JOHN WAYNE La l茅gende


John WAYNE: Consid茅r茅 comme l鈥檃m茅ricain patriote et h茅roique,聽

 

JOHN WAYNE

john wayne

john wayne

Marion Mitchell Morrison, dit聽John Wayne, n茅 le聽26mai1907聽脿聽Winterset聽dans l鈥Iowa, aux聽脡tats-Unis, et mort le聽11juin1979聽脿Los Angeles, est un聽acteur,聽r茅alisateur聽et聽producteuram茅ricain.

S鈥檌l a jou茅 dans des聽films policiers, des聽films de guerre聽et quelques聽com茅dies romantiques, c鈥檈st dans ses nombreux聽westernsque John Wayne s鈥檈st r茅ellement impos茅, sous la direction de deux r茅alisateurs particuli猫rement聽:聽John Ford聽(La Chevauch茅e fantastique,聽Le Massacre de Fort Apache,聽La Charge h茅ro茂que,聽Rio Grande,聽La Prisonni猫re du d茅sert聽ou encore聽L鈥橦omme qui tua Liberty Valance) et聽Howard Hawks聽(La Rivi猫re rouge,聽Rio Bravo,聽El Dorado聽ou聽Rio Lobo). Il tourna 茅galement plusieurs films avec聽Henry Hathaway聽dont聽Cent dollars pour un sh茅rif, qui lui valut en 1970 l鈥檜nique聽Oscar聽de sa carri猫re.

En 1960, il passa derri猫re la cam茅ra pour r茅aliser une fresque historique d鈥檈nvergure,聽Alamo, relatant les derniers jours de聽Davy Crockett聽et ses compagnons lors de la聽guerre d鈥檌nd茅pendance du Texas. Huit ans plus tard, il cor茅alisa聽Les B茅rets verts, film engag茅 justifiant l鈥檌ntervention am茅ricaine au聽Vi锚t Nam. Ses deux r茅alisations refl猫tent l鈥檈ngagement personnel de John Wayne, r茅publicain et ardent patriote

Class茅聽13e聽plus grande star de l茅gende聽par l鈥American Film Institute聽en 1999, John Wayne est certainement un des acteurs les plus repr茅sentatifs du聽western, une incarnation 脿 lui seul de l鈥橝m茅rique conqu茅rante. Surnomm茅 芦聽The Duke聽禄 (le Duc), il reste toujours aujourd鈥檋ui, gr芒ce 脿 ses films, le symbole d鈥檜ne certaine virilit茅. Il interpr茅ta ce r么le d鈥檋omme viril, dur, solitaire et un peu machiste tout au long de sa carri猫re, ce qui lui fit d茅clarer聽: 芦聽J鈥檃i jou茅 John Wayne dans tous mes films et 莽a m鈥檃 plut么t pas mal r茅ussi聽禄.

Enfance et scolarit茅

Glendale聽aujourd鈥檋ui, o霉 v茅cut John Wayne de 1916 脿 1924.

N茅 dans une famille modeste et presbyt茅rienne, son p猫re est Clyde Leonard Morrison (1884鈥1937), d鈥檃scendance聽irlandaise聽et聽茅cossaise聽et fils d鈥檜n v茅t茅ran de la聽Guerre de S茅cession, Marion Mitchell Morrison (1845鈥1915). Sa m猫re est Mary Alberta Brown (1885鈥1970), d鈥檕rigine irlandaise. En d茅cembre 1912 naquit son fr猫re Robert. Ses parents chang猫rent alors son identit茅 en Marion Mitchell Morrison (toutefois il a souvent affirm茅 que son vrai nom aurait 茅t茅 Marion Michael Morrison).

John Wayne

John Wayne

Peu apr猫s son p猫re eut des l茅sions aux poumons et fut contraint de 芦聽changer d鈥檃ir聽禄 pour sa sant茅. Il mit en vente sa pharmacie et acheta une maison d茅labr茅e pr猫s du聽d茅sert des Mojaves, 脿 Palmdale, et des terres o霉 il d茅cida de faire pousser du ma茂s. Sa femme et ses enfants vinrent le rejoindre en 1914. 芦聽Je crois que c鈥櫭﹖ait une mis茅rable baraque. Ni gaz, ni 茅lectricit茅, ni eau courante. […] Nous 茅tions absolument coup茅s du monde.聽禄 C鈥檈st pour aider son p猫re qu鈥檌l apprit 脿 se servir d鈥檜n fusil et 脿 monter 脿 cheval. 芦聽Je suis tr猫s 脿 l鈥檃ise en selle, mais je ne suis pas amoureux des chevaux. Ils sont seulement utiles dans une ferme ou pour tourner un film.聽禄

Lass茅e du climat rude et de la pauvret茅 de la famille, Mary Morrison poussa son mari 脿 tout vendre. Ils partirent 脿聽Glendale, faubourg de聽Los Angeles, en 1916, o霉 le p猫re trouva un emploi dans une pharmacie5. Ils d茅m茅nag猫rent r茅guli猫rement, s鈥檌nstallant 脿 chaque fois dans une maison plus petite. Marion devint vite un bon 茅l猫ve, lisant beaucoup 脿 la biblioth猫que municipale. 脌 douze ans, il encha卯na, en parall猫le des cours, des petits boulots 聽: livreur de journaux, livreur, ouvreur du cin茅ma Palace.

Son premier vrai souvenir d鈥檜n film est probablement聽Les Quatre Cavaliers de l鈥橝pocalypse聽avec聽Rudolph Valentino6. Gr芒ce 脿 son job d鈥檕uvreur, il pouvait acc茅der 脿 un tr猫s grand nombre de films, dont des westerns avec聽Harry Carey聽ou des films d鈥檃ventures avec聽Douglas Fairbanks. Il se lia d鈥檃miti茅 avec聽Bob Steele, future star de westerns des ann茅es 1920. C鈥檈st aussi d猫s cette 茅poque que Marion fut surnomm茅 芦聽Big Duke聽禄 en r茅f茅rence 脿 son chien, 芦聽Little Duke聽禄, qu鈥檌l emmenait partout avec lui. Au coll猫ge, il appartenait aux clubs sportifs et culturels, et fit du th茅芒tre, non comme acteur, mais comme accessoiriste. Ses rares performances d鈥檃cteur ne furent pas convaincantes, trop p茅trifi茅 qu鈥檌l 茅tait par le trac

Sportif et accessoiriste

En 1924, l鈥Universit茅 de Californie du Sud聽d茅cida de recruter les meilleurs 茅l茅ments des clubs alentours pour sa propre 茅quipe de football, les聽Trojans, dont Marion Morrison. Pouvant faire ses 茅tudes gratuitement gr芒ce 脿 une bourse sportive, il fut aussi initi茅 脿 une fraternit茅, Sigma Chi8. Il rencontra peu apr猫s la vedette聽Tom Mix, qui assistait 脿 tous les matchs de l鈥櫭﹒uipe. Appr茅ciant la carrure du jeune homme, il lui offrit un r么le dans un film qu鈥檌l devait tourner quelques mois apr猫s.

Entre-temps, lors d鈥檜n weekend 脿 Balboa, il fut victime d鈥檜n accident de bodysurf聽: il se d茅chira un muscle de l鈥櫭﹑aule apr猫s une chute qui le fit entrer en contact avec le fond, tenta vainement quelque temps de continuer le football mais fut 茅vinc茅 de l鈥櫭﹒uipe, avec toutefois un dipl么me de la F茅d茅ration de football. Il n鈥檡 joua plus jamais. L鈥櫭﹖茅 au studio, la star m茅prisa le jeune Morrison, qui fut toutefois engag茅, mais comme accessoiriste.

La rencontre avec聽John Ford聽fut d茅cisive pour la carri猫re de John Wayne, m锚me si c鈥檈st聽Raoul Walshqui lui confia son premier grand r么le
.

Apr猫s une figuration sur le film聽The drop Kick, il fut appel茅 sur le tournage de聽Maman de mon c艙ur, dirig茅 par聽John Ford, r茅alisateur d茅j脿 respect茅 脿聽Hollywood. Celui-ci d茅cida un jour de provoquer gentiment le jeune footballeur Morrison en le faisant se mettre en position, puis en lui faisant mordre la poussi猫re. La pareille que lui rendit aussit么t le jeune homme le fit grimper dans l鈥檈stime du r茅alisateur.

JOHN FORD

JOHN FORD

JOHN WAYNE

john wayne

Il l鈥檈mbaucha d鈥檃illeurs comme acteur sur son film suivant,聽La Maison du bourreau, dans un petit r么le de paysan condamn茅 par un juge.聽John Ford聽le fit d鈥檃bord renvoyer 脿 cause de son comportement (il fut pris d鈥檜n fou rire), puis le rappela et tourna la sc猫ne.

脌 partir de 1928, il d茅cida de ne plus aller 脿 l鈥檜niversit茅. N鈥檃yant plus la bourse accord茅e gr芒ce 脿 l鈥櫭﹒uipe de football, il ne pouvait s鈥檕ffrir les cours. Il retourna 脿 la聽Fox聽et devint accessoiriste pendant trois ann茅es. 芦聽J鈥檃i 茅t茅 menuisier, man艙uvre, 茅lectricien, charpentier, peintre et tapissier. J鈥檃i tout fait, je connais tous les probl猫mes du m茅tier et les trucs pour les r茅soudre.聽禄 Il travailla alors de nouveau avec聽John Ford聽et d鈥檃utres r茅alisateurs, et fit un peu de figuration, notamment dans聽Words and music,聽Rough Romance聽ou聽Cheer up and smile. Dans聽Salute, il se confronta pour une des premi猫res fois 脿 un autre 茅tudiant-footballeur voulant participer au film de Ford,聽Wardell Bond. Dans聽Hommes sans femmes聽il fut engag茅 comme cascadeur, mais pay茅 au tarif d鈥檜n accessoiriste

JW young

JW young

Le faux d茅part

Le cin茅ma parlant avait rendu difficile la r茅alisation de westerns. Le r茅alisateur聽Raoul Walsh聽prouva le contraire en cor茅alisant聽In Old Arizona聽qui fut un gros succ猫s. La聽Fox聽voulut alors lui confier la r茅alisation d鈥檜n grand聽western, au budget d鈥檜n million de dollars. Des acteurs de th茅芒tre furent engag茅s 聽:聽Tyrone Power聽et聽Ian Keith. Pour le r么le principal, le choix s鈥檕rienta vers聽Gary Cooper, mais celui-ci 茅tait indisponible car sous contrat avecSamuel Goldwyn. Walsh remarqua alors par hasard cet accessoiriste qui d茅chargeait un camion, Duke Morrison, puis d茅cida de lui faire faire un bout d鈥檈ssai. Le producteur d茅l茅gu茅 et le r茅alisateur d茅cid猫rent juste apr猫s de lui faire changer de nom. Par admiration pour le g茅n茅ral聽Anthony Wayne, on lui trouva un nom. Et tout b锚tement parce que 芦聽John聽禄 faisait Am茅ricain et simple, on lui donna ce pr茅nom. Ainsi Duke Morrison devint John Wayne, sans m锚me avoir 茅t茅 consult茅.

Le tournage de聽La Piste des g茅ants聽commen莽a 脿聽Yuma. Wayne fut victime d鈥檜ne dysenterie qui l鈥檕bligea 脿 un r茅gime et lui fit perdre trois semaines de tournage. Le film fut tourn茅 en70聽mm, pr猫s de vingt ans avant le聽CinemaScope. La premi猫re mondiale eut lieu le 24 octobre 1930 dans un grand cin茅ma de聽Hollywood聽et la soci茅t茅 de production fit faire 脿 sa nouvelle vedette une promotion mensong猫re, lui inventant une nouvelle biographie.

Le film fut un 茅chec notoire et la cons茅quence pour John Wayne fut de redevenir un acteur inconnu, sous contrat, 脿聽75聽dollars聽la semaine. De plus, il se f芒cha quelque temps avec聽John Ford

Les ann茅es 1930聽: entre 茅checs et nouveau d茅part

Un acteur de s茅ries B

Duke fut engag茅 en 1930 pour tourner聽Girls demand excitement, une com茅die musicale dirig茅e par un chor茅graphe de聽New York聽parfaitement inexp茅riment茅, avec聽Virginia Cherrill. Puis avec聽Loretta Young, ce fut聽Three girls lost. Pr茅sent茅 le聽1er聽mai 1931, le film fut r茅sum茅 par un critique par聽: 芦聽Tout cela est assez idiot聽!聽禄 La聽Fox聽ne renouvela pas le contrat de John Wayne, qui fut embauch茅 par聽Harry Cohn, grand patron de la聽Columbia, qui lui fit tourner un autre film sans int茅r锚t,聽Men are like that. Ces films permirent toutefois 脿 Wayne de se faire un public. Mais une brouille avec Cohn lui fit perdre son statut de vedette, et il devint un second r么le, au profit de聽Tim McCoy聽notamment. Il n鈥檕ublia jamais cette offense et, devenu une grande vedette, refusa toujours de tourner pour la聽Columbia.

La mode 茅tait aux films d鈥檃viation. John Wayne, qui venait de prendre un agent, Al Kingston, tourna聽L鈥檕mbre d鈥檜n aigle. C鈥檈st sur ce tournage qu鈥檌l rencontra聽Yakima Canutt, qui allait devenir l鈥檜n des cascadeurs les plus connus du cin茅ma am茅ricain. Il encha卯na avec聽Hurricane express聽o霉 il interpr茅tait un aviateur d茅cid茅 脿 venger son p猫re, tu茅 dans un accident de chemin de fer. Le 24 juin 1933, il se maria enfin 脿 celle qu鈥檌l aimait depuis des ann茅es, Josie (Josephine Saenz).

cette derni猫re lui permit d鈥檕btenir un petit r么le, celui d鈥檜n boxeur, dans聽La Vie de Jimmy Dolan聽avec聽Douglas Fairbanks. Al Kingston arrangea ensuite un entretien avec聽Trem Carr聽et聽Leo Ostrow聽qui venaient de fonder la soci茅t茅Monogram Pictures聽et Duke se vit offrir un contrat de huit westerns par an, pay茅s 2500 $. Il tourna la m锚me ann茅e聽Les Cavaliers du destin聽o霉 il fut un cow-boy chantant. Exasp茅r茅 par cette exp茅rience humiliante, il d茅clara plus tard que sa chansonnette en play-back lui donnait l鈥檌mpression 芦聽d鈥櫭猼re une foutue p茅dale.聽禄 Pourtant cette 茅poque laissa 脿 Wayne de bons souvenirs, il d茅clara plus tard 聽: 芦聽D鈥檃vril 脿 septembre on travaillait comme des dingues pour fournir de la pellicule aux petites salles qui achetaient la production en bloc et d鈥檃vance. Puis, 脿 la fin de l鈥櫭﹖茅, je filais chasser la palombe. Ensuite c鈥櫭﹖ait la saison des oies sauvages et des canards. […] Oui c鈥櫭﹖ait le bon temps

LORETTA YOUNG

LORETTA YOUNG

De nouvelles exp茅riences navrantes

Mari茅 et 脿 pr茅sent p猫re, John Wayne refusa un nouveau contrat de聽24聽000聽$聽propos茅 par聽Herbert J. Yates聽pour聽Monogram Pictures, las de vivre loin de sa famille et de ses enfants. Il s鈥檈ssaya sans succ猫s 脿 la gestion d鈥檜ne agence immobili猫re. Puis, sous le nom de Duke Morrison, devint boxeur et fit quelques combats dans le聽Nevada19. Encore une fois, sans grand succ猫s. R茅solu 脿 revenir au cin茅ma, il tenta de se faire remarquer par聽Cecil B. DeMille,

cecil_b_de_mille

cecil_b_de_mille

en vain. Son ami聽Paul Fix聽lui proposa alors une pi猫ce de th茅芒tre,聽Red Sky At Evening, avecSally Blane. D鈥檃bord enthousiasm茅, il d茅chanta assez vite, se rappelant ses exp茅riences navrantes de jeunesse. La seule et unique repr茅sentation fut un d茅sastre 聽: ayant vid茅 une bouteille de whisky pour se donner du courage, Wayne entra sur sc猫ne ivre, oubliant ses r茅pliques et demandant聽: 芦聽O霉 suis-je?聽禄

Il reprit alors le chemin des studios et tourna pour聽Universal聽quelques films o霉 il abandonnait son personnage de cow-boy. Entre 1936 et 1937, il tourna ainsi聽Les Pirates de la mer,聽Conflic聽o霉 il joua un boxeur,聽I Cover de war聽dans le r么le d鈥檜n reporter, et聽L鈥檌dole de la foule. Produits 脿 co没ts r茅duits, ces films furent des 茅checs cuisants. Son public fid猫le ne voulait de John Wayne qu鈥檌l ne f没t qu鈥檜n cow-boy, sachant se battre et manier son pistolet. Il revint alors vers聽Herbert J. Yates聽et tourna d鈥檃utres films m茅diocres, dont certains ne sortirent qu鈥檜ne fois John Wayne devenu une star.

芦聽Sauv茅聽禄 par John Ford

脌 l鈥櫭﹖茅 1937,聽John Ford聽invita Wayne 脿 bord de son bateau, l鈥Araner, et lui donna 脿 lire un sc茅nario de聽Dudley Nichols,聽La Chevauch茅e fantastique, pour avoir son avis quant 脿 l鈥檃cteur qui pourrait endosser le premier r么le. Vex茅, il proposa n茅anmoins聽Lloyd Nolan. Ce n鈥檈st que le lendemain que Ford lui demanda聽: 芦聽Idiot, tu penses que tu ne pourrais pas le jouer le r么le聽?聽禄 Mais les producteurs envisageaient plut么t des vedettes confirm茅es 聽:聽Gary Cooper聽et聽Marl猫ne Dietrich.

Le r茅alisateur r茅ussit finalement 脿 imposer Wayne et聽Claire Trevor, ainsi que d鈥檃utres acteurs exp茅riment茅s, tels que聽Thomas Mitchell聽ou聽George Bancroft.

Le film fut tourn茅 d鈥檕ctobre 脿 d茅cembre 1938, avec un budget modeste. Quelques sc猫nes furent film茅es 脿聽Monument Valley, le reste en聽Californie.聽Yakima Canutt聽doubla John Wayne, notamment lors de la grande attaque de la diligence. Ce dernier fut tout au long du tournage tyrannis茅 par le r茅alisateur, Ford le reprenant sans cesse sur sa fa莽on de marcher, de jouer, de parler. 芦聽Je l鈥檃urais tu茅. Il me mettait en rage. Mais Ford savait ce qu鈥檌l faisait. Il savait que j鈥檃vais honte d鈥櫭猼re un cow-boy de westerns de s茅ries B et de me retrouver l脿, en compagnie de ces grandes vedettes.聽禄聽Ford offrit 脿 son acteur vedette l鈥檜ne des 芦聽plus belles entr茅es de star de l鈥檋istoire du cin茅ma聽禄, avec son fameux mouvement de cam茅ra laissant appara卯tre Ringo Kid, une selle dans une main, un fusil dans l鈥檃utre.

GARY COOPER

GARY COOPER

La Chevauch茅e fantastique聽fut un succ猫s public聽et re莽ut sept nominations aux聽Oscar du cin茅ma. Les cons茅quences furent nombreuses 聽: le聽western聽comme genre de cin茅ma fut r茅habilit茅 (le critique Frank S. Nugent 茅crivit 聽: 芦聽Dans un grand geste superbe, John Ford a balay茅 dix ans d鈥檃rtifice et de compromis et a r茅alis茅 un film qui fait chanter la cam茅ra聽禄) et John Wayne sortit enfin de l鈥檌mpasse dans laquelle il se trouvait depuis le d茅but des ann茅es 1930.

1940-1951聽: L鈥檃ffirmation d鈥檜n h茅ros de cin茅ma am茅ricain

Des retrouvailles professionnelles

聽John Wayne dans聽Les Naufrageurs des mers du sud, de聽Cecil B. DeMille, en 1942.

Le succ猫s international de聽La Chevauch茅e fantastique聽fit de John Wayne une star, aupr猫s du public et des r茅alisateurs. Son salaire fut multipli茅 par trois, puis par onze en 1946, et il devint alors un des acteurs les plus chers avec聽Gary Cooper聽ou聽Clark Gable. Il retrouva le r茅alisateur聽Raoul Walsh聽en 1940 pour un western sur fond de guerre civile,聽L鈥橢scadron noir, avec聽Claire Trevor. La m锚me ann茅e, il fut engag茅 pour incarner un Am茅ricain accueillant des r茅fugi茅s allemands fuyant le r茅gime nazi dans聽Les D茅racin茅s, et retrouva聽John Ford聽pour聽Les Hommes de la mer. Tourn茅 rapidement et pour un co没t relativement modeste, le film ne fut pas un succ猫s public. De plus, Wayne n鈥櫭﹖ait toujours pas pris au s茅rieux par le r茅alisateur qui ne le pensait pas capable de jouer des r么les plus complexes. Il tourna un dernier film cette ann茅e 1940,聽La Maison des sept p茅ch茅s, premi猫re collaboration avec聽Marl猫ne Dietrich, avec qui il s鈥檈ntendit 脿 merveille33.

PAULETTE GODARD

Il fut contact茅 par le r茅alisateur聽Cecil B. DeMille. Wayne, qui n鈥檃vait pas oubli茅 sa premi猫re rencontre infructueuse avec lui, refusa de jouer dans son film, en lui adressant une longue notice visant 脿 modifier le sc茅nario. DeMille le rappela, John Wayne se fit prier et, apr猫s plusieurs discussions, DeMille obtint que John Wayne tourn芒t dans聽Les Naufrageurs des mers du sud, en compagnie de聽Ray Milland聽et聽Paulette Goddard,

PAULETTE GODARD

PAULETTE GODARD

l鈥檋istoire d鈥檜n pilleur d鈥櫭﹑aves dans les Cara茂bes. Le tournage fut agr茅able, l鈥檈ntente parfaite, ce qui fit d茅clarer 脿 Wayne 聽: 芦聽Apr猫s avoir tourn茅 avec lui, j鈥檃i pu garder la t锚te haute, en d茅pit des films d茅gueulasses que je devais faire pour Republic.聽禄 L鈥檃nn茅e 1942 vit 茅galement聽Lady for a Night, de聽Leigh Jason聽avec聽Joan Blondell聽pour partenaire.

Apr猫s l鈥檈ntr茅e en guerre des聽脡tats-Unis, John Wayne voulut s鈥檈ngager pour partir combattre en Europe. Mais, mari茅 et p猫re de quatre enfants, sa demande fut rejet茅e 脿 plusieurs reprises. Sa participation se r茅duisit alors 脿 des visites dans des camps. Il d茅clara plus tard 聽: 芦聽J鈥檃i toujours eu honte de ne pas avoir combattu. Lorsque j鈥檌nterpr猫te un officier 脿 la t锚te de son commando, j鈥檃i une pi猫tre opinion de moi-m锚me.聽禄

Patriote et soldat au cin茅ma

JULES DASSIN (qui est aussi le p猫re de Joe Dassin )

Il retrouva聽Marl猫ne Dietrich聽en 1942 dans une nouvelle adaptation du roman de聽Rex Beach,聽Les 脡cumeurs,聽avec un jeune premier,聽Randolph Scott, puis dans聽La Fi猫vre de l鈥檕r noir, qui connut un accueil chaleureux de la part du public. Wayne incarna 茅galement un pilote de l鈥檃rm茅e am茅ricaine combattant les Japonais dans聽Les Tigres volants, film de propagande r茅alis茅 par聽David Miller.聽Sacramento, un nouveau western, fut choisi par John Wayne car il devait incarner un pharmacien, une mani猫re de rendre hommage 脿 son p猫re d茅c茅d茅 en 1938.

Les ann茅es suivantes, John Wayne tourna une s茅rie de films de guerre 聽:聽Quelque part en France聽de聽Jules Dassin

JULES DASSIN (qui est aussi le p猫re de Joe Dassin )

JULES DASSIN (qui est aussi le p猫re de Joe Dassin )

o霉 il incarna un pilote r茅fugi茅 en Normandie, puis聽Alerte aux marines. Aux c么t茅s d鈥櫬Anthony Quinn, il incarna un colonel am茅ricain luttant avec les r茅sistants philippins dans聽Retour aux Philippines. R茅publicain et patriote, Wayne critiqua par la suite le travail du r茅alisateur聽Edward Dmytryk, qui fut li茅 au parti communiste et figura sur la liste des聽Dix d鈥橦ollywood, ainsi que le sc茅nario. Il retrouva ensuite聽John Ford聽pour聽Les Sacrifi茅s聽– qui se d茅roule pendant la聽guerre du Pacifique聽– aux c么t茅s d鈥檜n jeune acteur,聽Robert Montgomery. Le film rapporta de l鈥檃rgent et se classa parmi les vingt plus gros succ猫s de l鈥檃nn茅e.

Entre temps, John Wayne revint au western dans聽L鈥橝mazone aux yeux verts, revenant sur sa d茅claration de ne plus jamais en tourner. Sc茅naris茅 et interpr茅t茅 par son ami聽Paul Fix, le film imposa durablement l鈥檌mage virile, nonchalante et misogyne de son personnage.

En revanche,聽King Vidor聽ne peut le diriger avec聽Hedy Lamarr聽dans聽Duel au soleil聽(1946), western lyrique et exacerb茅 finalement interpr茅t茅 par聽Gregory Peck聽et聽Jennifer Jones聽et devenu un classique. Il encha卯na par la suite quelques films pass茅s inaper莽us,聽La Femme du pionnier,聽Sans r茅serve聽avec聽Claudette Colbert聽et聽L鈥橝nge et le mauvais gar莽on. Pour faire 芦聽rentrer l鈥檃rgent聽禄, il tourna 茅galement聽Ta茂koun, de nouveau avec聽Anthony Quinn. En 1948, John Wayne, devenu une vedette importante, faisait partie des acteurs pr茅f茅r茅s du public am茅ricain, avec聽Clark Gable,聽Gary Cooper聽et聽Humphrey Bogart.

Hawks, la Cavalerie et le Pacifique

En 1947,聽John Ford聽tourna le premier volet d鈥檜ne trilogie consacr茅e 脿 la cavalerie am茅ricaine,聽Le Massacre de Fort Apache聽avec pour vedettesHenry Fonda聽et John Wayne dans un r么le d鈥檕fficier 芦聽humain et pacifiste聽禄. Tourn茅 脿聽Monument Valley聽pour un budget modeste, le film r茅unit 茅galement聽Ward Bond聽et聽Victor McLaglen. John Wayne, habitu茅 aux humeurs du r茅alisateur, fut un soutien psychologique pr茅cieux pour le jeune聽John Agar, martyris茅 par Ford48. L鈥檃ccueil public fut chaleureux. Il enchaina avec un r么le de nouveau refus茅 par聽Gary Cooper, celui de Tom Dunson dans聽La Rivi猫re rouge聽de聽Howard Hawks聽qui signait l脿 son premier western. Dans un r么le de cow-boy dur et brutal, Wayne eut pour partenaire聽Montgomery Clift聽avec qui il ne s鈥檈ntendit pas imm茅diatement. Ce film tourn茅 en ext茅rieurs fut 茅galement un grand succ猫s, rapportant plus de dix millions de dollars. Et s鈥檌l ne fut pas r茅compens茅, John Wayne impressionna聽John Ford聽qui d茅clara par la suite 脿Hawks聽: 芦聽Je ne savais pas que ce grand fils de pute pouvait jouer聽禄.

OLIVER HARDY

En 1948, il engagea 脿 nouveau John Wayne pour聽Le fils du d茅sert, film en technicolor avec聽Harry Carey Jr., tourn茅 dans la聽vall茅e de la Mort. Wayne tourna ensuite deux films,聽Le R茅veil de la sorci猫re rouge聽avec聽Gail Russell聽et聽Le Bagarreur du Kentucky聽avec聽Oliver Hardy,

Oliver Hardy

Oliver Hardy

western sans moyens. Deuxi猫me 茅pisode de la trilogie de la cavalerie de聽Ford,聽La Charge h茅ro茂que聽fut tourn茅 en 1949 脿聽Monument Valley聽et remporta un grand succ猫s. L鈥檃nn茅e suivante,聽Rio Grande, suite du聽Massacre de Fort Apache, le mit en sc猫ne aux c么t茅s de聽Maureen O鈥橦araqui devint une partenaire fid猫le en m锚me temps qu鈥檜ne grande amie.

John Wayne enfila de nouveau l鈥檜niforme de l鈥檃rm茅e am茅ricaine dans trois films聽:聽Iwo Jima聽de聽Allan Dwan, pour lequel il fut nomm茅 aux Oscars56,聽Op茅ration dans le Pacifique聽puis聽Les Diables de Guadalcanal聽de聽Nicholas Ray聽(qui d茅savoua le film par la suite, au m锚me titre que Wayne qui le consid茅rait comme une 艙uvre mineure), cl么turant ainsi sa s茅rie de films en hommage aux combattants de la guerre du Pacifique.

1952-1959聽: Une incarnation de l鈥橝m茅rique 脿 l鈥櫭ヽran, un h茅ros aux multiples visages

En 1952, John Wayne tourna 脿 nouveau avec聽Maureen O鈥橦ara聽et聽John Ford. Si Ford ne peut engager le couple d鈥檃cteurs pour son adaptation de聽What Price Glory聽(qu鈥檌ls ont jou茅 sous sa direction sur sc猫ne), ils se consolent largement avec聽L鈥橦omme tranquille, tourn茅 en聽Irlande聽(terre des anc锚tres du r茅alisateur), pour un cachet d茅risoire. Le film, qui racontait le retour d鈥檜n boxeur am茅ricain dans son pays d鈥檕rigine, fut un gros succ猫s commercial dans le monde entier聽et remporta l鈥橭scar du Meilleur Film.聽Big Jim McLain, r茅alis茅 la m锚me ann茅e parEdward Ludwig聽le mettait dans la peau d鈥檜n enqu锚teur de la Commission sur les activit茅s anti-am茅ricaines au service du s茅nateur聽McCarthy.聽L鈥橦omme de bonne volont茅, r茅alis茅 en 1953 par聽Michael Curtiz聽ne remporta pas le succ猫s esp茅r茅 et orienta de nouveau John Wayne vers des films h茅ro茂ques. Sous la direction de聽William Wellman, il tourna聽Aventure dans le Grand Nord, qu鈥檌l coproduisit, et refusa un r么le principal dans聽G茅ant聽(qui fut interpr茅t茅 par聽Rock Hudson). 脡galement coproducteur de聽Hondo, l鈥檋omme du d茅sert, il fut oblig茅 de reprendre le r么le titre, la star du film聽Glenn Ford聽茅tant en d茅saccord avec le r茅alisateur, puis retrouva l鈥櫭﹒uipe de聽Aventure dans le Grand Nord聽pour un nouveau film catastrophe,聽脡crit dans le ciel. Le film fut un grand succ猫s public, nomm茅 aux聽Oscars聽(seule la musique de聽Dimitri Tiomkin聽re莽ut la r茅compense). Sa collaboration avec聽Lana Turner聽pour聽Le Renard des oc茅ans聽fut houleuse, mais il s鈥檈ntendit 脿 merveille avec聽Lauren Bacall聽sur le tournage de聽L鈥橝ll茅e sanglante, qui fut un succ猫s imm茅diat.

La Prisonni猫re du d茅sert聽a 茅t茅 d茅sign茅 plus grand western de tous les temps par l鈥American Film Institute.

Le tournage du聽Conqu茅rant聽en 1956 fut 茅prouvant65. Produit par聽Howard Hughes聽et r茅alis茅 par聽Dick Powell, il mettait en sc猫ne John Wayne dans le r么le 鈥 du chef asiatique聽Gengis Khan, avec聽Susan Hayward聽pour partenaire.

Tourn茅 pr猫s d鈥檜n site d鈥檈ssais nucl茅aires, il fut probablement 脿 l鈥檕rigine du cancer de l鈥檃cteur (et d鈥檜ne grande partie de l鈥櫭﹒uipe du film). En outre, il fut un lourd 茅chec au box-office. La m锚me ann茅e, Wayne tourna un nouveau western sous la direction de聽John Ford,聽La Prisonni猫re du d茅sert. Tourn茅 sur deux saisons (l鈥檋iver et l鈥櫭﹖茅), 脿聽Monument Valley聽notamment, le film permit 脿 John Wayne de cr茅er un personnage sombre et violent. Le film fut un 茅norme succ猫s 脿 sa sortie et plusieurs critiques lou猫rent le travail du r茅alisateur. En outre, il est aujourd鈥檋ui consid茅r茅 par l鈥American Film Institute聽comme le plus grand western de tous les temps.

En 1957, de nouveau avec聽Ford, il tourna聽L鈥檃igle vole au soleil, un film de guerre adapt茅 de la biographie du h茅ros Frank Wead, avant d鈥檈nchainer avec un film d鈥檈spionnage,聽Les espions s鈥檃musent. Mise en sc猫ne par聽Joseph von Sternberg, avec l鈥檃ctrice聽Janet Leigh, cette com茅die d鈥檈spionnage 茅tait consid茅r茅e par John Wayne comme son plus mauvais film. L鈥檃nn茅e suivante, il forma un couple 脿 l鈥櫭ヽran avec聽Sophia Loren聽dans聽La Cit茅 disparue, tourn茅 en partie en聽Italie聽par聽Henry Hathaway, puis entama le tournage du聽Barbare et la Geisha, sous la direction de聽John Huston. Les relations furent souvent tendues entre les deux hommes, et le film fut un 茅chec. Wayne fut engag茅 de nouveau par聽Howard Hawks聽pour jouer dans聽Rio Bravo, aux c么t茅s de聽Dean Martin聽et聽Rick Nelson. Construit comme l鈥檕pposition sc茅naristique du聽Train sifflera trois fois, le film fut un gros succ猫s populaire et critique. Son nouveau projet avec聽John Ford聽et聽William Holden,聽Les Cavaliers, fut difficile聽: le sc茅nario 茅tait complexe, le r茅alisateur vieillissait, des tensions intervinrent entre les soci茅t茅s de production et un cascadeur se tua sur le tournage.

susan hayward

susan hayward

1960-1976聽: La fin du g茅ant

John Wayne r茅alise en 1960聽Alamo, qui fut une tr猫s belle fresque historique. N茅anmoins le sc茅nariste de ce film se permit quelques libert茅s par rapport aux causes et au d茅roulement de la bataille. En r茅alisant ce film, John Wayne souhaitait montrer l鈥檃bn茅gation des hommes 脿 d茅fendre une cause qui leur semble juste, telle la r茅publique ou la libert茅. L鈥檃cteur reste fid猫le 脿 ce genre et retrouve 脿 plusieurs reprises聽Henry Hathaway聽(1960聽:聽Le Grand Sam聽avec聽Stewart Granger, 1965聽:聽Les Quatre Fils de Katie Elder聽avec聽Dean Martin, 1969聽:聽Cent dollars pour un sh茅rif),聽Howard Hawks聽(1966聽:聽El Dorado聽avec聽Robert Mitchum, 1970聽:聽Rio Lobo聽avec聽Jennifer O鈥橬eill), et bien s没r Ford pour聽L鈥橦omme qui tua Liberty Valance聽(1962) face 脿James Stewart, plus tard tournant beaucoup avec聽Andrew V. McLaglen聽(1963聽:聽Le Grand McLintock聽qui r茅unit Wayne avec聽Maureen O鈥橦ara聽et聽Yvonne De Carlo, 1969聽:聽Les G茅ants de l鈥橭uest聽face 脿聽Rock Hudson, 1970聽:聽Chisum, 1973聽:聽Les Cordes de la potence).

La star continue de privil茅gier le film d鈥檃venture 聽: exotique (en 1962聽Hatari聽!聽de Hawks), de guerre (en 1962聽Le Jour le plus long, en 1965聽Premi猫re Victoire聽d鈥Otto Preminger聽avec聽Kirk Douglas, en 1966聽L鈥橭mbre d鈥檜n g茅ant聽avec聽Yul Brynner聽et聽Frank Sinatra). Il participe aux superproductions聽Le Plus Grand Cirque du monde聽d鈥橦athaway (1964) avec聽Rita Hayworth

Rita Hayworth

Rita Hayworth

etClaudia Cardinale聽et聽La Plus Grande Histoire jamais cont茅e聽de聽George Stevens聽(1965) o霉 il incarne le centurion de la Crucifixion. Finalement il ne se d茅tend vraiment 脿 l鈥櫭ヽran que chez Ford, dans聽La Taverne de l鈥橧rlandais聽(1963).

Lui-m锚me revient 脿 la mise en sc猫ne en 1968 pour le tr猫s pol茅mique聽Les B茅rets verts. L鈥檈ssentiel est ailleurs聽: min茅 par la maladie mais toujours tr猫s actif, ce grand s茅ducteur de l鈥櫭ヽran s鈥檕ffre un dernier tour avec sa partenaire favorite,聽Maureen O鈥橦ara, dans聽Big Jake聽en 1971 (que Wayne cor茅alise), et un duel avec une autre g茅ante,聽Katharine Hepburn, dans le western humoristique聽Une bible et un fusil聽(1975). Sur le tard, il tourne deux policiers聽:聽Un silencieux au bout du canon聽de聽John Sturges聽(1974) et聽Brannigan聽(1975). L鈥檃nn茅e de sa mort, sa carri猫re se cl么t sur un western au titre mythique聽:聽Le Dernier des g茅ants, dirig茅 par聽Don Siegel, o霉 John retrouve聽James Stewart聽et聽Lauren Bacall. Une 茅poque dispara卯t.

En 1964, on diagnostique chez Wayne un聽cancer du poumon. Des rumeurs affirment que le responsable de ce cancer 茅tait le site nucl茅aire de Yucca Flat, proche du plateau de cin茅ma lors du tournage du film聽Le Conqu茅rant. Patriote, John Wayne pensait que les six paquets de cigarettes qu鈥檌l fumait par jour en 茅taient la cause.

聽John Wayne dans聽Rio Bravo

Toujours pr茅sent 脿 l鈥櫭ヽran dans des premiers r么les malgr茅 la maladie jusqu鈥檈n 1976, il d茅c猫de finalement d鈥檜n cancer de l鈥檈stomac le聽11juin1979.聽D鈥檃pr猫s son fils Patrick, il se convertit au聽catholicisme聽peu avant sa mort . Il est enterr茅 au cimeti猫re de Pacific View 脿 Corona del Mar.

Engagement politique

John Wayne 茅tait connu pour ses opinions patriotiques, anti-communistes et conservatrices. Star du聽parti r茅publicain, il s鈥檌mpliqua dans la cr茅ation de la Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, une association am茅ricaine de cin茅ma conservatrice. S鈥檌l n鈥檃 pas 茅t茅 incorpor茅 pendant la聽Seconde Guerre mondiale聽pour des raisons familiales, il a toujours soutenu l鈥檈ffort de guerre am茅ricain 聽: il incarnera toutes les cat茅gories de soldats am茅ricains et cosigne, en聽1968, avec聽Les B茅rets verts聽le seul film am茅ricain ouvertement pro-guerre du Vietnam.

En聽1964, il soutient encore la candidature de聽Barry Goldwater聽脿 la pr茅sidence des 脡tats-Unis et, en聽1968, est approch茅 pour 锚tre lui-m锚me le candidat du parti r茅publicain. Il d茅clina la proposition au pr茅texte qu鈥檌l ne pensait pas que le public pourrait envoyer un acteur 脿 la聽Maison-Blanche. Il fut m锚me approch茅 pour 锚tre le colistier du candidat聽dixiecratGeorge Wallace. Il ne donna pas suite. John Wayne fut cependant un ardent soutien de son ami, l鈥檃cteur聽Ronald Reagan, lors de ses candidatures au poste de gouverneur de聽Californie聽en聽1966聽et聽1970.

Famille

Il est le p猫re de聽Michael Wayne聽(19342003), acteur et producteur, et de聽Patrick Wayne聽(n茅 en聽1939), acteur.

D茅coration

Le Congr猫s am茅ricain lui d茅cerne le 26 mai 1979 la聽M茅daille d鈥檕r du Congr猫s聽(plus haute distinction civile qui puisse 锚tre accord茅e 脿 un citoyen). 脡v茅nement exceptionnel car cette d茅coration ne fut d茅cern茅e que deux fois 脿 des acteurs du cin茅ma, John Wayne et Francis Albert Sinatra, dit聽Frank Sinatra, le 14 mai 1997.

John Wayne the legend

John Wayne the legend

 

Vous pouvez lire aussi 聽 / You can real also : 聽Angie Dickinson (Rio Bravo)

Remember Aunt Clara ?? Bewitched?


Marion Lorne (August 12, 1883 鈥 May 9, 1968) was an American actress of stage, film, and television. After a career in theatre in New York and London, Lorne made her first film in 1951, and for the remainder of her life, played small roles in films and television.

Her recurring role, between 1964 and her death in 1968, as Aunt Clara in the comedy series, Bewitched (1964鈥1972) brought her widespread recognition, and for which she was posthumously awarded an Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series. 聽

She was born Marion Lorne MacDougall in West Pittston, Pennsylvania, a small mining town halfway between Wilkes-Barre and Scranton, of Scottish and English immigrant parents. 聽While her year of birth is listed as 1885 on her tombstone, it was usually listed as 1888 when she was alive and the Social Security Death Index lists it as 1883. She studied at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City.

Career Lorne debuted on Broadway in 1905; she also acted in London theaters, enjoying a flourishing stage career on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

In London she had her own theater, the Whitehall, where she had top billing in plays written by Walter Hackett, her husband. None of her productions at the Whitehall had runs shorter than 125 nights.

After appearing in a couple of Vitaphone shorts, including Success (1931) starring Jack Haley, she made her feature film debut in her late 60s in Strangers on a Train (1951), directed by Alfred Hitchcock.

The role was typical of the befuddled, nervous, and somewhat aristocratic matrons that she usually portrayed.

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From 1952-55, Lorne was seen as perpetually confused junior high school English teacher Mrs. Gurney on Mr. Peepers. From 1957鈥58, she co-starred with Joan Caulfield in the NBC sitcom Sally in the role of an elderly widow who happens to be the co-owner of a department store. Although afraid of live television, declaring “I’m a coward when it comes to a live [television] show”, 聽she was persuaded to appear a few times to promote the film The Girl Rush with Rosalind Russell in the mid-1950s.

Between 1958鈥64, she made regular appearances on The Garry Moore Show (1958鈥64). Her last role, as Aunt Clara in Bewitched, brought Lorne her widest fame as a lovable, forgetful witch who is losing her powers due to old age and whose spells usually end in disaster. Aunt Clara is obsessed with doorknobs, often bringing her collection with her on visits.

Lorne had an extensive collection of doorknobs in real life, some of which she used as props in the series.[8] Death She appeared in twenty-seven episodes of Bewitched, and was not replaced after she died of a heart attack in her Manhattan apartment, just prior to the start of production of the show’s fifth season, at the age of 84 on May 9, 1968. Lorne is buried at Ferncliff Cemetery in Greenburgh, New York.

Posthumous The producers of Bewitched recognized that Lorne’s performance as Aunt Clara could not be replicated by another actress. 聽Comedic actress Alice Ghostley was recruited to fill the gap as “Esmeralda”, a different type of befuddled witch with wobbly magic whose spells often went astray.

Coincidentally, Lorne and Ghostley had appeared side-by-side as partygoers in the iconic comedy-drama film The Graduate , made the year before Lorne’s death. 聽She received a posthumous Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series for her work on Bewitched. The statue was accepted by Bewitched star Elizabeth Montgomery. Personal life She was married to playwright Walter Hackett, who died in 1944. WIKIPEDIA 聽SOURCES聽 Personal life She was married to playwright Walter Hackett, who died in 1944.

Shirley MacLaine


Shirley MacLaine (born Shirley MacLean Beaty; April 24, 1934) 聽is an American film, television and theater actress, singer, dancer, activist and author.

 

An Academy Award winner, MacLaine received the 40th AFI Life Achievement Award from the American Film Institute in 2012, and received the Kennedy Center Honors for her lifetime contributions to American culture through the performing arts in 2013. She is known for her New Age beliefs, and has an interest in spirituality and reincarnation. She has written a series of autobiographical works that describe these beliefs, document her world travels, and describe her Hollywood career.

Shirley Mac Laine

Shirley Mac Laine

 

A six-time Academy Award nominee, MacLaine received a nomination for Best Documentary Feature for The Other Half of the Sky: A China Memoir (1975), and Best Actress nominations for Some Came Running (1958), The Apartment (1960), Irma la Douce (1963), and The Turning Point (1977), before winning Best Actress for Terms of Endearment (1983). She twice won the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress, for Ask Any Girl (1959), and The Apartment (1960).

MacLaine won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy-Variety or Music Special for the 1976 TV special, Gypsy In My Soul. She has also won five competitive Golden Globe Awards and received the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award at the 1998 ceremony.

 

Named after Shirley Temple (who was 6 years old at the time), Shirley MacLean Beaty was born in Richmond, Virginia. Her father, Ira Owens Beaty, was a professor of psychology, public school administrator, and real estate agent, and her mother, Kathlyn Corinne (n茅e MacLean), was a drama teacher, originally from Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada. MacLaine’s younger brother is the actor, writer and director Warren Beatty; he changed the spelling of his surname when he became an actor.

Their parents raised them as Baptists. Her uncle (her mother’s brother-in-law) was A. A. MacLeod, a Communist member of the Ontario legislature in the 1940s.

Shirley Mac Laine2

Shirley Mac Laine2

While MacLaine was still a child, Ira Beaty moved his family from Richmond to Norfolk, and then to Arlington and Waverly, eventually taking a position at Arlington’s Thomas Jefferson Junior High School. MacLaine played baseball in an all-boys team, holding the record for most home runs which earned her the nickname “Powerhouse”. During the 1950s, the family resided in the Dominion Hills section of Arlington.

As a toddler she had weak ankles and would fall over with the slightest misstep, so her mother decided to enroll her in ballet class at the Washington School of Ballet at the age of three.

 

This was the beginning of her interest in performing. Strongly motivated by ballet, she never missed a class. In classical romantic pieces like Romeo and Juliet and The Sleeping Beauty, she always played the boys’ roles due to being the tallest in the group and the absence of males in the class.

Eventually she had a substantial female role as the fairy godmother in Cinderella; while warming up backstage, she broke her ankle, but then tightened the ribbons on her toe shoes and proceeded to dance the role all the way through before calling for an ambulance.

Ultimately she decided against making a career of professional ballet because she had grown too tall and was unable to acquire perfect technique.

She explained that she didn’t have the ideal body type, lacking the requisite “beautifully constructed feet” of high arches, high insteps and a flexible ankle.

Also slowly realizing ballet’s propensity to be too all-consuming, and ultimately limiting, she moved on to other forms of dancing, acting and musical theater.

MacLaine made her film debut in Alfred Hitchcock’s The Trouble with Harry (1955), for which she won the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year 鈥 Actress. This was quickly followed by her role in the Martin and Lewis film Artists and Models (also 1955).

Soon afterwards, she had a role in Around the World in 80 Days (1956). This was followed by Hot Spell and a leading role in Some Came Running (both 1958); for the latter film she gained her first Academy Award nomination and a Golden Globe nomination.

Her second Oscar nomination came two years later for The Apartment (1960), starring with Jack Lemmon.

The film won five Oscars, including Best Director for Billy Wilder. She later said, “I thought I would win for The Apartment, but then Elizabeth Taylor had a tracheotomy.” She starred in The Children’s Hour (1961) also starring Audrey Hepburn and James Garner, based on the play by Lillian Hellman and directed by William Wyler.

She was again nominated, this time for Irma la Douce (1963), which reunited her with Wilder and Lemmon. Don Siegel, her director on Two Mules for Sister Sara (1970) said of her: “It’s hard to feel any great warmth to her. She’s too unfeminine and has too much balls. She’s very, very hard.”

At the peak of her success, she replaced Marilyn Monroe in Irma la Douce and What a Way to Go! (1964). Other films from this period include Gambit (1966), with Michael Caine, and the film version of the musical Sweet Charity (1968), based on the script for Fellini’s Nights of Cabiria released a decade earlier.

 

MacLaine’s documentary film The Other Half of the Sky: A China Memoir (1975), co-directed with Claudia Weill, concentrates on the experiences of women in China. It was nominated for the year’s Documentary Feature Oscar.

Co-starring with Anne Bancroft in The Turning Point (1977), MacLaine portrayed a retired ballerina much like herself; she was nominated for an Oscar as the Best Actress in a Leading Role. In 1978, she was awarded the Women in FilmCrystal Award for outstanding women who, through their endurance and the excellence of their work, have helped to expand the role of women within the entertainment industry.

In Being There (1979), she appeared with Peter Sellers. In a short-lived MacLaine television sitcom, Shirley’s World (1971鈥72), co-produced by Sheldon Leonard and ITC and shot in the United Kingdom, she was cast as a photojournalist.

Shirley Mac Laine3

MacLaine has also appeared in numerous television projects including an autobiographical miniseries based upon the book Out on a Limb;

The Salem Witch Trials;

These Old Broads written by Carrie Fisher and co-starring Elizabeth Taylor, Debbie Reynolds, and Joan Collins;

Coco, a Lifetime production based on the life of Coco Chanel.

She appeared in the third and fourth seasons of the British drama Downton Abbey as Martha Levinson, mother to Cora, Countess of Grantham (played by Elizabeth McGovern) and Harold Levinson (played by Paul Giamatti) in 2012鈥2013.

In February 2016, it was announced that MacLaine will star in the live-action family film A Little Mermaid, based on the Hans Christian Andersen fairytale, to be produced by MVP Studios.[16]

 

MacLaine was married to businessman Steve Parker from 1954 until their divorce in 1982; they have a daughter, Sachi.

In April 2011, while promoting her new book, I’m Over All That, she revealed to Oprah Winfrey that she had had an open relationship with her husband.

MacLaine also told Winfrey that she often fell for the leading men she worked with, with the exceptions of Jack Lemmon (The Apartment) and Jack Nicholson (Terms of Endearment).

MacLaine has also gotten into feuds with such notable co-stars as Anthony Hopkins (A Change of Seasons), who said that “she was the most obnoxious actress I have ever worked with,” and Debra Winger (Terms of Endearment).

MacLaine has claimed that, in a previous life in Atlantis, she was the brother to a 35,000-year-old spirit named Ramtha channeled by American mystic teacher and author J. Z. Knight.

She has a strong interest in spirituality and metaphysics, the central theme of some of her best-selling books including Out on a Limb and Dancing in the Light. She has undertaken such forms of spiritual exploration as walking the Way of St. James, working with Chris Griscom and practicing Transcendental Meditation.

Her well-known interest in New Age spirituality has also made its way into several of her films. In Albert Brooks’s romantic comedy Defending Your Life (1991), the recently deceased lead characters, played by Brooks and Meryl Streep, are astonished to find MacLaine introducing their past lives in the “Past Lives Pavilion”.

In Postcards from the Edge (1990), MacLaine sings a version of “I’m Still Here”, with customized lyrics created for her by composer Stephen Sondheim. One of the lyrics was changed to “I’m feeling transcendental 鈥 am I here?” In the television movie These Old Broads, MacLaine’s character is a devotee of New Age spirituality.

She has an interest in UFOs, and gave numerous interviews on CNN, NBC and Fox news channels on the subject during 2007鈥8. In her book Sage-ing While Age-ing (2007), she described alien encounters and witnessing a Washington, D.C. UFO incident in the 1950s.In the April 2011 edition of the Oprah show MacLaine stated that she and her neighbor observed numerous UFO incidents at her New Mexico ranch for extended periods of time.

MacLaine is godmother to the daughter of former Democratic U.S. Representative Dennis Kucinich.

Along with her brother, Warren Beatty, MacLaine used her celebrity status in instrumental roles as a fundraiser and organizer for George McGovern’s campaign for president in 1972.That year, she authored the book McGovern: The Man and His Beliefs.

On February 7, 2013, Penguin Group USA published Sachi Parker’s autobiography Lucky Me: My Life With 鈥 and Without 鈥 My Mom, Shirley MacLaine.[36]MacLaine has called the book “virtually all fiction”.

MacLaine starred in A Change of Seasons (1980) alongside Anthony Hopkins, and won the Best Actress in a Leading Role Oscar for Terms of Endearment (1983), playing Debra Winger’s mother. She won a Golden Globe for Best Actress (Drama) for Madame Sousatzka (1988).

She has continued to star in major films, such as Steel Magnolias with Sally Field, Julia Roberts and other stars. In 2000 she made her feature-film directorial debut and starred in Bruno, which was released to video as The Dress Code. MacLaine has starred in Postcards from the Edge (1990) with Meryl Streep, playing a fictionalized version of Debbie Reynolds from a screenplay by Reynolds’s daughter, Carrie Fisher; Used People (1992) with Jessica Tandy and Kathy Bates; Guarding Tess (1994) with Nicolas Cage; Mrs. Winterbourne (1996), with Ricki Lake and Brendan Fraser; Rumor Has It鈥 (2005) with Kevin Costner and Jennifer Aniston; In Her Shoes (also 2005) with Cameron Diaz and Toni Collette; and Closing the Ring (2007) directed by Richard Attenborough and starring Christopher Plummer.

 

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John WAYNE: Consid茅r茅 comme l鈥檃m茅ricain patriote, h茅roique, symbolisant 脿 lui seul 聽 聽 JOHN WAYNE Marion Mitchell Morrison, dit聽John Wayne, n茅 le聽26聽mai聽1907聽脿聽Winterset聽dans l鈥橧owa, aux聽脡tats鈥

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MERLE HAGGARD , THE STAR


Merle Ronald Haggard聽(born April 6, 1937) is an American聽country聽and聽Western聽songwriter, singer, guitarist,聽fiddler, and instrumentalist.

MERLE HAGGARD

Merle Haggard

Along with聽Buck Owens, Haggard and his band聽The Strangers聽helped create the聽Bakersfield sound, which is characterized by the unique twang of聽Fender Telecaster聽and the unique mix with the traditional country steel guitar sound, new vocal harmony styles in which the words are minimal, and a rough edge not heard on the more polished Nashville sound聽recordings of the same era.

 

By the 1970s, Haggard was aligned with the growing聽outlaw country聽movement, and has continued to release successful albums through the 1990s and into the 2000s. In 1994, he was inducted into the聽Country Music Hall of Fame. 聽In 1997, he was inducted into the聽Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame.

 

Haggard’s parents, Flossie Mae Harp and James Francis Haggard, 聽moved to California from their home in聽Checotah, Oklahoma, during the Great Depression, after their barn burned in 1934.

 

They settled with their children, Lowell and Lillian, in an apartment in聽Bakersfield, while James Francis Haggard started working for the Santa Fe Railroad. A woman who owned a boxcar, which was placed in聽Oildale, a nearby town north of Bakersfield, asked Haggard’s father about the possibility of converting it into a house. He remodeled the boxcar, and soon after moved in, also purchasing the lot, where Merle Ronald Haggard was born on April 6, 1937.

 

The property was eventually expanded by building a bathroom, a second bedroom, a kitchen and a breakfast nook in the adjacent lot.

His father died of a brain hemorrhage in 1945,聽an event that deeply affected Haggard during his childhood, and the rest of his life.

 

To support the family, his mother worked as a bookkeeper.聽His brother, Lowell, gave Haggard his used guitar as a gift when he was 12 years old. Haggard learned to play alone,聽with the records he had at home, influenced by聽Bob Wills,聽Lefty Frizzell聽and聽Hank Williams.

 

As his mother was absent due to work, Haggard became progressively rebellious. His mother sent him for a weekend to a juvenile detention center to change his attitude, which worsened.

Haggard committed a number of minor offences, such as thefts and writing bad checks. He was sent to a juvenile detention center for shoplifting in 1950.

Merle Haggard2

When he was 14, Haggard ran away to Texas with his friend Bob Teague. 聽He聽rode freight trains聽and聽hitchhiked聽throughout the state. 聽When he returned the same year, he and his friend were arrested for robbery. Haggard and Teague were released when the real robbers were found. Haggard was later sent to the juvenile detention center, from which he and his friend escaped again to聽Modesto, California.

 

He worked a series of laborer jobs, including driving a potato truck, being a short order cook, a hay pitcher, and an oil well shooter.聽His debut performance was with Teague in a Modesto bar named “Fun Center,” being paid US$5, with free beer.

 

He returned to Bakersfield in 1951, and was again arrested for truancy and聽petty larceny聽and sent to a juvenile detention center. After another escape, he was sent to the聽Preston School of Industry, a high-security installation. He was released 15 months later, but was sent back after beating a local boy during a burglary attempt.

 

After his release, Haggard and Teague saw Lefty Frizzell in concert. After hearing Haggard sing along to his songs backstage, Frizzell refused to sing unless Haggard would be allowed to sing first.

 

He sang songs that were well received by the audience. Due to the positive reception, Haggard decided to pursue a career in music. While working as a farmhand or in oil fields, he played in nightclubs. He eventually landed a spot on the local television show聽Chuck Wagon, in 1956.

 

Married and plagued by financial issues,聽he was arrested in 1957 shortly after he tried to rob a Bakersfield roadhouse.聽He was sent to Bakersfield Jail,聽and was later transferred after an escape attempt to聽San Quentin Prison, on February 21, 1958. While in prison, Haggard discovered that his wife was expecting a child from another man, which pressed him psychologically.

 

 

He was fired from a series of prison jobs, and planned to escape along with another inmate nicknamed “Rabbit”. Haggard was convinced not to escape by fellow inmates.

Haggard started to run a gambling and brewing racket with his cellmate. After he was caught drunk, he was sent for a week to solitary confinement where he encountered聽Caryl Chessman, an author and death row inmate.

Meanwhile, “Rabbit” had successfully escaped, only to shoot a police officer and return to San Quentin for execution.聽Chessman’s predicament, along with the execution of “Rabbit,” inspired Haggard to turn his life around.聽Haggard soon earned a high school equivalency diploma and kept a steady job in the prison’s textile plant,聽while also playing for the prison’s country music band,聽attributing a 1958 performance by聽Johnny Cash聽at the prison as his main inspiration to join it.

 

Merle haggard cover album

 

Upon his release in 1960, Haggard said it took about four months to get used to being out of the penitentiary and that, at times, he actually wanted to go back in. He said it was the loneliest he had ever felt.

According to聽Rolling Stone, “In 1972, then鈥揅alifornia governor聽Ronald Reagan聽expunged Haggard’s criminal record, granting him a full pardon.”

 

Upon his release, Haggard started digging ditches and wiring houses for his brother. Soon he was performing again, and later began recording with Tally Records.

 

The Bakersfield Sound was developing in the area as a reaction against the over-produced聽honky tonk聽of the聽Nashville Sound. Haggard’s first song was “Skid Row”.

 

In 1962, Haggard wound up performing at a聽Wynn Stewart聽show in聽Las Vegas聽and heard Wynn’s “Sing a Sad Song”. He asked for permission to record it, and the resulting single was a national hit in 1964.

 

The following year he had his first national top ten record with “(My Friends Are Gonna Be) Strangers”, written by聽Liz Anderson聽(mother of country singer聽Lynn Anderson) and his career was off and running.

 

In his 1981 autobiography聽Merle Haggard: Sing Me Back Home, Haggard recalls having been talked into visiting Anderson鈥攁 woman he didn’t know鈥攁t her house to hear her sing some songs she had written. “If there was anything I didn’t wanna do, it was sit around some danged woman’s house and listen to her cute little songs. But I went anyway. She was a pleasant enough lady, pretty, with a nice smile, but I was all set to be bored to death, even more so when she got out a whole bunch of songs and went over to an old pump organ…There they were.

 

 

 

My God, one hit right after another. There must have been four or five number one songs there…” In 1966, Haggard recorded his first number-one song “I’m a Lonesome Fugitive”, also written by Liz Anderson, which Haggard acknowledges in his autobiography remains his most popular number with audiences.”

 

Haggard felt a connection to the song immediately and when it was released it became his first number one country hit.聽When Anderson played the song for Haggard, she was unaware about his prison stretch.

 

“I guess I didn’t realize how much the experience at San Quentin did to him, ’cause he never talked about it all that much,”聽Bonnie Owens, Haggard’s backup singer and then-wife, is quoted by music journalist Daniel Cooper in the liner notes to the 1994 retrospective聽Down Every Road.聽“I could tell he was in a dark mood…and I said, ‘Is everything okay?’ And he said, ‘I’m really scared.’ And I said, ‘Why?’ And he said, ‘Cause I’m afraid someday I’m gonna be out there…and there’s gonna be some convict…some prisoner that was in there the same time I was in, stand up – and they’re gonna be about the third row down – and say, ‘What do you think you’re doing, 45200?'”

Cooper notes that the news had little effect on Haggard’s career:

“It’s unclear when or where Merle first acknowledged to the public that his prison songs were rooted in personal history, for to his credit, he doesn’t seem to have made some big splash announcement. 聽In a May 1967 profile in聽Music City News, his prison record is never mentioned. But in July 1968, in the very same publication, it’s spoken of as if it were common knowledge.”

The 1966 album聽Branded Man聽kicked off an incredible artistic run for Haggard; in 2013 Haggard biographer David Cantwell states, “The immediate successors to聽I’m a Lonesome Fugitive聽–聽Branded Man聽in 1967 and, in ’68,聽Sing Me Back Home聽and聽The Legend of Bonnie and Clyde聽– were among the finest albums of their respective years.” Haggard’s new recordings largely centered around聽Roy Nichols’s聽Telecaster,聽Ralph Mooney’s聽steel guitar, and the harmony vocals provided by聽Bonnie Owens.

Merle_Haggard_1975

M HAGGARD

At the time of Haggard’s first top-ten hit “(My Friends Are Gonna Be) Strangers” in 1965, Owens was actually the better known performer, a fixture on the聽Bakersfieldclub scene who had recorded and appeared on television. Bonnie, who had been married to聽Buck Owens, won the new聽Academy of Country Music’s first ever award for Female Vocalist after her 1965 debut album,聽Don’t Take Advantage of Me, hit the top five on the country albums chart. However, there were no more hit singles, and although Owens recorded six solo albums on Capitol between 1965 and 1970, she became mainly known for her background harmonies on Haggard hits like “Sing Me Back Home” and “Branded Man.”

 

Producer Ken Nelson took a hands-off approach to producing Haggard. In the episode of聽American Masters聽dedicated to him, Haggard remembers: “The producer I had at that time, Ken Nelson, was an exception to the rule. He called me ‘Mr. Haggard’ and I was a little twenty-four, twenty-five year old punk from Oildale…

 

He gave me complete responsibility. I think if he’d jumped in and said, ‘Oh, you can’t do that,’ it would’ve destroyed me.” 聽In the documentary series聽Lost Highway, Nelson recalls, “When I first started recording Merle, I became so enamored with his singing that I would forget what else was going on, and I suddenly realized, ‘Wait a minute, there’s musicians here you’ve got to worry about!’ But his songs – he was a great writer.”

 

Towards the end of the decade, Haggard went on a songwriting tear, composing several #1 hits as “Mama Tried,” “The Legend of Bonnie and Clyde,” “Hungry Eyes,” and “Sing Me Back Home.” Daniel Cooper calls “Sing Me Back Home,” “a ballad that works on so many different levels of the soul it defies one’s every attempt to analyze it.”

 

In a 1977 interview inBillboard聽with聽Bob Eubanks, Haggard reflected, “Even though the crime was brutal and the guy was an incorrigible criminal, it’s a feeling you never forget when you see someone you know make that last walk. They bring him through the yard, and there’s a guard in front and a guard behind – that’s how you know a death prisoner.

 

They brought Rabbit out…taking him to see the Father,…prior to his execution. That was a strong picture that was left in my mind.” In 1968, Haggard’s first tribute LP聽Same Train, Different Time: A Tribute to Jimmie Rodgers, was released to acclaim.

 

 

Okie From Muskogee”, 1969’s apparent political statement, was, according to some Merle Haggard interviews decades later, actually written as a humorous character portrait. In one such interview, Haggard called the song a “documentation of the uneducated that lived in America at the time

 

 

However, he said later on the聽Bob Edwards Show聽that “I wrote it when I recently got out of the joint. I knew what it was like to lose my freedom, and I was getting really mad at these protesters.

 

They didn’t know anything more about the war in Vietnam than I did. I thought how my dad, who was from Oklahoma, would have felt. I felt I knew how those boys fighting in Vietnam felt.” In the country music documentary series聽Lost Highway, he elaborates: “My dad passed away when I was nine, and I don’t know if you’ve ever thought about somebody you’ve lost and you say, ‘I wonder what so-and-so would think about this?’ I was drivin’ on聽Interstate 40聽and I saw a sign that said “19 Miles to Muskogee.”

 

Muskogee was always referred to in my childhood as ‘back home.’ So I saw that sign and my whole childhood flashed before my eyes and I thought, ‘I wonder what dad would think about the youthful uprising that was occurring at the time, 聽On December 19, 2006, the Kern County Board of Supervisors approved a citizen-led resolution to rename a portion of 7th Standard Road in Oildale as Merle Haggard Drive, which will stretch from North Chester Avenue west to U.S. Route 99.

 

The first street travelers will turn onto when they leave the new airport terminal will be Merle Haggard Drive.

In 2006, Haggard was honored as a BMI Icon at the 54th annual BMI Pop Awards. During his songwriting career, Haggard has earned 48 BMI Country Awards, nine BMI Pop Awards, a BMI R&B Award, and 16 BMI “Million-Air” awards, all from a catalog of songs that adds up to over 25 million performances.

Merle Haggard accepted the prestigious award for lifetime achievement and “outstanding contribution to American culture” from the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts on December 4, 2010. At a December 5, 2010 gala in Washington, D.C. he was honored with musical performances by Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, Sheryl Crow, Vince Gill, Jamey Johnson, Kid Rock, Miranda Lambert and Brad Paisley. This tribute was featured on the December 28, 2010 CBS telecast of the Kennedy Center Honors.

 

On June 14, 2013, the California State University, Bakersfield, honored Merle Haggard for his contributions to the arts with the honorary degree, Doctor of Fine Arts. Haggard stepped to the podium and said, “Thank you. It’s nice to be noticed.” On January 26, 2014, Haggard performed his 1969 song “Okie from Muskogee” at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards along with Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, and Blake Shelton

Gary Keck, a chemistry professor at the University of Utah and an ardent fan of Haggard, introduced a series of chemical analogues of a biologically active natural product called bryostatin 1 and named them “Merle compunds” to honor his idol’s legacy….I understood them, I got along with it, but what if he was to come alive at this moment?

And I thought, what a way to describe the kind of people in聽America聽that are still sittin’ in the center of the country sayin’, ‘What is goin’ on on these campuses?’

 

” In the聽American Masters聽episode about his life and career, however, a more defiant Haggard states that the song was more than a satire: ”

 

That’s how I got into it with the hippies…I thought they were unqualified to judge America, and I thought they were lookin’ down their noses at something that I cherished very much, and it pissed me off. And I thought, ‘You sons of bitches, you’ve never been restricted away from this great, wonderful country, and yet here you are in the streets bitchin’ about things, protesting about a war that they didn’t know any more about than I did.

 

Merle_Haggard_in_1971

They weren’t over there fightin’ that war anymore than I was.” Haggard began performing the song in concert in the fall of 1969 and was astounded at the reaction it received. As David Cantwell notes in his 2013 book聽Merle Haggard: The Running Kind, “The Haggard camp knew they were on to something.

 

Everywhere they went, every show, ‘Okie’ did more than prompt enthusiastic applause. There was an unanticipated adulation racing through the crowds now, standing ovations that went on and on and sometimes left the audience and the band-members alike teary-eyed.

 

Merle had somehow stumbled upon a song that expressed previously inchoate fears, spoke out loud gripes and anxieties otherwise only whispered, and now people were using his song, were using聽him, to connect themselves to these larger concerns and to one another.”

 

The studio version, which is far mellower than the usually raucous concert versions, topped the charts in the fall of 1969, where it remained for a month, and also hit number 41 on the pop charts, becoming Haggard’s all-time biggest hit (until his 1973 crossover聽Christmas聽smash “If We Make It Through December”) and signature tune.

Haggard was beginning to attract attention from artists outside the country field, such as crooner聽Dean Martin, who recorded “I Take a Lot of Pride in What I Am” for his album of the same name in 1969.

 

In addition, the聽Gram Parsons聽incarnation of the聽Byrds聽had performed “Sing Me Back Home” on the聽Grand Ole Opry聽and had recorded Haggard’s “Life in Prison” for their album聽Sweetheart of the Rodeo聽the same year.

 

In 1969 the聽Grateful Dead聽began performing Haggard’s tune “Mama Tried”, which appeared on their 1971聽eponymous live album. The song became a staple in their repertoire until the band’s end in 1995.

 

Singer-activist聽Joan Baez, whose political leanings could not be more different from those expressed in Haggard’s above-referenced songs, nonetheless covered “Sing Me Back Home” and “Mama Tried” in 1969.聽The Everly Brothers聽also used both songs in their 1968 country-rock album聽Roots.

 

 

In the original聽Rolling Stone聽review for Haggard’s 1968 album聽Mama Tried, Andy Wickham wrote, “His songs romanticize the hardships and tragedies of聽America’s transient proletarian and his success is resultant of his inherent ability to relate to his audience a commonplace experience with precisely the right emotional pitch…Merle Haggard looks the part and sounds the part because he is the part. He’s great.”

 

However, his next single, 1970’s “The Fightin’ Side of Me”, was so unapologetically right wing that it left no doubt as to where Haggard stood politically.

 

It became his fourth consecutive #1 country hit and also made an appearance on the pop chart, but any ideas that Haggard was a closeted liberal sympathizer were irretrievably squashed.

 

 

In the song, Haggard allows that he doesn’t mind the counterculture “switchin’ sides and standin’ up for what they believe in” but resolutely declares, “If you don’t love it, leave it!” In May 1970, Haggard explained to John Grissom of聽Rolling Stone, “I don’t like their views on life, their filth, their visible self-disrespect, y鈥 know. They don’t give a shit what they look like or what they smell like…What do they have to offer humanity?”

 

Ironically, Haggard had wanted to follow “Okie from Muskogee” with “Irma Jackson,” a song that dealt head-on with an interracial romance between a white man and an African-American woman.

 

His producer Ken Nelson聽discouraged him from releasing it as a single.

 

As Jonathan Bernstein recounts in his online聽Rolling Stone聽article “Merle Haggard Reluctantly Unveils ‘The Fightin’ Side of Me'”, “Hoping to distance himself from the harshly right-wing image he had accrued in the wake of the hippie-bashing “Muskogee,” Haggard wanted to take a different direction and release “Irma Jackson” as his next single…

 

 

When the Bakersfield, California native brought the song to his record label, executives were reportedly appalled.

 

In the wake of ‘Okie,’聽Capitol Records聽was not interested in complicating Haggard’s conservative, blue-collar image.”After “The Fightin’ Side of Me” was released instead, Haggard later commented to the聽Wall Street Journal, “People are narrow-minded.

 

Down South they might have called me a nigger lover.. In an interview in 2001, Haggard stated that Nelson, who was also head of the country division at Capitol at the time, never interfered with his music but “this one time he came out and said, ‘Merle…I don’t believe the world is ready for this yet’…And he might have been right. I might’ve canceled out where I was headed in my career..

 

 

“Okie From Muskogee”, “The Fightin’ Side of Me”, and “I Wonder If They Think of Me” were hailed as anthems of the聽Silent Majority聽and presaged a trend in patriotic songs that would reappear years later with聽Charlie Daniels’ “In America”,聽Lee Greenwood’s “God Bless the USA”, and others. Haggard’s next LP was聽A Tribute to the Best Damn Fiddle Player in the World, dedicated to聽Bob Wills, which helped spark a permanent revival and expanded audience for聽western swing.

 

By this point, Haggard was one of the most famous country singers in the world, having enjoyed an immensely successful artistic and commercial run with Capitol accumulating twenty-four #1 country singles since 1966.

 

On Tuesday, March 14, 1972, shortly after “Carolyn” became another number one country hit, then-California governor聽Ronald Reagan聽granted Haggard a full聽pardon聽for his past crimes. In the fall of 1972, “Let Me Tell You about A Song,” the first TV special starring Merle Haggard, was nationally syndicated by Capital Cities TV Productions.

 

It was a semi-autobiographical, musical profile of Haggard, akin to the contemporary “Behind The Music,” produced and directed by Michael Davis. The 1973聽recession聽anthem “If We Make It Through December” furthered Haggard’s status as a champion of the working class.

 

“If We Make It Through December” turned out to be Haggard’s last pop hit. Haggard appeared on the cover of聽TIME聽on May 6, 1974. He also wrote and performed the theme song to the television series聽Movin’ On, which in 1975 gave him another number one country hit. During the early to mid-1970s, Haggard’s chart domination continued with songs like “Someday We’ll Look Back”, “Grandma Harp”, “Always Wanting You”, and “The Roots of My Raising”.

 

Between 1973 and 1976, Haggard scored 9 consecutive #1 country hits. In 1977, he switched to聽MCA Records聽and began exploring the themes of depression, alcoholism, and middle age on albums like聽Serving 190 Proof聽and聽The Way I Am. Haggard sang a duet cover of聽Billy Burnette’s聽What’s A Little Love Between Friends聽with聽Lynda Carter聽in her 1980 television music special聽Lynda Carter: Encore!

 

 

He also scored a #1 hit in 1980 with “Bar Room Buddies,” a duet with movie star聽Clint Eastwood聽that appeared on the聽Bronco Billy聽soundtrack.

In 1981, Haggard published an autobiography,聽Sing Me Back Home. That same year, he alternately spoke and sang the ballad “The Man in the Mask”. Written by聽Dean Pitchford聽(whose other output includes “Fame”, “Footloose”, “Sing”, “Solid Gold”, and the musical聽Carrie), this was the combined narration/theme from the movie聽The Legend of the Lone Ranger, a box-office flop.

 

Haggard also jumped record labels again in 1981, moving to Epic and releasing one of his most critically acclaimed albums, Big City. Between 1981 and 1985, Haggard scored twelve Top 10 country hits, with nine of them reaching #1, including “My Favorite Memory,” “Going Where the Lonely Go,” “Someday When Things Are Good,” and “Natural High.”

 

In addition, Haggard recorded two chart topping duets with聽George Jones聽(“Yesterdays’ Wine” in 1982) and聽Willie Nelson聽(“Pancho and Lefty” in 1983).

 

Nelson believed the 1983聽Academy Award-winning film聽Tender Mercies, about the life of fictional singer Mac Sledge, was based on the life of Merle Haggard. Actor聽Robert Duvall聽and other filmmakers denied this and claimed the character was based on nobody in particular. Duvall, however, said he was a big fan of Haggard.聽He won a聽Grammy Award for Best Male Country Vocal Performance聽for his 1984 remake of “That’s The Way Love Goes.” Haggard and third wife Leona Williams divorced in 1983 after five stormy years of marriage and the split, which took Haggard by surprise, served as a license to party for Haggard, who spent much of the next decade becoming mired in alcohol and drug problems. Haggard has often stated that he was in the stages of his own聽mid-life crisis, or “male menopause,” around this time. In the documentary聽Learning to Live With Myself, the singer is quoted in an interview from around the time: “Things that you’ve enjoyed for years don’t seem nearly as important, and you’re at war with yourself as to what’s happening. ‘Why don’t I like that anymore? Why do I like this now?’ And finally, I think you actually go through a biological change, you just, you become another…

Your body is getting ready to die and your mind doesn’t agree.” By the mid-eighties he was addicted to cocaine but managed to kick the habit. However, he was hampered by financial woes well into the 1990s as his presence on the charts continued to diminish as newer singers had begun to take over country music, and singers like聽George Strait聽and聽Randy Travis聽had taken over the charts. Haggard’s last number one hit was “Twinkle, Twinkle Lucky Star” from his smash album聽Chill Factor聽in 1988.

 

In 1989, Haggard recorded a song, “Me and Crippled Soldiers Give a Damn”, in response to the聽Supreme Court’s decision to allow flag burning under the聽First Amendment. After CBS Records Nashville avoided releasing the song, Haggard bought his way out of the contract and signed with聽Curb Records, which was willing to release the song.

 

Of the situation, Haggard commented, “I’ve never been a guy that can do what people told me…It’s always been my nature to fight the system.”

 

 

In 2000, Haggard made a comeback of sorts, signing with the independent record label Anti and releasing the spare聽If I Could Only Flyto critical acclaim.

 

He followed it in 2001 with聽Roots, vol. 1, a collection of聽Lefty Frizzell,聽Hank Williams, and聽Hank Thompson聽covers, along with three Haggard originals.

 

The album, recorded in Haggard’s living room with no overdubs, featured Haggard’s longtime bandmates The Strangers as well as Frizzell’s original lead guitarist, Norman Stephens.

 

In December 2004, Haggard spoke at length on聽Larry King Live聽about his incarceration as a young man and said it was “hell” and “the scariest experience of my life”.

Haggard’s number one hit single “Mama Tried” is featured in the 2003 film聽Radio聽with聽Cuba Gooding, Jr.聽and聽Ed Harris聽as well as in Bryan Bertino’s “The Strangers” with Liv Tyler. In addition, his song “Swingin’ Doors” can be heard in the 2004 film聽Crash聽and his 1981 hit “Big City” is heard in Joel and Ethan Coen’s 1996 film “Fargo” and in the 2008 Larry Bishop film “Hell Ride”.

 

In October 2005, Haggard released his album聽Chicago Wind聽to mostly positive reviews. The album contained an anti-Iraq war song titled “America First,” in which he laments the nation’s economy and faltering infrastructure, applauds its soldiers, and sings, “Let’s get out of Iraq, and get back on track.”

Merle_Haggard_in_concert_2013

 

This follows from his 2003 release “Haggard Like Never Before” in which he includes a song, “That’s The News”. Haggard released a聽bluegrass聽album,聽The Bluegrass Sessions, on October 2, 2007.

 

In 2008, Haggard was going to perform at Riverfest in聽Little Rock, Arkansas, but the concert was canceled because he was ailing, and three other concerts were canceled as well; however, he was back on the road in June and successfully completed a tour that ended on October 19.

 

In April 2010, Haggard released a new album,聽I Am What I Am.聽Released to strong reviews, Haggard performed the title song on聽The Tonight Show with Jay Leno聽in February 2011.聽His 2014 and 2015 tour schedule has been aggressive, including over 30 cities in 2015 alone, suggesting the kind of performing stamina usually characterized by artists half Haggard’s age.

 

 

In 2000, Haggard made a comeback of sorts, signing with the independent record label Anti and releasing the spare聽If I Could Only Flyto critical acclaim.

 

He followed it in 2001 with聽Roots, vol. 1, a collection of聽Lefty Frizzell,聽Hank Williams, and聽Hank Thompson聽covers, along with three Haggard originals.

 

The album, recorded in Haggard’s living room with no overdubs, featured Haggard’s longtime bandmates The Strangers as well as Frizzell’s original lead guitarist, Norman Stephens.

In December 2004, Haggard spoke at length onLarry King Live聽about his incarceration as a young man and said it was “hell” and “the scariest experience of my life”.

Haggard’s number one hit single “Mama Tried” is featured in the 2003 film聽Radio聽with聽Cuba Gooding, Jr.聽and聽Ed Harris聽as well as in Bryan Bertino’s “The Strangers” with Liv Tyler.

 

In addition, his song “Swingin’ Doors” can be heard in the 2004 film聽Crash聽and his 1981 hit “Big City” is heard in Joel and Ethan Coen’s 1996 film “Fargo” and in the 2008 Larry Bishop film “Hell Ride”.

 

In October 2005, Haggard released his album聽Chicago Wind聽to mostly positive reviews. The album contained an anti-Iraq war song titled “America First,” in which he laments the nation’s economy and faltering infrastructure, applauds its soldiers, and sings, “Let’s get out of Iraq, and get back on track.” This follows from his 2003 release “Haggard Like Never Before” in which he includes a song, “That’s The News”.

 

Haggard released a聽bluegrass聽album,聽The Bluegrass Sessions, on October 2, 2007. In 2008, Haggard was going to perform at Riverfest in聽Little Rock, Arkansas, but the concert was canceled because he was ailing, and three other concerts were canceled as well; however, he was back on the road in June and successfully completed a tour that ended on October 19.

 

In April 2010, Haggard released a new album,聽I Am What I Am.聽Released to strong reviews, Haggard performed the title song on聽The Tonight Show with Jay Leno聽in February 2011.

 

His 2014 and 2015 tour schedule has been aggressive, including over 30 cities in 2015 alone, suggesting the kind of performing stamina usually characterized by artists half Haggard’s age.

 

Haggard has been married five times, first to Leona Hobbs from 1956 to 1964. They had four children: Dana,聽Marty, Kelli,聽Noel. They divorced, and in 1965 he married singer聽Bonnie Owens, former wife of Buck Owens, and a successful country singer at the time. Haggard has credited her with helping him make his big break as a country artist. Haggard shared the writing credit with Owens for his hit “Today I Started Loving You Again”, and has acknowledged, including on stage, that the song was about a sudden burst of special feelings he experienced for her while they were touring together.

 

She also helped care for Haggard’s children from his first wife and was the maid of honor for Haggard’s third marriage. Haggard and Owens divorced in 1978. In 1978 Haggard married聽Leona Williams; they divorced in 1983.

 

In 1985 Haggard married Debbie Parret, but they divorced in 1991. He married his current wife, Theresa Ann Lane, on September 11, 1993. They have two children, Jenessa and Ben.

 

On December 19, 2006, the Kern County Board of Supervisors approved a citizen-led resolution to rename a portion of 7th Standard Road in Oildale as Merle Haggard Drive, which will stretch from North Chester Avenue west to U.S. Route 99. The first street travelers will turn onto when they leave the new airport terminal will be Merle Haggard Drive.

In 2006, Haggard was honored as a BMI Icon at the 54th annual BMI Pop Awards. During his songwriting career, Haggard has earned 48 BMI Country Awards, nine BMI Pop Awards, a BMI R&B Award, and 16 BMI “Million-Air” awards, all from a catalog of songs that adds up to over 25 million performances.

Merle Haggard accepted the prestigious award for lifetime achievement and “outstanding contribution to American culture” from the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts on December 4, 2010. At a December 5, 2010 gala in Washington, D.C.

 

he was honored with musical performances by Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, Sheryl Crow, Vince Gill, Jamey Johnson, Kid Rock, Miranda Lambert and Brad Paisley.

 

Merle_Haggard_2010

 

This tribute was featured on the December 28, 2010 CBS telecast of the Kennedy Center Honors. On June 14, 2013, the California State University, Bakersfield, honored Merle Haggard for his contributions to the arts with the honorary degree, Doctor of Fine Arts.

 

Haggard stepped to the podium and said, “Thank you. It’s nice to be noticed.” On January 26, 2014, Haggard performed his 1969 song “Okie from Muskogee” at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards along with Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, and Blake Shelton

 

Gary Keck, a chemistry professor at the University of Utah and an ardent fan of Haggard, introduced a series of chemical analogues of a biologically active natural product called bryostatin 1 and named them “Merle compunds” to honor his idol’s legacy.

 

SOURCES : WIKIPEDIA

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Joe Coker


 

John Robert “Joe” Cocker聽OBE (20 May 1944 鈥 22 December 2014) was an English rock and blues singer, who came to popularity in the 1960s, and is known for his gritty voice, his spasmodic body movement in performance and his cover versions of popular songs, particularly those of the Beatles.

j coker11 His cover of the Beatles’ “With a Little Help from My Friends” reached number one in the UK in 1968, and he performed the song live at Woodstock in 1969. His version also became the theme song for the TV series The Wonder Years. His 1975 hit single, “You Are So Beautiful”, reached number five in the US. Cocker is the recipient of several awards, including a 1983 Grammy Award for his US number one “Up Where We Belong”, a duet with Jennifer Warnes. In 1993 he was nominated for the Brit Award for Best British Male, and in 2008 he received an OBE at Buckingham Palace for services to music.

 

Cocker was ranked #97 on Rolling Stone’s 100 greatest singers list. Cocker was born on 20 May 1944 at 38 Tasker Road, Crookes, Sheffield, West Riding of Yorkshire. He is the youngest son of a civil servant, Harold Cocker, and Madge Cocker. According to differing family stories, Cocker received his nickname of Joe either from playing a childhood game called “Cowboy Joe” or from a local window cleaner named Joe. joe coker the essential Cocker’s main musical influences growing up were Ray Charles and Lonnie Donegan. Cocker’s first experience singing in public was at age 12 when his elder brother Victor invited him on stage to sing during a gig of his skiffle group. In 1960, along with three friends, Cocker formed his first group, the Cavaliers. For the group’s first performance at a youth club, they were required to pay the price of admission before entering. The Cavaliers eventually broke up after a year and Cocker left school to become an apprentice gasfitter while simultaneously pursuing a career in music.

 

In 1961, under the stage name Vance Arnold, Cocker continued his career with a new group, Vance Arnold and the Avengers.聽The name was a combination of Vince Everett, Elvis Presley’s character in Jailhouse Rock, (which Cocker misheard as Vance) and country singer Eddy Arnold.聽The group mostly played in the pubs of Sheffield,聽performing covers of Chuck Berry and Ray Charles songs. In 1963, they booked their first significant gig when they supported the Rolling Stones atSheffield City Hall. In 1964, Cocker signed a recording contract as a solo act with Decca and released his first single, a cover of the Beatles’ “I’ll Cry Instead” (with Big Jim Sullivan and Jimmy Page playing guitars).

 

Despite extensive promotion from Decca lauding his youth and working class roots, the record was a flop and his recording contract with Decca lapsed at the end of 1964.聽After Cocker recorded the single, he dropped his stage name and formed a new group, Joe Cocker’s Big Blues. There is only one known recording of Joe Cocker’s and Big Blues on an EP given out by Sheffield College during Rag Week and called Rag Goes Mad at the Mojo. It contained a cover of Curtis Mayfield’s “I’ve Been Trying” and a track of “Saved”. joe cokerThe Grease Band (1966鈥1969) In 1966, after a year-long hiatus from music, Cocker teamed up with Chris Stainton, whom he had met several years before, to form the Grease Band.The Grease Band was named after Cocker read an interview with jazz musician Jimmy Smith, where Smith described another musician as “having a lot of grease”.

 

Like the Avengers, Cocker’s group mostly played in pubs in and around Sheffield. The Grease Band came to the attention of Denny Cordell, the producer of Procol Harum, the Moody Blues and Georgie Fame. Cocker recorded the single “Marjorine” without the Grease Band for Cordell in a London studio. He then moved to London with Chris Stainton, and the Grease Band was dissolved. Cordell set Cocker up with a residency at the Marquee Club in London, and a “new” Grease Band was formed with Stainton and keyboardist Tommy Eyre. After minor success in the US with the single “Marjorine”, Cocker entered the big time with a groundbreaking rearrangement of “With a Little Help from My Friends”, another Beatles cover, which, many years later, was used as the opening theme for The Wonder Years.

 

The recording features lead guitar from Jimmy Page, drumming by BJ Wilson, backing vocals from Sue and Sunny, and Tommy Eyre on organ. The single made the Top Ten on the British charts, remaining there for thirteen weeks and eventually reaching number one, on 9 November 1968.聽It also reached number 68 on the US charts. The new touring line-up of Cocker’s Grease Band featured Henry McCullough on lead guitar, who would go on to briefly play with McCartney’s Wings. After touring the UK with the Who in autumn 1968and Gene Pitney and Marmalade in early winter 1969, the Grease Band embarked on their first tour of the US in spring 1969. Cocker’s album With a Little Help from My Friends was released soon after their arrival and made number 35 on the American charts, eventually going gold. joe coker2 During his US tour, Cocker played at several large festivals, including the Newport Rock Festivaland the Denver Pop Festival.

 

In August, Denny Cordell heard about the planned concert inWoodstock, New York and convinced organiser Artie Kornfeld to book Cocker and the Grease Band for the Woodstock Festival. The group had to be flown into the festival by helicopter due to the large crowds. They performed several songs, including “Delta Lady”, “Something’s Comin’ On”, “Let’s Go Get Stoned”, “I Shall Be Released”, and “With a Little Help from My Friends”. Cocker would later say that the experience was “like an eclipse… it was a very special day.”

 

Directly after Woodstock, Cocker released his second album, Joe Cocker!. Impressed by his cover of “With a Little Help from My Friends”, Paul McCartney and George Harrison allowed Cocker to use their songs “She Came in Through the Bathroom Window” and “Something” for the album.Recorded during a break in touring in the spring and summer, the album reached number 11 on the US charts and garnered a second UK hit with the Leon Russell song, “Delta Lady”. Throughout 1969 he was featured on variety TV shows like The Ed Sullivan Show and This Is Tom Jones. Onstage, he exhibited an idiosyncratic physical intensity, flailing his arms and playing air guitar, occasionally giving superfluous cues to his band.聽

 

At the end of the year Cocker was unwilling to embark on another US tour, so he dissolved the Grease Band. Despite Cocker’s reluctance to venture out on the road again, an American tour had already been booked so he had to quickly form a new band in order to fulfil his contractual obligations. It proved to be a large group of more than 30 musicians, including pianist and bandleader Leon Russell, three drummers, and backing vocalists Rita Coolidge and Claudia Lennear.

The new band was christened “Mad Dogs and Englishmen” by Denny Cordell after the No毛l Coward song of the same name. joe coker3 His music at this time evolved into a more bluesy type of rock, often compared to that of the Rolling Stones. During the ensuing Mad Dogs and Englishmen tour (later described by drummer Jim Keltner as “a big, wild party”),聽Cocker toured 48 cities, recorded a live album, and received very positive reviews from Time and Life for his performances. However, the pace of the tour was exhausting. Russell and Cocker had personal problems and Cocker became depressed and began drinking excessively as the tour wound down in May 1970.

 

Meanwhile, he enjoyed several chart entries in the US with “Cry Me a River” and “Feelin’ Alright” by Dave Mason. His cover of the Box Tops’ hit “The Letter”, which appeared on the live album and film, Mad Dogs and Englishmen, became his first US Top Ten hit. After spending several months in Los Angeles, Cocker returned home to Sheffield where his family became increasingly concerned with his deteriorating physical and mental health. During this time, in periods between work, Cocker wrote the overture played by Ted Heathon the occasion the Prime Minister famously conducted a live orchestra whilst in office.聽In the summer of 1971 the A&M Recordssingle release appeared in the US of “High Time We Went”.

 

This became a hit, reaching number 22 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, but was not issued on an album until November 1972 on the Joe Cocker album. In early 1972, after nearly two years away from music, Cocker went on tour with a group that Chris Stainton had formed. He opened with a performance in Madison Square Garden which was attended by about 20,000 people. After touring the US, he embarked on a European tour where he played to large audiences in Milan, Italyand Germany. He then returned to the US for another tour in autumn 1972. During these tours the group cut the songs that would be part of his newest album, Joe Cocker. A mixture of live songs and studio recordings, the album peaked at number 30 on the US charts.Joe Cocker with his OBE, 2007

Cocker performing on 16 October 1980 in the National Stadium, Dublin

In October 1972, when Cocker toured Australia, he and six members of his entourage were arrested in Adelaide by police for possession of marijuana. The next day in Melbourne, assault charges were laid after a brawl at the Commodore Chateau Hotel,and Cocker was given 48 hours to leave the country by the Australian Federal Police.

 

This caused huge public outcry in Australia, as Cocker was a high-profile overseas artist and had a strong support base, especially amongst the baby boomers who were coming of age and able to vote for the first time. It sparked hefty debate about the use and legalisation of marijuana in Australia and gained Cocker the nickname of “the Mad Dog”.Shortly after the Australian tour, Stainton retired from his music career to establish his own recording studio. After his friend’s departure and estrangement from longtime producer Denny Cordell, Cocker sank into depression and began using heroin. In June 1973 he kicked the habit, but continued to drink heavily. At the end of 1973, Cocker returned to the studio to record a new album, I Can Stand A Little Rain. The album, released in August 1974, was number 11 on the US charts and one single, a cover of Dennis Wilson and Billy Preston’s “You Are So Beautiful”, which reached the number 5 slot.Despite positive reviews for the album, Cocker struggled with live performances, largely due to his problems with alcohol.

 

One such instance was reported in a 1974 issue of Rolling Stone magazine, saying during two West Coast performances in October of that year he threw up on stage.jcoker12 In January 1975, he released a second album that had been recorded at the same time as I Can Stand a Little Rain, Jamaica Say You Will. To promote his new album, Cocker embarked on another tour of Australia, made possible by the country’s newLabor government. In late 1975, he contributed vocals on a number of the tracks on Bo Diddley’s The 20th Anniversary of Rock ‘n’ Roll all-star album. He also recorded a new album in a Kingston, Jamaica studio, Stingray.

 

However, record sales were disappointing; the album reached only number 70 on the US charts. In 1976, Cocker performed “Feelin’ Alright” on Saturday Night Live. John Belushi joined him on stage doing his famous impersonation of Cocker’s stage movements. At the time, Cocker was $800,000 in debt to A&M Records and struggling with alcoholism. Several months later, he met producer Michael Lang, who agreed to manage him on the condition that he stay sober.

 

With a new band, Cocker embarked on a tour of New Zealand, Australia and South America. He then recorded a new album with session work by Steve Gadd and Chuck Rainey, and a new, young bassist from Scotland, Rob Hartley. Hartley also toured briefly with Cocker’s friends in 1977. In the autumn of 1978, he went on a North American tour promoting his album, Luxury You Can Afford. Despite this effort, it received mixed reviews and only sold around 300,000 copies. In 1979, Cocker joined the “Woodstock in Europe” tour, which featured musicians like Arlo Guthrie and Richie Havens who had played at the 1969 Woodstock Festival.

 

He also performed in New York’s Central Park to an audience of 20,000 people. The concert was recorded and released as the live album, Live in New York.聽He also toured Europe and appeared on the German television recording amphitheatre, Rockpalast, the first of many performances on the show. In 1982, Cocker recorded two songs with the jazz group the Crusaders on their album Standing Tall. One song, ‘I’m So Glad I’m Standing Here Today’ was nominated for a Grammy Award and Cocker performed it with the Crusaders at the awards ceremony. joe coker4 The Crusaders wrote this song with Cocker in mind to sing it. Cocker then released a new reggae-influenced album, Sheffield Steel, recorded with the Compass Point All Stars, produced by Chris Blackwell and Alex Sadkin.

 

In 1982, at the behest of producer Stewart Levine, Cocker recorded the duet “Up Where We Belong” with Jennifer Warnes for the soundtrack of the 1982 film An Officer and a Gentleman. The song was an international hit, reaching number 1 on theBillboard Hot 100, and winning a Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo. The duet also won an Academy Award for Best Original Song, and Cocker and Warnes performed the song at the awards ceremony. Several days later, he was invited to perform “You Are So Beautiful” with Ray Charles in a television tribute to the musician.

 

He then joined singer Ronnie Lane’s 1983 tour to raise money for the London-based organisation Action for Research into Multiple Sclerosis, in particular because Lane was beginning to suffer from the degenerative disease. Musicians such as Pete Townshend, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page,Jeff Beck and Chris Stainton also participated in the tour which included a performance at New York City’s Madison Square Garden. While on another tour that year, Cocker was arrested by Austrian police after refusing to perform because of inadequate sound equipment.

 

The charges were eventually dropped and Cocker was released.聽Shortly after the incident, he released his ninth studio album, Civilized Man. His next album Cocker was dedicated to his mother, Madge, who died when he was recording in the studio with producer Terry Manning. A track from the album, “You Can Leave Your Hat On” was featured in the 1986 film 9陆 Weeks. The album eventually went Platinum on the European charts.

 

His 1987 album Unchain My Heartwas nominated for a Grammy Award, although it did not win. One Night of Sin was also a commercial success, surpassingUnchain My Heart in sales.jcoker14 Throughout the 1980s, Cocker continued to tour around the world, playing to large audiences in Europe, Australia and the United States.

 

In 1988, he performed at London’s Royal Albert Hall and appeared on The Tonight Show.聽After Barclay James Harvest and Bob Dylan Cocker was the first to give Rock concerts in the German Democratic Republic, in East Berlin and Dresden.

 

The venue, the Bl眉herwiese, next to the Rudolf-Harbig-Stadion, bears the vernacular name Cockerwiese (Cocker meadow) today.He also performed for President George Bush at an inauguration concert in February 1989. In 1992, his version of Bryan Adams’ “Feels Like Forever” made the UK Top 40. At the 1993 Brit Awards, Cocker was nominated for Best British Male.Cocker performed the opening set at Woodstock ’94 as one of the few alumni who played at the original Woodstock Festival in 1969 and was very well received.

 

On 3 June 2002, Cocker performed “With A Little Help From My Friends” accompanied by Phil Collins on drums and Queen guitarist Brian May at the Party at the Palace concert in the grounds of Buckingham Palace, an event in commemoration of the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II.聽In 2007, Cocker appeared playing minor characters in the film Across the Universe, as the lead singer on another Beatles’ hit, “Come Together”.Cocker was awarded an OBE in the Queen’s 2007 Birthday Honours list for services to music.To celebrate receiving his award in mid December 2007, Cocker played two concerts in London and in his home town of Sheffield.

 

joe coker5 In April and May 2009, Cocker conducted a North American tour in support of his album Hymn for My Soul. He sang the vocals on Little Wing for the Carlos Santana album, Guitar Heaven: The Greatest Guitar Classics of All Time, released on 21 September 2010.

 

In the autumn of 2010, Cocker toured Europe promoting his studio album Hard Knocks. Cocker returned to Australia in 2008 and again in 2011, the latter of which featured George Thorogood and the Destroyers as an opening act.

 

On 20 March 2011, Joe Cocker took part in a benefit concert for Cornell Dupree at B.B. King’s Blues Club in New York. Dupree played on two Cocker albums Stingray (1976) and Luxury You Can Afford (1978). Dupree’s band Stuff was also Cocker’s backing band on a tour promoting Stingray in 1976. While performing a concert at Madison Square Garden on 17 September 2014, veteran rock singer Billy Joel stated that Cocker was “not very well right now” and asked that he be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

 

In 1963, Cocker began dating Eileen Webster, also a resident of Sheffield. The couple dated intermittently for the next 13 years, separating permanently in 1976. In 1978, Cocker moved onto a ranch owned by Jane Fonda in Santa Barbara, California. Pam Baker, a local summer camp director and fan of Cocker’s music, persuaded the actress to let the house to Cocker. Baker began dating Cocker and they eventually married on 11 October 1987.The couple resided on the Mad Dog Ranch in Crawford, Colorado. Cocker was not related to fellow Sheffield-born musician Jarvis Cocker, despite this being a rumour (particularly in Australia, where Jarvis’s father Mac Cocker, a radio DJ, allowed listeners to believe he was Joe Cocker’s brother). On 22 December 2014, Cocker died of lung cancer at his home in Colorado at the age of 70.

 

Source Wikipedia

 

 

Remember Aunt Clara ?? Bewitched?


Marion Lorne (August 12, 1883 鈥 May 9, 1968) was an American actress of stage, film, and television. After a career in theatre in New York and London, Lorne made her first film in 1951, and for the remainder of her life, played small roles in films and television.

Her recurring role, between 1964 and her death in 1968, as Aunt Clara in the comedy series, Bewitched (1964鈥1972) brought her widespread recognition, and for which she was posthumously awarded an Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series. 聽

She was born Marion Lorne MacDougall in West Pittston, Pennsylvania, a small mining town halfway between Wilkes-Barre and Scranton, of Scottish and English immigrant parents. 聽While her year of birth is listed as 1885 on her tombstone, it was usually listed as 1888 when she was alive and the Social Security Death Index lists it as 1883. She studied at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City.

Career Lorne debuted on Broadway in 1905; she also acted in London theaters, enjoying a flourishing stage career on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

In London she had her own theater, the Whitehall, where she had top billing in plays written by Walter Hackett, her husband. None of her productions at the Whitehall had runs shorter than 125 nights.

After appearing in a couple of Vitaphone shorts, including Success (1931) starring Jack Haley, she made her feature film debut in her late 60s in Strangers on a Train (1951), directed by Alfred Hitchcock.

The role was typical of the befuddled, nervous, and somewhat aristocratic matrons that she usually portrayed.

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From 1952-55, Lorne was seen as perpetually confused junior high school English teacher Mrs. Gurney on Mr. Peepers. From 1957鈥58, she co-starred with Joan Caulfield in the NBC sitcom Sally in the role of an elderly widow who happens to be the co-owner of a department store. Although afraid of live television, declaring “I’m a coward when it comes to a live [television] show”, 聽she was persuaded to appear a few times to promote the film The Girl Rush with Rosalind Russell in the mid-1950s.

Between 1958鈥64, she made regular appearances on The Garry Moore Show (1958鈥64). Her last role, as Aunt Clara in Bewitched, brought Lorne her widest fame as a lovable, forgetful witch who is losing her powers due to old age and whose spells usually end in disaster. Aunt Clara is obsessed with doorknobs, often bringing her collection with her on visits.

Lorne had an extensive collection of doorknobs in real life, some of which she used as props in the series.[8] Death She appeared in twenty-seven episodes of Bewitched, and was not replaced after she died of a heart attack in her Manhattan apartment, just prior to the start of production of the show’s fifth season, at the age of 84 on May 9, 1968. Lorne is buried at Ferncliff Cemetery in Greenburgh, New York.

Posthumous The producers of Bewitched recognized that Lorne’s performance as Aunt Clara could not be replicated by another actress. 聽Comedic actress Alice Ghostley was recruited to fill the gap as “Esmeralda”, a different type of befuddled witch with wobbly magic whose spells often went astray.

Coincidentally, Lorne and Ghostley had appeared side-by-side as partygoers in the iconic comedy-drama film The Graduate , made the year before Lorne’s death. 聽She received a posthumous Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series for her work on Bewitched. The statue was accepted by Bewitched star Elizabeth Montgomery. Personal life She was married to playwright Walter Hackett, who died in 1944. WIKIPEDIA 聽SOURCES聽 Personal life She was married to playwright Walter Hackett, who died in 1944.

SIR CLIFF RICHARD ( Harry Rodger Webb )


 

CLIFF RICHARDS : THE artist

 

He started life as Harry Webb and spent some of his childhood years in India. Cliff Richard was inspired by the music of Elvis Presley and at age 16, formed a band, ‘The Quintones’, with school friends and performed at their local Youth Club. From there, Cliff Richard went from strength to strength and became a global star.Image

 

Image

Having moved to India to help build a system of railways, Rodger Webb married Dorothy Dazely in 1939 and the following year the couple had a baby boy – Harry Rodger Webb.

Born in The King’s English Hospital in Lucknow, Harry was educated in Howrah, until his family moved to England in 1948, following Home Rule in India.

After a privileged life in India, the Webbs faced poverty, and were forced to sleep on mattresses at the houses of various relatives. In 1951, they were given a council house in Chesthunt, and after just failing the eleven-plus exam, Harry was enrolled in the newly built Cheshunt County Secondary School.

After being inspired by the music of Elvis, Harry and a group of school friends formed a group, ‘The Quintones’, and performed at their local Youth Club.Image

For his 16th birthday, Harry got his first guitar, going on to form 鈥楾he Drifters鈥 in 1958, with Terry Smart and Norman Mitham. After a number of low-key London gigs, Ian Samwell joined the band and they recorded their first demo, covers of Elvis’ 鈥楲awdy Miss Clawdy鈥 and Jerry Lee Lewis’ 鈥楤reathless鈥.

After recording their first hit single, 鈥楽choolboy Crush/Move It鈥, they were quickly signed by Columbia. The song hit No.2 in the British charts, and went on to sell over a million copies.

Now going under the name Cliff Richard, an appearance on the TV show 鈥極h Boy!鈥 catapulted Cliff to sex symbol status.

In 1958, Hank Marvin and Bruce Welch joined ‘The Drifters’, and by 1959 the band changed their name to 鈥楾he Shadows鈥. It was also around this time that Cliff made his film debut in 鈥楽erious Charge鈥. The film produced the hit 鈥楲iving Doll鈥, Cliff鈥檚 first number one hit.

Cliff’s second movie, 鈥楨xpresso Bongo鈥, was more successful and critically acclaimed. As the albums and hit singles rolled out, Cliff Richard was building a devoted fan base that would secure his chart success some 40 years later.

ImageIn 1961, Cliff starred in 鈥楾he Young Ones鈥, and the accompanying single shot straight into number one in the charts. The second film with Cliff in the leading role was another musical, 鈥楽ummer Holiday鈥, which saw him star alongside Una Stubbs.

1968 saw the last album recorded by Cliff with ‘The Shadows’, and Cliff went on to tour with his own gospel album. In 1970, Cliff launched his first television show, featuring a mix of music and comedy. In the same year, he made his stage debut in Peter Shaffer’s 鈥楩ive Finger Exercise鈥, a play focusing on a ‘deep friendship’ between a student and his tutor. The play was originally considered controversial for its veiled homosexual themes but despite this, reviews were favourable.

One of the most talked about aspects of Cliff’s life is his relationships. A much publicised relationship with tennis star Sue Barker in 1981 ended within a year. Cliff has also been linked with actress Una Stubbs.

In 1986, Cliff and The Young Ones re-recorded 鈥楲iving Doll鈥 and made it to the top of the charts. In the same year he appeared in the West End musical 鈥楾ime鈥, and by the end of the decade he had released his highest selling album of all time, ‘Private Collection’, which went on to be certified four-times platinum in the UK alone!

鈥楳istletoe & Wine鈥 become Cliff’s first Christmas-themed No.1 in 1988 and by 1989, Cliff became the first British artist to release 100 singles. Cliff continued to tour and break records throughout the 1990s, and in 1995 he became Sir Cliff Richard – the first pop star to be honoured with a full Knighthood.Image

Despite selling records by the lorry load, Cliff ran into trouble getting airplay from various radio stations, including a ban by the BBC for his track 鈥楳isunderstood Man鈥, which was deemed 鈥渢oo raucous鈥 for listeners.

ImagePerhaps the most significant project for Cliff in the nineties was the fulfilment of his lifelong dream to play the character of Heathcliff in Emily Bronte’s masterpiece, ‘Wuthering Heights’. The show was a runaway success, and gave Cliff his highest selling video ever, topping the UK video charts for two months upon its 1998 release.

In 1999, 鈥楾he Millennium Prayer鈥 reached number one, regardless of no airplay and scathing reviews. Despite a lack of support in the press, Cliff continues to make music and his recent album and DVD release cracked the top twenty.

Cliff now divides his time between his homes in the UK, Barbados and Portugal, where he has taken to making his own wine.

 

 

Source

http://www.thebiographychannel.co.uk/

JOHN WAYNE La l茅gende


John WAYNE: Consid茅r茅 comme l鈥檃m茅ricain patriote, h茅roique, symbolisant 脿 lui seul

 

JOHN WAYNE

john wayne

john wayne

Marion Mitchell Morrison, dit聽John Wayne, n茅 le聽26mai1907聽脿聽Winterset聽dans l鈥Iowa, aux聽脡tats-Unis, et mort le聽11juin1979聽脿Los Angeles, est un聽acteur,聽r茅alisateur聽et聽producteuram茅ricain.

S鈥檌l a jou茅 dans des聽films policiers, des聽films de guerre聽et quelques聽com茅dies romantiques, c鈥檈st dans ses nombreux聽westernsque John Wayne s鈥檈st r茅ellement impos茅, sous la direction de deux r茅alisateurs particuli猫rement聽:聽John Ford聽(La Chevauch茅e fantastique,聽Le Massacre de Fort Apache,聽La Charge h茅ro茂que,聽Rio Grande,聽La Prisonni猫re du d茅sert聽ou encore聽L鈥橦omme qui tua Liberty Valance) et聽Howard Hawks聽(La Rivi猫re rouge,聽Rio Bravo,聽El Dorado聽ou聽Rio Lobo). Il tourna 茅galement plusieurs films avec聽Henry Hathaway聽dont聽Cent dollars pour un sh茅rif, qui lui valut en 1970 l鈥檜nique聽Oscar聽de sa carri猫re.

En 1960, il passa derri猫re la cam茅ra pour r茅aliser une fresque historique d鈥檈nvergure,聽Alamo, relatant les derniers jours de聽Davy Crockett聽et ses compagnons lors de la聽guerre d鈥檌nd茅pendance du Texas. Huit ans plus tard, il cor茅alisa聽Les B茅rets verts, film engag茅 justifiant l鈥檌ntervention am茅ricaine au聽Vi锚t Nam. Ses deux r茅alisations refl猫tent l鈥檈ngagement personnel de John Wayne, r茅publicain et ardent patriote

Class茅聽13e聽plus grande star de l茅gende聽par l鈥American Film Institute聽en 1999, John Wayne est certainement un des acteurs les plus repr茅sentatifs du聽western, une incarnation 脿 lui seul de l鈥橝m茅rique conqu茅rante. Surnomm茅 芦聽The Duke聽禄 (le Duc), il reste toujours aujourd鈥檋ui, gr芒ce 脿 ses films, le symbole d鈥檜ne certaine virilit茅. Il interpr茅ta ce r么le d鈥檋omme viril, dur, solitaire et un peu machiste tout au long de sa carri猫re, ce qui lui fit d茅clarer聽: 芦聽J鈥檃i jou茅 John Wayne dans tous mes films et 莽a m鈥檃 plut么t pas mal r茅ussi聽禄.

Enfance et scolarit茅

Glendale聽aujourd鈥檋ui, o霉 v茅cut John Wayne de 1916 脿 1924.

N茅 dans une famille modeste et presbyt茅rienne, son p猫re est Clyde Leonard Morrison (1884鈥1937), d鈥檃scendance聽irlandaise聽et聽茅cossaise聽et fils d鈥檜n v茅t茅ran de la聽Guerre de S茅cession, Marion Mitchell Morrison (1845鈥1915). Sa m猫re est Mary Alberta Brown (1885鈥1970), d鈥檕rigine irlandaise. En d茅cembre 1912 naquit son fr猫re Robert. Ses parents chang猫rent alors son identit茅 en Marion Mitchell Morrison (toutefois il a souvent affirm茅 que son vrai nom aurait 茅t茅 Marion Michael Morrison).

John Wayne

John Wayne

Peu apr猫s son p猫re eut des l茅sions aux poumons et fut contraint de 芦聽changer d鈥檃ir聽禄 pour sa sant茅. Il mit en vente sa pharmacie et acheta une maison d茅labr茅e pr猫s du聽d茅sert des Mojaves, 脿 Palmdale, et des terres o霉 il d茅cida de faire pousser du ma茂s. Sa femme et ses enfants vinrent le rejoindre en 1914. 芦聽Je crois que c鈥櫭﹖ait une mis茅rable baraque. Ni gaz, ni 茅lectricit茅, ni eau courante. […] Nous 茅tions absolument coup茅s du monde.聽禄 C鈥檈st pour aider son p猫re qu鈥檌l apprit 脿 se servir d鈥檜n fusil et 脿 monter 脿 cheval. 芦聽Je suis tr猫s 脿 l鈥檃ise en selle, mais je ne suis pas amoureux des chevaux. Ils sont seulement utiles dans une ferme ou pour tourner un film.聽禄

Lass茅e du climat rude et de la pauvret茅 de la famille, Mary Morrison poussa son mari 脿 tout vendre. Ils partirent 脿聽Glendale, faubourg de聽Los Angeles, en 1916, o霉 le p猫re trouva un emploi dans une pharmacie5. Ils d茅m茅nag猫rent r茅guli猫rement, s鈥檌nstallant 脿 chaque fois dans une maison plus petite. Marion devint vite un bon 茅l猫ve, lisant beaucoup 脿 la biblioth猫que municipale. 脌 douze ans, il encha卯na, en parall猫le des cours, des petits boulots 聽: livreur de journaux, livreur, ouvreur du cin茅ma Palace.

Son premier vrai souvenir d鈥檜n film est probablement聽Les Quatre Cavaliers de l鈥橝pocalypse聽avec聽Rudolph Valentino6. Gr芒ce 脿 son job d鈥檕uvreur, il pouvait acc茅der 脿 un tr猫s grand nombre de films, dont des westerns avec聽Harry Carey聽ou des films d鈥檃ventures avec聽Douglas Fairbanks. Il se lia d鈥檃miti茅 avec聽Bob Steele, future star de westerns des ann茅es 1920. C鈥檈st aussi d猫s cette 茅poque que Marion fut surnomm茅 芦聽Big Duke聽禄 en r茅f茅rence 脿 son chien, 芦聽Little Duke聽禄, qu鈥檌l emmenait partout avec lui. Au coll猫ge, il appartenait aux clubs sportifs et culturels, et fit du th茅芒tre, non comme acteur, mais comme accessoiriste. Ses rares performances d鈥檃cteur ne furent pas convaincantes, trop p茅trifi茅 qu鈥檌l 茅tait par le trac

Sportif et accessoiriste

En 1924, l鈥Universit茅 de Californie du Sud聽d茅cida de recruter les meilleurs 茅l茅ments des clubs alentours pour sa propre 茅quipe de football, les聽Trojans, dont Marion Morrison. Pouvant faire ses 茅tudes gratuitement gr芒ce 脿 une bourse sportive, il fut aussi initi茅 脿 une fraternit茅, Sigma Chi8. Il rencontra peu apr猫s la vedette聽Tom Mix, qui assistait 脿 tous les matchs de l鈥櫭﹒uipe. Appr茅ciant la carrure du jeune homme, il lui offrit un r么le dans un film qu鈥檌l devait tourner quelques mois apr猫s.

Entre-temps, lors d鈥檜n weekend 脿 Balboa, il fut victime d鈥檜n accident de bodysurf聽: il se d茅chira un muscle de l鈥櫭﹑aule apr猫s une chute qui le fit entrer en contact avec le fond, tenta vainement quelque temps de continuer le football mais fut 茅vinc茅 de l鈥櫭﹒uipe, avec toutefois un dipl么me de la F茅d茅ration de football. Il n鈥檡 joua plus jamais. L鈥櫭﹖茅 au studio, la star m茅prisa le jeune Morrison, qui fut toutefois engag茅, mais comme accessoiriste.

La rencontre avec聽John Ford聽fut d茅cisive pour la carri猫re de John Wayne, m锚me si c鈥檈st聽Raoul Walshqui lui confia son premier grand r么le
.

Apr猫s une figuration sur le film聽The drop Kick, il fut appel茅 sur le tournage de聽Maman de mon c艙ur, dirig茅 par聽John Ford, r茅alisateur d茅j脿 respect茅 脿聽Hollywood. Celui-ci d茅cida un jour de provoquer gentiment le jeune footballeur Morrison en le faisant se mettre en position, puis en lui faisant mordre la poussi猫re. La pareille que lui rendit aussit么t le jeune homme le fit grimper dans l鈥檈stime du r茅alisateur.

JOHN FORD

JOHN FORD

JOHN WAYNE

john wayne

Il l鈥檈mbaucha d鈥檃illeurs comme acteur sur son film suivant,聽La Maison du bourreau, dans un petit r么le de paysan condamn茅 par un juge.聽John Ford聽le fit d鈥檃bord renvoyer 脿 cause de son comportement (il fut pris d鈥檜n fou rire), puis le rappela et tourna la sc猫ne.

脌 partir de 1928, il d茅cida de ne plus aller 脿 l鈥檜niversit茅. N鈥檃yant plus la bourse accord茅e gr芒ce 脿 l鈥櫭﹒uipe de football, il ne pouvait s鈥檕ffrir les cours. Il retourna 脿 la聽Fox聽et devint accessoiriste pendant trois ann茅es. 芦聽J鈥檃i 茅t茅 menuisier, man艙uvre, 茅lectricien, charpentier, peintre et tapissier. J鈥檃i tout fait, je connais tous les probl猫mes du m茅tier et les trucs pour les r茅soudre.聽禄 Il travailla alors de nouveau avec聽John Ford聽et d鈥檃utres r茅alisateurs, et fit un peu de figuration, notamment dans聽Words and music,聽Rough Romance聽ou聽Cheer up and smile. Dans聽Salute, il se confronta pour une des premi猫res fois 脿 un autre 茅tudiant-footballeur voulant participer au film de Ford,聽Wardell Bond. Dans聽Hommes sans femmes聽il fut engag茅 comme cascadeur, mais pay茅 au tarif d鈥檜n accessoiriste

JW young

JW young

Le faux d茅part

Le cin茅ma parlant avait rendu difficile la r茅alisation de westerns. Le r茅alisateur聽Raoul Walsh聽prouva le contraire en cor茅alisant聽In Old Arizona聽qui fut un gros succ猫s. La聽Fox聽voulut alors lui confier la r茅alisation d鈥檜n grand聽western, au budget d鈥檜n million de dollars. Des acteurs de th茅芒tre furent engag茅s 聽:聽Tyrone Power聽et聽Ian Keith. Pour le r么le principal, le choix s鈥檕rienta vers聽Gary Cooper, mais celui-ci 茅tait indisponible car sous contrat avecSamuel Goldwyn. Walsh remarqua alors par hasard cet accessoiriste qui d茅chargeait un camion, Duke Morrison, puis d茅cida de lui faire faire un bout d鈥檈ssai. Le producteur d茅l茅gu茅 et le r茅alisateur d茅cid猫rent juste apr猫s de lui faire changer de nom. Par admiration pour le g茅n茅ral聽Anthony Wayne, on lui trouva un nom. Et tout b锚tement parce que 芦聽John聽禄 faisait Am茅ricain et simple, on lui donna ce pr茅nom. Ainsi Duke Morrison devint John Wayne, sans m锚me avoir 茅t茅 consult茅.

Le tournage de聽La Piste des g茅ants聽commen莽a 脿聽Yuma. Wayne fut victime d鈥檜ne dysenterie qui l鈥檕bligea 脿 un r茅gime et lui fit perdre trois semaines de tournage. Le film fut tourn茅 en70聽mm, pr猫s de vingt ans avant le聽CinemaScope. La premi猫re mondiale eut lieu le 24 octobre 1930 dans un grand cin茅ma de聽Hollywood聽et la soci茅t茅 de production fit faire 脿 sa nouvelle vedette une promotion mensong猫re, lui inventant une nouvelle biographie.

Le film fut un 茅chec notoire et la cons茅quence pour John Wayne fut de redevenir un acteur inconnu, sous contrat, 脿聽75聽dollars聽la semaine. De plus, il se f芒cha quelque temps avec聽John Ford

Les ann茅es 1930聽: entre 茅checs et nouveau d茅part

Un acteur de s茅ries B

Duke fut engag茅 en 1930 pour tourner聽Girls demand excitement, une com茅die musicale dirig茅e par un chor茅graphe de聽New York聽parfaitement inexp茅riment茅, avec聽Virginia Cherrill. Puis avec聽Loretta Young, ce fut聽Three girls lost. Pr茅sent茅 le聽1er聽mai 1931, le film fut r茅sum茅 par un critique par聽: 芦聽Tout cela est assez idiot聽!聽禄 La聽Fox聽ne renouvela pas le contrat de John Wayne, qui fut embauch茅 par聽Harry Cohn, grand patron de la聽Columbia, qui lui fit tourner un autre film sans int茅r锚t,聽Men are like that. Ces films permirent toutefois 脿 Wayne de se faire un public. Mais une brouille avec Cohn lui fit perdre son statut de vedette, et il devint un second r么le, au profit de聽Tim McCoy聽notamment. Il n鈥檕ublia jamais cette offense et, devenu une grande vedette, refusa toujours de tourner pour la聽Columbia.

La mode 茅tait aux films d鈥檃viation. John Wayne, qui venait de prendre un agent, Al Kingston, tourna聽L鈥檕mbre d鈥檜n aigle. C鈥檈st sur ce tournage qu鈥檌l rencontra聽Yakima Canutt, qui allait devenir l鈥檜n des cascadeurs les plus connus du cin茅ma am茅ricain. Il encha卯na avec聽Hurricane express聽o霉 il interpr茅tait un aviateur d茅cid茅 脿 venger son p猫re, tu茅 dans un accident de chemin de fer. Le 24 juin 1933, il se maria enfin 脿 celle qu鈥檌l aimait depuis des ann茅es, Josie (Josephine Saenz).

cette derni猫re lui permit d鈥檕btenir un petit r么le, celui d鈥檜n boxeur, dans聽La Vie de Jimmy Dolan聽avec聽Douglas Fairbanks. Al Kingston arrangea ensuite un entretien avec聽Trem Carr聽et聽Leo Ostrow聽qui venaient de fonder la soci茅t茅Monogram Pictures聽et Duke se vit offrir un contrat de huit westerns par an, pay茅s 2500 $. Il tourna la m锚me ann茅e聽Les Cavaliers du destin聽o霉 il fut un cow-boy chantant. Exasp茅r茅 par cette exp茅rience humiliante, il d茅clara plus tard que sa chansonnette en play-back lui donnait l鈥檌mpression 芦聽d鈥櫭猼re une foutue p茅dale.聽禄 Pourtant cette 茅poque laissa 脿 Wayne de bons souvenirs, il d茅clara plus tard 聽: 芦聽D鈥檃vril 脿 septembre on travaillait comme des dingues pour fournir de la pellicule aux petites salles qui achetaient la production en bloc et d鈥檃vance. Puis, 脿 la fin de l鈥櫭﹖茅, je filais chasser la palombe. Ensuite c鈥櫭﹖ait la saison des oies sauvages et des canards. […] Oui c鈥櫭﹖ait le bon temps

LORETTA YOUNG

LORETTA YOUNG

De nouvelles exp茅riences navrantes

Mari茅 et 脿 pr茅sent p猫re, John Wayne refusa un nouveau contrat de聽24聽000聽$聽propos茅 par聽Herbert J. Yates聽pour聽Monogram Pictures, las de vivre loin de sa famille et de ses enfants. Il s鈥檈ssaya sans succ猫s 脿 la gestion d鈥檜ne agence immobili猫re. Puis, sous le nom de Duke Morrison, devint boxeur et fit quelques combats dans le聽Nevada19. Encore une fois, sans grand succ猫s. R茅solu 脿 revenir au cin茅ma, il tenta de se faire remarquer par聽Cecil B. DeMille,

cecil_b_de_mille

cecil_b_de_mille

en vain. Son ami聽Paul Fix聽lui proposa alors une pi猫ce de th茅芒tre,聽Red Sky At Evening, avecSally Blane. D鈥檃bord enthousiasm茅, il d茅chanta assez vite, se rappelant ses exp茅riences navrantes de jeunesse. La seule et unique repr茅sentation fut un d茅sastre 聽: ayant vid茅 une bouteille de whisky pour se donner du courage, Wayne entra sur sc猫ne ivre, oubliant ses r茅pliques et demandant聽: 芦聽O霉 suis-je?聽禄

Il reprit alors le chemin des studios et tourna pour聽Universal聽quelques films o霉 il abandonnait son personnage de cow-boy. Entre 1936 et 1937, il tourna ainsi聽Les Pirates de la mer,聽Conflic聽o霉 il joua un boxeur,聽I Cover de war聽dans le r么le d鈥檜n reporter, et聽L鈥檌dole de la foule. Produits 脿 co没ts r茅duits, ces films furent des 茅checs cuisants. Son public fid猫le ne voulait de John Wayne qu鈥檌l ne f没t qu鈥檜n cow-boy, sachant se battre et manier son pistolet. Il revint alors vers聽Herbert J. Yates聽et tourna d鈥檃utres films m茅diocres, dont certains ne sortirent qu鈥檜ne fois John Wayne devenu une star.

芦聽Sauv茅聽禄 par John Ford

脌 l鈥櫭﹖茅 1937,聽John Ford聽invita Wayne 脿 bord de son bateau, l鈥Araner, et lui donna 脿 lire un sc茅nario de聽Dudley Nichols,聽La Chevauch茅e fantastique, pour avoir son avis quant 脿 l鈥檃cteur qui pourrait endosser le premier r么le. Vex茅, il proposa n茅anmoins聽Lloyd Nolan. Ce n鈥檈st que le lendemain que Ford lui demanda聽: 芦聽Idiot, tu penses que tu ne pourrais pas le jouer le r么le聽?聽禄 Mais les producteurs envisageaient plut么t des vedettes confirm茅es 聽:聽Gary Cooper聽et聽Marl猫ne Dietrich.

Le r茅alisateur r茅ussit finalement 脿 imposer Wayne et聽Claire Trevor, ainsi que d鈥檃utres acteurs exp茅riment茅s, tels que聽Thomas Mitchell聽ou聽George Bancroft.

Le film fut tourn茅 d鈥檕ctobre 脿 d茅cembre 1938, avec un budget modeste. Quelques sc猫nes furent film茅es 脿聽Monument Valley, le reste en聽Californie.聽Yakima Canutt聽doubla John Wayne, notamment lors de la grande attaque de la diligence. Ce dernier fut tout au long du tournage tyrannis茅 par le r茅alisateur, Ford le reprenant sans cesse sur sa fa莽on de marcher, de jouer, de parler. 芦聽Je l鈥檃urais tu茅. Il me mettait en rage. Mais Ford savait ce qu鈥檌l faisait. Il savait que j鈥檃vais honte d鈥櫭猼re un cow-boy de westerns de s茅ries B et de me retrouver l脿, en compagnie de ces grandes vedettes.聽禄聽Ford offrit 脿 son acteur vedette l鈥檜ne des 芦聽plus belles entr茅es de star de l鈥檋istoire du cin茅ma聽禄, avec son fameux mouvement de cam茅ra laissant appara卯tre Ringo Kid, une selle dans une main, un fusil dans l鈥檃utre.

GARY COOPER

GARY COOPER

La Chevauch茅e fantastique聽fut un succ猫s public聽et re莽ut sept nominations aux聽Oscar du cin茅ma. Les cons茅quences furent nombreuses 聽: le聽western聽comme genre de cin茅ma fut r茅habilit茅 (le critique Frank S. Nugent 茅crivit 聽: 芦聽Dans un grand geste superbe, John Ford a balay茅 dix ans d鈥檃rtifice et de compromis et a r茅alis茅 un film qui fait chanter la cam茅ra聽禄) et John Wayne sortit enfin de l鈥檌mpasse dans laquelle il se trouvait depuis le d茅but des ann茅es 1930.

1940-1951聽: L鈥檃ffirmation d鈥檜n h茅ros de cin茅ma am茅ricain

Des retrouvailles professionnelles

聽John Wayne dans聽Les Naufrageurs des mers du sud, de聽Cecil B. DeMille, en 1942.

Le succ猫s international de聽La Chevauch茅e fantastique聽fit de John Wayne une star, aupr猫s du public et des r茅alisateurs. Son salaire fut multipli茅 par trois, puis par onze en 1946, et il devint alors un des acteurs les plus chers avec聽Gary Cooper聽ou聽Clark Gable. Il retrouva le r茅alisateur聽Raoul Walsh聽en 1940 pour un western sur fond de guerre civile,聽L鈥橢scadron noir, avec聽Claire Trevor. La m锚me ann茅e, il fut engag茅 pour incarner un Am茅ricain accueillant des r茅fugi茅s allemands fuyant le r茅gime nazi dans聽Les D茅racin茅s, et retrouva聽John Ford聽pour聽Les Hommes de la mer. Tourn茅 rapidement et pour un co没t relativement modeste, le film ne fut pas un succ猫s public. De plus, Wayne n鈥櫭﹖ait toujours pas pris au s茅rieux par le r茅alisateur qui ne le pensait pas capable de jouer des r么les plus complexes. Il tourna un dernier film cette ann茅e 1940,聽La Maison des sept p茅ch茅s, premi猫re collaboration avec聽Marl猫ne Dietrich, avec qui il s鈥檈ntendit 脿 merveille33.

PAULETTE GODARD

Il fut contact茅 par le r茅alisateur聽Cecil B. DeMille. Wayne, qui n鈥檃vait pas oubli茅 sa premi猫re rencontre infructueuse avec lui, refusa de jouer dans son film, en lui adressant une longue notice visant 脿 modifier le sc茅nario. DeMille le rappela, John Wayne se fit prier et, apr猫s plusieurs discussions, DeMille obtint que John Wayne tourn芒t dans聽Les Naufrageurs des mers du sud, en compagnie de聽Ray Milland聽et聽Paulette Goddard,

PAULETTE GODARD

PAULETTE GODARD

l鈥檋istoire d鈥檜n pilleur d鈥櫭﹑aves dans les Cara茂bes. Le tournage fut agr茅able, l鈥檈ntente parfaite, ce qui fit d茅clarer 脿 Wayne 聽: 芦聽Apr猫s avoir tourn茅 avec lui, j鈥檃i pu garder la t锚te haute, en d茅pit des films d茅gueulasses que je devais faire pour Republic.聽禄 L鈥檃nn茅e 1942 vit 茅galement聽Lady for a Night, de聽Leigh Jason聽avec聽Joan Blondell聽pour partenaire.

Apr猫s l鈥檈ntr茅e en guerre des聽脡tats-Unis, John Wayne voulut s鈥檈ngager pour partir combattre en Europe. Mais, mari茅 et p猫re de quatre enfants, sa demande fut rejet茅e 脿 plusieurs reprises. Sa participation se r茅duisit alors 脿 des visites dans des camps. Il d茅clara plus tard 聽: 芦聽J鈥檃i toujours eu honte de ne pas avoir combattu. Lorsque j鈥檌nterpr猫te un officier 脿 la t锚te de son commando, j鈥檃i une pi猫tre opinion de moi-m锚me.聽禄

Patriote et soldat au cin茅ma

JULES DASSIN (qui est aussi le p猫re de Joe Dassin )

Il retrouva聽Marl猫ne Dietrich聽en 1942 dans une nouvelle adaptation du roman de聽Rex Beach,聽Les 脡cumeurs,聽avec un jeune premier,聽Randolph Scott, puis dans聽La Fi猫vre de l鈥檕r noir, qui connut un accueil chaleureux de la part du public. Wayne incarna 茅galement un pilote de l鈥檃rm茅e am茅ricaine combattant les Japonais dans聽Les Tigres volants, film de propagande r茅alis茅 par聽David Miller.聽Sacramento, un nouveau western, fut choisi par John Wayne car il devait incarner un pharmacien, une mani猫re de rendre hommage 脿 son p猫re d茅c茅d茅 en 1938.

Les ann茅es suivantes, John Wayne tourna une s茅rie de films de guerre 聽:聽Quelque part en France聽de聽Jules Dassin

JULES DASSIN (qui est aussi le p猫re de Joe Dassin )

JULES DASSIN (qui est aussi le p猫re de Joe Dassin )

o霉 il incarna un pilote r茅fugi茅 en Normandie, puis聽Alerte aux marines. Aux c么t茅s d鈥櫬Anthony Quinn, il incarna un colonel am茅ricain luttant avec les r茅sistants philippins dans聽Retour aux Philippines. R茅publicain et patriote, Wayne critiqua par la suite le travail du r茅alisateur聽Edward Dmytryk, qui fut li茅 au parti communiste et figura sur la liste des聽Dix d鈥橦ollywood, ainsi que le sc茅nario. Il retrouva ensuite聽John Ford聽pour聽Les Sacrifi茅s聽– qui se d茅roule pendant la聽guerre du Pacifique聽– aux c么t茅s d鈥檜n jeune acteur,聽Robert Montgomery. Le film rapporta de l鈥檃rgent et se classa parmi les vingt plus gros succ猫s de l鈥檃nn茅e.

Entre temps, John Wayne revint au western dans聽L鈥橝mazone aux yeux verts, revenant sur sa d茅claration de ne plus jamais en tourner. Sc茅naris茅 et interpr茅t茅 par son ami聽Paul Fix, le film imposa durablement l鈥檌mage virile, nonchalante et misogyne de son personnage.

En revanche,聽King Vidor聽ne peut le diriger avec聽Hedy Lamarr聽dans聽Duel au soleil聽(1946), western lyrique et exacerb茅 finalement interpr茅t茅 par聽Gregory Peck聽et聽Jennifer Jones聽et devenu un classique. Il encha卯na par la suite quelques films pass茅s inaper莽us,聽La Femme du pionnier,聽Sans r茅serve聽avec聽Claudette Colbert聽et聽L鈥橝nge et le mauvais gar莽on. Pour faire 芦聽rentrer l鈥檃rgent聽禄, il tourna 茅galement聽Ta茂koun, de nouveau avec聽Anthony Quinn. En 1948, John Wayne, devenu une vedette importante, faisait partie des acteurs pr茅f茅r茅s du public am茅ricain, avec聽Clark Gable,聽Gary Cooper聽et聽Humphrey Bogart.

Hawks, la Cavalerie et le Pacifique

En 1947,聽John Ford聽tourna le premier volet d鈥檜ne trilogie consacr茅e 脿 la cavalerie am茅ricaine,聽Le Massacre de Fort Apache聽avec pour vedettesHenry Fonda聽et John Wayne dans un r么le d鈥檕fficier 芦聽humain et pacifiste聽禄. Tourn茅 脿聽Monument Valley聽pour un budget modeste, le film r茅unit 茅galement聽Ward Bond聽et聽Victor McLaglen. John Wayne, habitu茅 aux humeurs du r茅alisateur, fut un soutien psychologique pr茅cieux pour le jeune聽John Agar, martyris茅 par Ford48. L鈥檃ccueil public fut chaleureux. Il enchaina avec un r么le de nouveau refus茅 par聽Gary Cooper, celui de Tom Dunson dans聽La Rivi猫re rouge聽de聽Howard Hawks聽qui signait l脿 son premier western. Dans un r么le de cow-boy dur et brutal, Wayne eut pour partenaire聽Montgomery Clift聽avec qui il ne s鈥檈ntendit pas imm茅diatement. Ce film tourn茅 en ext茅rieurs fut 茅galement un grand succ猫s, rapportant plus de dix millions de dollars. Et s鈥檌l ne fut pas r茅compens茅, John Wayne impressionna聽John Ford聽qui d茅clara par la suite 脿Hawks聽: 芦聽Je ne savais pas que ce grand fils de pute pouvait jouer聽禄.

OLIVER HARDY

En 1948, il engagea 脿 nouveau John Wayne pour聽Le fils du d茅sert, film en technicolor avec聽Harry Carey Jr., tourn茅 dans la聽vall茅e de la Mort. Wayne tourna ensuite deux films,聽Le R茅veil de la sorci猫re rouge聽avec聽Gail Russell聽et聽Le Bagarreur du Kentucky聽avec聽Oliver Hardy,

Oliver Hardy

Oliver Hardy

western sans moyens. Deuxi猫me 茅pisode de la trilogie de la cavalerie de聽Ford,聽La Charge h茅ro茂que聽fut tourn茅 en 1949 脿聽Monument Valley聽et remporta un grand succ猫s. L鈥檃nn茅e suivante,聽Rio Grande, suite du聽Massacre de Fort Apache, le mit en sc猫ne aux c么t茅s de聽Maureen O鈥橦araqui devint une partenaire fid猫le en m锚me temps qu鈥檜ne grande amie.

John Wayne enfila de nouveau l鈥檜niforme de l鈥檃rm茅e am茅ricaine dans trois films聽:聽Iwo Jima聽de聽Allan Dwan, pour lequel il fut nomm茅 aux Oscars56,聽Op茅ration dans le Pacifique聽puis聽Les Diables de Guadalcanal聽de聽Nicholas Ray聽(qui d茅savoua le film par la suite, au m锚me titre que Wayne qui le consid茅rait comme une 艙uvre mineure), cl么turant ainsi sa s茅rie de films en hommage aux combattants de la guerre du Pacifique.

1952-1959聽: Une incarnation de l鈥橝m茅rique 脿 l鈥櫭ヽran, un h茅ros aux multiples visages

En 1952, John Wayne tourna 脿 nouveau avec聽Maureen O鈥橦ara聽et聽John Ford. Si Ford ne peut engager le couple d鈥檃cteurs pour son adaptation de聽What Price Glory聽(qu鈥檌ls ont jou茅 sous sa direction sur sc猫ne), ils se consolent largement avec聽L鈥橦omme tranquille, tourn茅 en聽Irlande聽(terre des anc锚tres du r茅alisateur), pour un cachet d茅risoire. Le film, qui racontait le retour d鈥檜n boxeur am茅ricain dans son pays d鈥檕rigine, fut un gros succ猫s commercial dans le monde entier聽et remporta l鈥橭scar du Meilleur Film.聽Big Jim McLain, r茅alis茅 la m锚me ann茅e parEdward Ludwig聽le mettait dans la peau d鈥檜n enqu锚teur de la Commission sur les activit茅s anti-am茅ricaines au service du s茅nateur聽McCarthy.聽L鈥橦omme de bonne volont茅, r茅alis茅 en 1953 par聽Michael Curtiz聽ne remporta pas le succ猫s esp茅r茅 et orienta de nouveau John Wayne vers des films h茅ro茂ques. Sous la direction de聽William Wellman, il tourna聽Aventure dans le Grand Nord, qu鈥檌l coproduisit, et refusa un r么le principal dans聽G茅ant聽(qui fut interpr茅t茅 par聽Rock Hudson). 脡galement coproducteur de聽Hondo, l鈥檋omme du d茅sert, il fut oblig茅 de reprendre le r么le titre, la star du film聽Glenn Ford聽茅tant en d茅saccord avec le r茅alisateur, puis retrouva l鈥櫭﹒uipe de聽Aventure dans le Grand Nord聽pour un nouveau film catastrophe,聽脡crit dans le ciel. Le film fut un grand succ猫s public, nomm茅 aux聽Oscars聽(seule la musique de聽Dimitri Tiomkin聽re莽ut la r茅compense). Sa collaboration avec聽Lana Turner聽pour聽Le Renard des oc茅ans聽fut houleuse, mais il s鈥檈ntendit 脿 merveille avec聽Lauren Bacall聽sur le tournage de聽L鈥橝ll茅e sanglante, qui fut un succ猫s imm茅diat.

La Prisonni猫re du d茅sert聽a 茅t茅 d茅sign茅 plus grand western de tous les temps par l鈥American Film Institute.

Le tournage du聽Conqu茅rant聽en 1956 fut 茅prouvant65. Produit par聽Howard Hughes聽et r茅alis茅 par聽Dick Powell, il mettait en sc猫ne John Wayne dans le r么le 鈥 du chef asiatique聽Gengis Khan, avec聽Susan Hayward聽pour partenaire.

Tourn茅 pr猫s d鈥檜n site d鈥檈ssais nucl茅aires, il fut probablement 脿 l鈥檕rigine du cancer de l鈥檃cteur (et d鈥檜ne grande partie de l鈥櫭﹒uipe du film). En outre, il fut un lourd 茅chec au box-office. La m锚me ann茅e, Wayne tourna un nouveau western sous la direction de聽John Ford,聽La Prisonni猫re du d茅sert. Tourn茅 sur deux saisons (l鈥檋iver et l鈥櫭﹖茅), 脿聽Monument Valley聽notamment, le film permit 脿 John Wayne de cr茅er un personnage sombre et violent. Le film fut un 茅norme succ猫s 脿 sa sortie et plusieurs critiques lou猫rent le travail du r茅alisateur. En outre, il est aujourd鈥檋ui consid茅r茅 par l鈥American Film Institute聽comme le plus grand western de tous les temps.

En 1957, de nouveau avec聽Ford, il tourna聽L鈥檃igle vole au soleil, un film de guerre adapt茅 de la biographie du h茅ros Frank Wead, avant d鈥檈nchainer avec un film d鈥檈spionnage,聽Les espions s鈥檃musent. Mise en sc猫ne par聽Joseph von Sternberg, avec l鈥檃ctrice聽Janet Leigh, cette com茅die d鈥檈spionnage 茅tait consid茅r茅e par John Wayne comme son plus mauvais film. L鈥檃nn茅e suivante, il forma un couple 脿 l鈥櫭ヽran avec聽Sophia Loren聽dans聽La Cit茅 disparue, tourn茅 en partie en聽Italie聽par聽Henry Hathaway, puis entama le tournage du聽Barbare et la Geisha, sous la direction de聽John Huston. Les relations furent souvent tendues entre les deux hommes, et le film fut un 茅chec. Wayne fut engag茅 de nouveau par聽Howard Hawks聽pour jouer dans聽Rio Bravo, aux c么t茅s de聽Dean Martin聽et聽Rick Nelson. Construit comme l鈥檕pposition sc茅naristique du聽Train sifflera trois fois, le film fut un gros succ猫s populaire et critique. Son nouveau projet avec聽John Ford聽et聽William Holden,聽Les Cavaliers, fut difficile聽: le sc茅nario 茅tait complexe, le r茅alisateur vieillissait, des tensions intervinrent entre les soci茅t茅s de production et un cascadeur se tua sur le tournage.

susan hayward

susan hayward

1960-1976聽: La fin du g茅ant

John Wayne r茅alise en 1960聽Alamo, qui fut une tr猫s belle fresque historique. N茅anmoins le sc茅nariste de ce film se permit quelques libert茅s par rapport aux causes et au d茅roulement de la bataille. En r茅alisant ce film, John Wayne souhaitait montrer l鈥檃bn茅gation des hommes 脿 d茅fendre une cause qui leur semble juste, telle la r茅publique ou la libert茅. L鈥檃cteur reste fid猫le 脿 ce genre et retrouve 脿 plusieurs reprises聽Henry Hathaway聽(1960聽:聽Le Grand Sam聽avec聽Stewart Granger, 1965聽:聽Les Quatre Fils de Katie Elder聽avec聽Dean Martin, 1969聽:聽Cent dollars pour un sh茅rif),聽Howard Hawks聽(1966聽:聽El Dorado聽avec聽Robert Mitchum, 1970聽:聽Rio Lobo聽avec聽Jennifer O鈥橬eill), et bien s没r Ford pour聽L鈥橦omme qui tua Liberty Valance聽(1962) face 脿James Stewart, plus tard tournant beaucoup avec聽Andrew V. McLaglen聽(1963聽:聽Le Grand McLintock聽qui r茅unit Wayne avec聽Maureen O鈥橦ara聽et聽Yvonne De Carlo, 1969聽:聽Les G茅ants de l鈥橭uest聽face 脿聽Rock Hudson, 1970聽:聽Chisum, 1973聽:聽Les Cordes de la potence).

La star continue de privil茅gier le film d鈥檃venture 聽: exotique (en 1962聽Hatari聽!聽de Hawks), de guerre (en 1962聽Le Jour le plus long, en 1965聽Premi猫re Victoire聽d鈥Otto Preminger聽avec聽Kirk Douglas, en 1966聽L鈥橭mbre d鈥檜n g茅ant聽avec聽Yul Brynner聽et聽Frank Sinatra). Il participe aux superproductions聽Le Plus Grand Cirque du monde聽d鈥橦athaway (1964) avec聽Rita Hayworth

Rita Hayworth

Rita Hayworth

etClaudia Cardinale聽et聽La Plus Grande Histoire jamais cont茅e聽de聽George Stevens聽(1965) o霉 il incarne le centurion de la Crucifixion. Finalement il ne se d茅tend vraiment 脿 l鈥櫭ヽran que chez Ford, dans聽La Taverne de l鈥橧rlandais聽(1963).

Lui-m锚me revient 脿 la mise en sc猫ne en 1968 pour le tr猫s pol茅mique聽Les B茅rets verts. L鈥檈ssentiel est ailleurs聽: min茅 par la maladie mais toujours tr猫s actif, ce grand s茅ducteur de l鈥櫭ヽran s鈥檕ffre un dernier tour avec sa partenaire favorite,聽Maureen O鈥橦ara, dans聽Big Jake聽en 1971 (que Wayne cor茅alise), et un duel avec une autre g茅ante,聽Katharine Hepburn, dans le western humoristique聽Une bible et un fusil聽(1975). Sur le tard, il tourne deux policiers聽:聽Un silencieux au bout du canon聽de聽John Sturges聽(1974) et聽Brannigan聽(1975). L鈥檃nn茅e de sa mort, sa carri猫re se cl么t sur un western au titre mythique聽:聽Le Dernier des g茅ants, dirig茅 par聽Don Siegel, o霉 John retrouve聽James Stewart聽et聽Lauren Bacall. Une 茅poque dispara卯t.

En 1964, on diagnostique chez Wayne un聽cancer du poumon. Des rumeurs affirment que le responsable de ce cancer 茅tait le site nucl茅aire de Yucca Flat, proche du plateau de cin茅ma lors du tournage du film聽Le Conqu茅rant. Patriote, John Wayne pensait que les six paquets de cigarettes qu鈥檌l fumait par jour en 茅taient la cause.

聽John Wayne dans聽Rio Bravo

Toujours pr茅sent 脿 l鈥櫭ヽran dans des premiers r么les malgr茅 la maladie jusqu鈥檈n 1976, il d茅c猫de finalement d鈥檜n cancer de l鈥檈stomac le聽11juin1979.聽D鈥檃pr猫s son fils Patrick, il se convertit au聽catholicisme聽peu avant sa mort . Il est enterr茅 au cimeti猫re de Pacific View 脿 Corona del Mar.

Engagement politique

John Wayne 茅tait connu pour ses opinions patriotiques, anti-communistes et conservatrices. Star du聽parti r茅publicain, il s鈥檌mpliqua dans la cr茅ation de la Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, une association am茅ricaine de cin茅ma conservatrice. S鈥檌l n鈥檃 pas 茅t茅 incorpor茅 pendant la聽Seconde Guerre mondiale聽pour des raisons familiales, il a toujours soutenu l鈥檈ffort de guerre am茅ricain 聽: il incarnera toutes les cat茅gories de soldats am茅ricains et cosigne, en聽1968, avec聽Les B茅rets verts聽le seul film am茅ricain ouvertement pro-guerre du Vietnam.

En聽1964, il soutient encore la candidature de聽Barry Goldwater聽脿 la pr茅sidence des 脡tats-Unis et, en聽1968, est approch茅 pour 锚tre lui-m锚me le candidat du parti r茅publicain. Il d茅clina la proposition au pr茅texte qu鈥檌l ne pensait pas que le public pourrait envoyer un acteur 脿 la聽Maison-Blanche. Il fut m锚me approch茅 pour 锚tre le colistier du candidat聽dixiecratGeorge Wallace. Il ne donna pas suite. John Wayne fut cependant un ardent soutien de son ami, l鈥檃cteur聽Ronald Reagan, lors de ses candidatures au poste de gouverneur de聽Californie聽en聽1966聽et聽1970.

Famille

Il est le p猫re de聽Michael Wayne聽(19342003), acteur et producteur, et de聽Patrick Wayne聽(n茅 en聽1939), acteur.

D茅coration

Le Congr猫s am茅ricain lui d茅cerne le 26 mai 1979 la聽M茅daille d鈥檕r du Congr猫s聽(plus haute distinction civile qui puisse 锚tre accord茅e 脿 un citoyen). 脡v茅nement exceptionnel car cette d茅coration ne fut d茅cern茅e que deux fois 脿 des acteurs du cin茅ma, John Wayne et Francis Albert Sinatra, dit聽Frank Sinatra, le 14 mai 1997.

John Wayne the legend

John Wayne the legend

 

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