reconnaissables entre mille 禄 alors que 芦 le mariage de leurs voix, absolument unique, est au c艙ur de leur magie, tout comme les textes r茅solument po茅tiques et modernes, remplis d’images singuli猫res 禄.

ART GARFUNKEL : SOLO ALBUM : BRIGHT EYES

SOURCES WIKIPEDIA